Constructing and exploring the evolution mechanism of an industrial innovation ecosystem in resource-based cities (RBCs) is the most effective way to solve the contradiction between economic development, energy shortage, and environmental degradation. Taking 10 typical RBCs in Shanxi Province as examples, this paper used the method of system dynamics (SD) to build a model of the industrial innovation ecosystem of RBCs and set up scenarios to simulate and predict the evolution of the industrial innovation ecosystem of RBCs. The results showed that the industrial innovation ecosystem of RBCs is a complex system composed of four subsystems: innovation players, innovation content, innovation resources, and innovation environment. In innovation players, the increase in the amount of talent has a more obvious effect on technology level and GDP than R&D funding. In innovation content, the improvement of management level has a slow and continuous positive impact on GDP. Technology achievements, once implemented, will improve GDP more than management progress does. In innovation resources, human capital has greater potential for an increase in GDP and per capita consumption expenditure. In innovation resources, technology level plays an important role in slowing down the deterioration of the ecological environment. This study enriched the theoretical paradigm of the research on the industrial innovation ecosystem, and provided effective strategies to solve the development problems of RBCs.
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