Next Article in Journal
A Review of Green Roof Applications for Managing Urban Stormwater in Different Climatic Zones
Next Article in Special Issue
Critical Success Factors of a Design Startup Business
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Regional Innovation Systems as Complex Adaptive Systems: The Case of Lagging European Regions
Open AccessArticle

Measuring the Inclusive Growth of China’s Coastal Regions

by Caizhi Sun 1,2, Ling Liu 1 and Yanting Tang 1,*
Center for Studies of Marine Economy and Sustainable Development, Liaoning Normal University, No. 850 Huanghe Road, Dalian 116029, China
China Institute of Boundary and Ocean Studies, Wuhan University, No. 299 Bayi Road, Wuhan 430072, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2018, 10(8), 2863;
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 12 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
Inclusive growth captures the need to alleviate the problems of global income disparity and poverty, particularly in Asia. The study’s goal is to construct an indicator system that measures the inclusive growth of 11 coastal provinces and cities in China from five aspects, namely, survival, capacity, development, freedom, and opportunity, examining the area from 2000 to 2015. The system is based on Bossel’s basic orientor indicator framework. Dynamic changes in overall levels in the five fields are investigated and spatial differences calculated using the Gini coefficient. Among the provinces, Guangxi shows the strongest survival conditions, giving it an advantage over other regions. Shanghai has the highest level of capacity and freedom. Guangdong has the strongest development momentum, but this appears to be weakening. Finally, Shandong shows many more social opportunities. The study suggests that inclusive growth in the area has increased as a result of the area’s rapid development, but the growth rates remain low. The level of inclusive growth shows a large gap across the regions. Gini coefficient differences show that the eastern coastal areas have strong development trends, whereas the northern and southern coastal areas show weaker ones. We also offer suggestions on how to promote inclusive growth in these regions. View Full-Text
Keywords: coastal regions; inclusive growth; indicator system; Gini coefficient coastal regions; inclusive growth; indicator system; Gini coefficient
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Sun, C.; Liu, L.; Tang, Y. Measuring the Inclusive Growth of China’s Coastal Regions. Sustainability 2018, 10, 2863.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop