Topical Collection "Sustainable Electric Power Systems Research"

A topical collection in Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This collection belongs to the section "Energy Sustainability".

Editor

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Renewable energy systems, such as photovoltaic and wind power systems, are being introduced into power systems. The systems do not emit CO2 for generation, and system costs have been going down rapidly in recent years. Generated power depends on weather conditions, such as solar insolation and wind speed. The fluctuating generated power influences power systems; the voltage and frequency of the power systems can be changed suddenly; therefore, the power quality in power systems is strongly deteriorated. The control strategies and operation methods for power systems should be optimized in power systems with a high penetration of renewable systems. Moreover, high-power switching devices are now being developed, which can provide high-power electronic equipment for power systems. The power quality will increase with the use of power converters and inverters. This is another hot research topic in power engineer communities. This collection of Sustainability will present novel challenges for power system analysis, control, and optimization, including renewable energy and distributed generators in power systems.

Prof. Dr. Tomonobu Senjyu
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Renewable energy
  • Photovoltaic systems
  • Wind energy conversion systems
  • Power system analysis, control, and optimization
  • Distribution systems
  • Voltage and frequency control in power systems
  • Reliability for power supply
  • Demand side management and demand response
  • High voltage direct current (HVDC) systems
  • Remote-area power systems
  • Distributed generators

Published Papers (12 papers)

2020

Jump to: 2019

Open AccessArticle
A Resonant Hybrid DC Circuit Breaker for Multi-Terminal HVDC Systems
Sustainability 2020, 12(18), 7771; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12187771 - 20 Sep 2020
Abstract
High-voltage direct current (DC) transmission systems and multi-terminal direct current transmission systems are attracting attention for expanding the grid to promote introduction of renewable energy. Fault clearing in DC systems is difficult because there is no zero point of current. Hybrid circuit breakers [...] Read more.
High-voltage direct current (DC) transmission systems and multi-terminal direct current transmission systems are attracting attention for expanding the grid to promote introduction of renewable energy. Fault clearing in DC systems is difficult because there is no zero point of current. Hybrid circuit breakers are suitable for fault clearing in DC systems. Conventional hybrid circuit breakers have a hard-switching path that damages the switch. Hard switching damages the device and produces emissions due to harmonic noise. A novel resonant hybrid DC circuit breaker is proposed in this paper. The proposed circuit breaker reduces the damage to the switching device using soft switching due to the current zero point. The proposed circuit breaker is compared with conventional hybrid circuit breakers using numerical simulations. Interruption times and switching types of circuit breakers were compared. The simulation results of the fault clearing characteristics of the proposed breakers show that the proposed breakers have sufficient performance and are capable of stable reconnections in multi-terminal direct current transmission systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Criteria Method for Sustainable Design of Energy Conversion Systems
Sustainability 2020, 12(16), 6513; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12166513 - 12 Aug 2020
Abstract
Energy production systems for isolated communities lacking national energy grids are, in many countries, associated with first energy access of rural or developing regions. Those communities require innovative design methods to select relevant solutions for sustainable developments in a context of continuously strengthening [...] Read more.
Energy production systems for isolated communities lacking national energy grids are, in many countries, associated with first energy access of rural or developing regions. Those communities require innovative design methods to select relevant solutions for sustainable developments in a context of continuously strengthening climate change conditions. The design of an innovative solution goes through multiple stages. After identifying opportunities, analyzing a context and identifying a problem, we are interested here in the process of imagining solutions and guiding reflections so that the resulting solutions are sustainable. Sustainability is analyzed from technical, economic, environmental and social angles. The two main visions for imagining solutions, the value proposition and the technical solution, are discussed. We are then developing a multi-criteria method of sustainable design to imagine the technical solution of an electricity production system in a context of first access to energy for isolated communities. This method serves as decision and discussion support between all stakeholders (community, decision makers, project managers) so that they collectively build a sustainable solution. As the exchanges progress, criteria from different fields meet and complement each other to allow the development of the specifications for the energy production solution which will be ultimately developed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Techno-Economic-Environmental Suitability of an Isolated Microgrid System Located in a Remote Island of Bangladesh
Sustainability 2020, 12(7), 2880; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12072880 - 04 Apr 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Following a rise in population, load demand is increasing even in the remote areas and islands of Bangladesh. Being an island that is also far from the mainland of Bangladesh, St. Martin’s is in need of electricity. As it has ample renewable energy [...] Read more.
Following a rise in population, load demand is increasing even in the remote areas and islands of Bangladesh. Being an island that is also far from the mainland of Bangladesh, St. Martin’s is in need of electricity. As it has ample renewable energy resources, a renewable energy-based microgrid system seems to be the ultimate solution, considering the ever-increasing price of diesel fuel. This study proposes a microgrid system and tests its technical and economic feasibility in that area. All possible configurations have been simulated to try and find the optimal system for the island, which would be eco-friendly and economical with and without considering renewable energy options. The existing power supply configuration has also been compared to the best system after analyzing and investigating all technical and economic feasibility. Sensitivity and risk analysis between different cases provide added value to this study. The results show that the current diesel-based system is not viable for the island’s people, but rather a heavy burden to them due to the high cost of per unit electricity and the net present cost. In contrast, a PV /Wind/Diesel/Battery hybrid microgrid appeared to be the most feasible system. The proposed system is found to be around 1.5 times and 28% inexpensive considering the net present cost and cost of energy, respectively, with a high (56%) share of renewable energy which reduces 23% carbon dioxide. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Power Demand Forecasting using Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Deep-Learning Model for Monitoring Energy Sustainability
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 1109; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12031109 - 04 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to design a novel custom power demand forecasting algorithm based on the LSTM Deep-Learning method regarding the recent power demand patterns. We performed tests to verify the error rates of the forecasting module, and to confirm the [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to design a novel custom power demand forecasting algorithm based on the LSTM Deep-Learning method regarding the recent power demand patterns. We performed tests to verify the error rates of the forecasting module, and to confirm the sudden change of power patterns in the actual power demand monitoring system. We collected the power usage data in every five-minute resolution in a day from some groups of the residential, public offices, hospitals, and industrial factories buildings in one year. In order to grasp the external factors and to predict the power demand of each facility, a comparative experiment was conducted in three ways; short-term, long-term, seasonal forecasting exp[eriments. The seasonal patterns of power demand usages were analyzed regarding the residential building. The overall error rates of power demand forecasting using the proposed LSTM module were reduced in terms of each facility. The predicted power demand data shows a certain pattern according to each facility. Especially, the forecasting difference of the residential seasonal forecasting pattern in summer and winter was very different from other seasons. It is possible to reduce unnecessary demand management costs by the designed accurate forecasting method. Full article
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2019

Jump to: 2020

Open AccessArticle
ANN for Assessment of Energy Consumption of 4 kW PV Modules over a Year Considering the Impacts of Temperature and Irradiance
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6802; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236802 - 30 Nov 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Solar energy is considered the greatest source of renewable energy. In this paper, a case study was performed for a single-axis solar tracking model to analyze the performance of the solar panels in an office building under varying ambient temperatures and solar radiation [...] Read more.
Solar energy is considered the greatest source of renewable energy. In this paper, a case study was performed for a single-axis solar tracking model to analyze the performance of the solar panels in an office building under varying ambient temperatures and solar radiation over the course of one year (2018). This case study was performed in an office building at the College of Engineering at Shaqra University, Dawadmi, Saudi Arabia. The office building was supplied with electricity for a full year by the designed solar energy system. The study was conducted across the four seasons of the studied year to analyze the performance of a group of solar panels with the total capacity of a 4 kW DC system. The solar radiation, temperature, output DC power, and consumed AC power of the system were measured using wireless sensor networks (for temperature and irradiance measurement) and a signal acquisition system for each hour throughout the whole day. A single-axis solar tracker was designed for each panel (16 solar panels were used) using two light-dependent resistors (LDR) as detecting light sensors, one servo motor, an Arduino Uno, and a 250 W solar panel installed with an array tilt angle of 21°. Finally, an artificial neural network (ANN) was utilized to estimate energy consumption, according to the dataset of AC load power consumption for each month and the measurement values of the temperature and irradiance. The relative error between the measured and estimated energy was calculated in order to assess the accuracy of the proposed ANN model and update the weights of the training network. The maximum absolute relative error of the proposed system did not exceed 2 × 10−4. After assessment of the proposed model, the ANN results showed that the average energy in the region of the case study from a 4 kW DC solar system for one year, considering environmental impact, was around 8431 kWh/year. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Bibliometric Analysis of the Mass Transport in a Gas Diffusion Layer in PEM Fuel Cells
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6682; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236682 - 26 Nov 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The growth trend of publications in the field of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) was analyzed using bibliometric techniques to the identification of the areas with significant development and the orientations that have guided the research on energy cells. This study extracted [...] Read more.
The growth trend of publications in the field of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) was analyzed using bibliometric techniques to the identification of the areas with significant development and the orientations that have guided the research on energy cells. This study extracted the data from Scopus and Web of Science (WoS) databases to compare the bibliometric indicators of the published productions. In spite of bibliometric analysis advantages to knowing about the trends in a study area, this research requires methods to support the investigation process through the selection of a relevant bibliographic portfolio. This study applied the Methodi Ordinatio that provides a new approach to achieve it. A proposed list of the articles ranked by InOrdinatio is presented to compose the final portfolio. The obtained results in the research sub-theme of the Mass Transport in Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) confirm the complexity in the study area by presenting erratic patterns of exponential growth. United States, China, and Japan are the leading countries on PEMFC publications. These countries have in common a strong spending by the business sector for R&D, and their gross domestic product is greater than 2%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Efficient Energy-Management System Using A Hybrid Transactive-Model Predictive Control Mechanism for Prosumer-Centric Networked Microgrids
Sustainability 2019, 11(19), 5436; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11195436 - 30 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
With the development of distributed energy resources (DERs) and advancements in technology, microgrids (MGs) appear primed to become an even more integral part of the future distribution grid. In order to transition to the smart grid of the future, MGs must be properly [...] Read more.
With the development of distributed energy resources (DERs) and advancements in technology, microgrids (MGs) appear primed to become an even more integral part of the future distribution grid. In order to transition to the smart grid of the future, MGs must be properly managed and controlled. This paper proposes a microgrid energy management system (MGEMS) based on a hybrid control algorithm that combines Transactive Control (TC) and Model Predictive Control (MPC) for an efficient management of DERs in prosumer-centric networked MGs. A locally installed home energy management system (HEMS) determines a charge schedule for the battery electric vehicle (BEV) and a charge–discharge schedule for the solar photovoltaic (PV) and battery energy storage system (BESS) to reduce residential customers’ operation cost and to improve their overall savings. The proposed networked MGEMS strategy was implemented in IEEE 33-bus test system and evaluated under different BEV and PV-BESS penetration scenarios to study the potential impact that large amounts of BEV and PV-BESS systems can have on the distribution system and how different pricing mechanisms can mitigate these impacts. Test results indicate that our proposed MGEMS strategy shows potential to reduce peak load and power losses as well as to enhance customers’ savings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Stochastic Unit Commitment and Optimal Power Trading Incorporating PV Uncertainty
Sustainability 2019, 11(16), 4504; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11164504 - 20 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper focuses on the optimal unit commitment (UC) scheme along with optimal power trading for the Northeast Power System (NEPS) of Afghanistan with a penetration of 230 MW of PV power energy. The NEPS is the biggest power system of Afghanistan fed [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the optimal unit commitment (UC) scheme along with optimal power trading for the Northeast Power System (NEPS) of Afghanistan with a penetration of 230 MW of PV power energy. The NEPS is the biggest power system of Afghanistan fed from three main sources; 1. Afghanistan’s own power generation units (three thermal units and three hydro units); 2. imported power from Tajikistan; 3. imported power from Uzbekistan. PV power forecasting fluctuations have been handled by means of 50 scenarios generated by Latin-hypercube sampling (LHS) after getting the point solar radiation forecast through the neural network (NN) toolbox. To carry out the analysis, we consider three deterministic UC and two stochastic UC cases with a two-stage programming model that indicates the day-ahead UC as the first stage and the intra-day operation of the system as the second stage. A binary-real genetic algorithm is coded in MATLAB software to optimize the proposed cases in terms of thermal units’ operation costs, import power tariffs, as well as from the perspective of the system reliability risks expressed as the reserve and load not served costs. The results indicate that in the deterministic UC models, the risk of reserve and load curtailment does exist. The stochastic UC approaches including the optimal power trading are superior to the deterministic ones. Moreover, the scheduled UC costs and reserves are different from the actual ones. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimum Capacity and Placement of Storage Batteries Considering Photovoltaics
Sustainability 2019, 11(9), 2556; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11092556 - 02 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In recent years, due to the enforcement of the Feed-in tariff (FIT) scheme for renewable energy, a large number of photovoltaic (PV) has been introduced, which causes fluctuations in the supply-demand balance of a power system. As measures against this, the introduction of [...] Read more.
In recent years, due to the enforcement of the Feed-in tariff (FIT) scheme for renewable energy, a large number of photovoltaic (PV) has been introduced, which causes fluctuations in the supply-demand balance of a power system. As measures against this, the introduction of large capacity storage batteries and demand response has been carried out, and the balance between supply and demand has been adjusted. However, since the increase in capacity of the storage battery is expensive, it is necessary to optimize the capacity of the storage battery from an economic point of view. Therefore, in the power system to which a large amount of photovoltaic power generation has been introduced, the optimal capacity and optimal arrangement of storage batteries are examined. In this paper, the determination of storage battery placement and capacity considering one year is performed by three-step simulation based on probability density function. Simulations show the effectiveness of storage batteries by considering the introduction of demand response and comparing with multiple cases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Research on China’s Power Sustainable Transition Under Progressively Levelized Power Generation Cost Based on a Dynamic Integrated Generation–Transmission Planning Model
Sustainability 2019, 11(8), 2288; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11082288 - 16 Apr 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The government of China has introduced a series of energy-saving and emission reduction policies and energy industry development plans to promote the low-carbon development of the power sector. Under relatively clear and specific low-carbon development goals, the ongoing power transition has recently been [...] Read more.
The government of China has introduced a series of energy-saving and emission reduction policies and energy industry development plans to promote the low-carbon development of the power sector. Under relatively clear and specific low-carbon development goals, the ongoing power transition has recently been studied intensively in the frame of global sustainable transition. With the development of renewable technologies, besides the long-term development goals, learning and diffusion of innovative technologies and the incentive effect of supportive policies are also important driving forces of the transition. The levelized power generation cost is the power generation cost when the net present value of the power project is zero. In this paper, the levelized power generation cost model with a learning curve and policy scenario is used to reflect the impact of technology diffusion and incentive policies from the economy perspective. By treating it as a state transfer function, a dynamic power generation–transmission integrated planning model based on the Markov Decision Process is established to describe the long-term power transition pathway under the impact of power technology diffusion and incentive policies. Through the calculation of power demand forecasting data up to 2050 and other power system information, the dynamic planning result shows that the current low-carbon policies cannot obviously reduce the expansion of coal power, but if strict low-carbon policies are implemented, the renewable power will gradually become dominant in the power structure before 2030. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Estimating the Cost of Solar Generation Uncertainty and the Impact of Collocated Energy Storage: The Case of Korea
Sustainability 2019, 11(5), 1389; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11051389 - 06 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
As a major option for reducing greenhouse gas emission and sustainable development, renewable generation is rapidly expanding in the power sector. However, the variability and uncertainty of renewable generation undermine the reliability of the power system, requiring additional reserve capacities. This study estimates [...] Read more.
As a major option for reducing greenhouse gas emission and sustainable development, renewable generation is rapidly expanding in the power sector. However, the variability and uncertainty of renewable generation undermine the reliability of the power system, requiring additional reserve capacities. This study estimates the costs induced by additional reserve capacities to reduce the uncertainty of solar generation in the Korean power system and analyzes the effectiveness of the Energy Storage System (ESS) in reducing these costs, using the stochastic form of multi-period security-constraint optimal power flow. To determine the input of stochastic solar generation, an ARMAX model and Monte Carlo method are applied for representative solar farms. The results indicate solar power generation by 2029 would increase the required reserve by 56.2% over the current level but coupling a 10 GWh of lithium-ion ESS would reduce it by 61.1% compared to increased reserve level for 2029. The operating cost reduction (benefit) by ESS would be 80.8% higher in 2029 compared to the current level and cover 89.9% of its installation cost. The benefit of ESS will be improved when (1) offer prices of reserves correctly reflect the true opportunity cost of providing reserve services and (2) more variable renewable energies are deployed. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Are Renewables as Friendly to Humans as to the Environment?: A Social Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Electricity
Sustainability 2019, 11(5), 1370; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11051370 - 05 Mar 2019
Cited by 10
Abstract
The adoption of renewable energy technologies in developing nations is recognized to have positive environmental impacts; however, what are their effects on the electricity supply chain workers? This article provides a quantitative analysis on this question through a relatively new framework called social [...] Read more.
The adoption of renewable energy technologies in developing nations is recognized to have positive environmental impacts; however, what are their effects on the electricity supply chain workers? This article provides a quantitative analysis on this question through a relatively new framework called social life cycle assessment, taking Malaysia as a case example. Impact assessments by the authors show that electricity from renewables has greater adverse impacts on supply chain workers than the conventional electricity mix: Electricity production with biomass requires 127% longer labor hours per unit-electricity under the risk of human rights violations, while the solar photovoltaic requires 95% longer labor hours per unit-electricity. However, our assessment also indicates that renewables have less impacts per dollar-spent. In fact, the impact of solar photovoltaic would be 60% less than the conventional mix when it attains grid parity. The answer of “are renewables as friendly to humans as to the environment?” is “not-yet, but eventually.” Full article
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