Solar energy is considered the greatest source of renewable energy. In this paper, a case study was performed for a single-axis solar tracking model to analyze the performance of the solar panels in an office building under varying ambient temperatures and solar radiation over the course of one year (2018). This case study was performed in an office building at the College of Engineering at Shaqra University, Dawadmi, Saudi Arabia. The office building was supplied with electricity for a full year by the designed solar energy system. The study was conducted across the four seasons of the studied year to analyze the performance of a group of solar panels with the total capacity of a 4 kW DC system. The solar radiation, temperature, output DC power, and consumed AC power of the system were measured using wireless sensor networks (for temperature and irradiance measurement) and a signal acquisition system for each hour throughout the whole day. A single-axis solar tracker was designed for each panel (16 solar panels were used) using two light-dependent resistors (LDR) as detecting light sensors, one servo motor, an Arduino Uno, and a 250 W solar panel installed with an array tilt angle of 21°. Finally, an artificial neural network (ANN) was utilized to estimate energy consumption, according to the dataset of AC load power consumption for each month and the measurement values of the temperature and irradiance. The relative error between the measured and estimated energy was calculated in order to assess the accuracy of the proposed ANN model and update the weights of the training network. The maximum absolute relative error of the proposed system did not exceed 2 × 10−4
. After assessment of the proposed model, the ANN results showed that the average energy in the region of the case study from a 4 kW DC solar system for one year, considering environmental impact, was around 8431 kWh/year.
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