Special Issue "Drying Kinetics and Quality Control in Food Processing"

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 October 2022 | Viewed by 25443

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Won Byong Yoon
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Food Science and Biotechnology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea
Interests: mathematical modelling in food and bioprocesses; computer simulations; biopolymer rheology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Meng-I Kuo (Marie)
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Food Sceince, Fu-Jen Catholic University, New Taipei city 242062, Taiwan
Interests: novel food ingredients; innovative food processing technology; texture tailoring; sustainable upcycling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Kinetic characteristics of food quality during dehydration plays an important role in the final product quality as well as the cost of operation. The physico-chemical changes during drying are highly related to the drying temperature and time as well as the food compositions and matrix. The unstable properties of food could be accelerated under various drying circumstances. The drying related researches have focused on characterizing the relations between the moisture content changes and drying conditions such as drying temperature and time. The analytical, semi-empirical, and numerical models to predict the moisture contents during drying have been well developed. However, relatively few studies on the mathematical or empirical analysis on the kinetic characters of food quality during rehydration have been reported. The kinetics character of food quality is a key connection between the drying operations and the final quality of dried food.

This Special Issue on ‘Drying Kinetics and Quality Control’ aims to integrate the novel advances in the development and application of mathematical modeling of drying opeations and kinectic changes of food quality during drying. Topics include but are not limited to the following:

  • Integrated (or multidisciplinary) studies on quality changes of food or bioresource product during dryings;
  • Novel technologoies to control food quality during drying;
  • Optimization of quality prameters invloved in drying operations;
  • Fundamental and applied aspect of drying and dryers;
  • Transport phenomena in food- or bio-porous media;
  • Design, scale-up, and control of dryers in food or bioproduct processing.

Dr. Won Byong Yoon
Prof. Dr. Meng-I Kuo (Marie)
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • drying
  • rehydration
  • mass transfer
  • food
  • porous media
  • kinetics
  • quality
  • mathematical model
  • semi-empirical model
  • simulation
  • empirical model
  • texture
  • anthocyanin
  • vitamin
  • energy
  • optimization

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Research

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Article
Drying Characteristics of a Combined Drying System of Low-Pressure Superheated Steam and Heat Pump
Processes 2022, 10(7), 1402; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10071402 - 19 Jul 2022
Viewed by 333
Abstract
The present study aimed at investigating the use of a drying system combining the concept of low-pressure superheated steam drying and heat pump drying for fish. The effects of various drying medium pressures on the temperature field, airflow field, drying time, equipment performance [...] Read more.
The present study aimed at investigating the use of a drying system combining the concept of low-pressure superheated steam drying and heat pump drying for fish. The effects of various drying medium pressures on the temperature field, airflow field, drying time, equipment performance as well as the power consumption of the drying process were investigated and discussed. Four comparative tests with different initial pressures were carried out according to a specified drying process by the combined drying system. The results showed that when the vacuum was high, the temperature field and airflow field in the drying chamber were more uniform. Due to the poor heat transfer performance of the drying medium at high vacuum, the drying time increased with a decrease in initial pressure. It was also found that with the decrease in drying medium pressure, the power consumption of the heat pump and the axial fans was reduced, while the power consumption of the electric heater went up. Overall, the total power consumption is directly proportional to the drying medium pressure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drying Kinetics and Quality Control in Food Processing)
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Article
Heat Pump Drying of Kelp (Laminaria japonica): Drying Kinetics and Thermodynamic Properties
Processes 2022, 10(3), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10030514 - 04 Mar 2022
Viewed by 597
Abstract
The main objective of this research is the study of the drying kinetics and thermodynamic properties of kelp using heat pump drying technology. The effects of the independent variables of temperature (20–50 °C), air velocity (0.3–1.3 m/s), humidity (20–50%), and thickness (0.8–4.2 mm) [...] Read more.
The main objective of this research is the study of the drying kinetics and thermodynamic properties of kelp using heat pump drying technology. The effects of the independent variables of temperature (20–50 °C), air velocity (0.3–1.3 m/s), humidity (20–50%), and thickness (0.8–4.2 mm) on the drying time, moisture uniformity, effective moisture diffusivity (Deff), activation energy (Ea), enthalpy (ΔH), entropy (ΔS), and Gibbs free energy (ΔG) were investigated. The results show that the Page model was effective in describing the moisture content change of kelp during heat pump drying. The Deff varied from 1.00 × 10−11 to 13.00 × 10−11 m2/s and the temperature, air velocity, humidity, and thickness had significant effects on drying time and moisture uniformity. Higher temperature and air velocity with proper humidity shortened the drying time and lessened the influence of thickness on moisture uniformity. The Ea (16.38–26.66 kJ/mol) and ΔH (13.69–24.22 kJ/mol) were significantly increased by thickness. When the temperature was 40 °C, air velocity 1.3 m/s, and air humidity 40%, the moisture content was reduced to 18% in 5 h, with a homogeneous moisture content. This study clarifies the regularity of moisture change inside kelp and provides a theoretical reference for the development of macroalgae drying technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drying Kinetics and Quality Control in Food Processing)
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Article
Short- and Medium-Wave Infrared Drying of Cantaloupe (Cucumis melon L.) Slices: Drying Kinetics and Process Parameter Optimization
Processes 2022, 10(1), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10010114 - 06 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 441
Abstract
The main objective of the present work was to study the drying kinetics and obtain the optimum process parameters of cantaloupe slices using short-and medium-wave infrared radiation (SMIR) drying technology. The effect of three independent variables of infrared radiation temperature (55–65 °C [...] Read more.
The main objective of the present work was to study the drying kinetics and obtain the optimum process parameters of cantaloupe slices using short-and medium-wave infrared radiation (SMIR) drying technology. The effect of three independent variables of infrared radiation temperature (55–65 °C), slice thickness (5–9 mm) and radiation distance (80–160 mm) on the L value, color difference (∆E), hardness and vitamin C content were investigated by using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The results showed that the Page model can adequately predict the moisture content between 55 and 65 °C (R2 > 0.99). The effective moisture diffusivity (Deff) varied from 5.26 × 10−10 to 2.09 × 10−9 m2/s and the activation energy (Ea) of the SMIR drying was 31.84 kJ/mol. Infrared radiation temperature and slice thickness exerted extremely significant effects on L value and color difference (ΔE) (p < 0.01), with higher infrared radiation temperature and thin slice thickness leading to a decrease in the L value and an increase in ΔE. Hardness and vitamin C content were significantly affected by infrared radiation temperature, slice thickness and radiation distance, of which the slice thickness was the most distinct factor affecting the hardness value. Higher infrared radiation temperature and larger slice thickness and radiation distance resulted in higher vitamin C degradation. For the given constraints (maximized vitamin C content and L value, minimized ΔE and hardness value), the optimum drying parameters were infrared radiation temperature 58.2 °C, slice thickness 6 mm and radiation distance 90 mm. Under the optimum drying combination conditions, the experimental values were 65.58 (L value), 8.57 (∆E), 10.49 N (hardness) and 106.58 mg/100 g (vitamin C content), respectively. This study is beneficial to the development of the cantaloupe food processing industry and provides more insights for the application of SMIR drying technology to improve the drying rate and product quality of cantaloupe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drying Kinetics and Quality Control in Food Processing)
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Article
Experimental Study and Mathematical Modeling of Convective Thin-Layer Drying of Apple Slices
Processes 2020, 8(12), 1562; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8121562 - 27 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1085
Abstract
This work represents an experimental study and mathematical modeling of convective apple slice drying. The influence of multiple process parameters such as temperature, air humidity, air velocity and slice thickness on process kinetics, product water activity and parameters of empirical models has been [...] Read more.
This work represents an experimental study and mathematical modeling of convective apple slice drying. The influence of multiple process parameters such as temperature, air humidity, air velocity and slice thickness on process kinetics, product water activity and parameters of empirical models has been investigated. Drying characteristics of apple slices were monitored at temperatures of 40, 45 and 50 °C, air velocities of 0.6, 0.85 and 1.1 m/s., slice thicknesses of 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 mm, and in relative air humidity ranges of 25–28, 35–38 and 40–45%. During the process, samples were dried from an initial moisture content of 86.7% to that of 20% (w.b), corresponding to product water activity of 0.45 ± 0.05. By increasing the temperature from 40 to 50 °C, the time for reaching the required product water activity decreased by about 300 min. Sample thickness is the most significant parameter; by increasing the slice thickness from 4 to 12 mm, the time required to achieve the required water activity increased by more than 500 min. For all experimental runs, parameters of five different thin-layer empirical models were estimated. A thin-layer model sensible to process conditions such as temperature, air velocity, layer thickness and air relative humidity was developed and statistically analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drying Kinetics and Quality Control in Food Processing)
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Article
Modeling and Optimization for Konjac Vacuum Drying Based on Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN)
Processes 2020, 8(11), 1430; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8111430 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 881
Abstract
To reveal quality change rules and establish the predicting model of konjac vacuum drying, a response surface methodology was adopted to optimize and analyze the vacuum drying process, while an artificial neural network (ANN) was applied to model the drying process and compare [...] Read more.
To reveal quality change rules and establish the predicting model of konjac vacuum drying, a response surface methodology was adopted to optimize and analyze the vacuum drying process, while an artificial neural network (ANN) was applied to model the drying process and compare with the response surface methodology (RSM) model. The different material thickness (MT) of konjac samples (2, 4 and 6mm) were dehydrated at temperatures (DT) of 50, 60 and 70 °C with vacuum degrees (DV) of 0.04, 0.05 and 0.06 MPa, followed by Box–Behnken design. Dehydrated samples were analyzed for drying time (t), konjac glucomannan content (KGM) and whiteness index (WI). The results showed that the DT and MT should be, respectively, under 60 °C and 4 mm for quality and efficiency purposes. Optimal conditions were found to be: DT of 60.34 °C; DV of 0.06 MPa and MT of 2 mm, and the corresponding responses t, KGM and WI were 5 h, 61.96% and 82, respectively. Moreover, a 3-10-3 ANN model was established to compare with three second order polynomial models established by the RSM, the result showed that the RSM models were superior in predicting capacity (R2 > 0.928; MSE < 1.46; MAE < 1.04; RMSE < 1.21) than the ANN model. The main results may provide some theoretical and technical basis for the konjac vacuum drying and the designing of related equipment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drying Kinetics and Quality Control in Food Processing)
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Article
Effects of Different Drying Methods and Temperature on the Drying Behavior and Quality Attributes of Cherry Laurel Fruit
Processes 2020, 8(7), 761; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8070761 - 29 Jun 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1589
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effect of different drying methods and drying temperature on the drying kinetics, total bioactive compounds, phenolic profile, microstructural properties, rehydration kinetics, and color change of cherry laurel fruit. For this aim, hot air drying (HAD), ultrasound-assisted vacuum [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of different drying methods and drying temperature on the drying kinetics, total bioactive compounds, phenolic profile, microstructural properties, rehydration kinetics, and color change of cherry laurel fruit. For this aim, hot air drying (HAD), ultrasound-assisted vacuum drying (USV), and freeze-drying (FD) were conducted on drying of cherry laurel. HAD and USV were conducted at 50, 60, and 70 °C. Drying times of the samples were 1980, 1220, and 770 min for HAD at 50, 60 and 70 °C, and 950, 615, and 445 min at 50, 60, and 70 °C, respectively, for USV. The total bioactive compound was significantly affected by both drying methods and temperature (p < 0.05). FD exhibited the highest total phenolic (TPC), total flavonoid (TFC), total anthocyanin (TAC), and antioxidant capacity value USV showed a higher amount of bioactive compounds than those of HAD at the same drying temperature. The content of total bioactive compounds significantly increased as the temperature increased for both HAD and USV (p < 0.05). The chlorogenic acid was identified as a major phenolic, and its amount significantly depended on drying methods (p < 0.05). SEM images described the surface characteristic of dried samples. HAD dried products showed higher shrinkage compared to FD and USV. All drying methods significantly affected the total color difference (ΔE) values (p < 0.05). This study proposed that USV could be as an alternative method to HAD due to higher bioactive compounds retention and rehydration ratio, shorter drying time, less color change, and shrinkage formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drying Kinetics and Quality Control in Food Processing)
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Article
Mathematical Modelling of Blanch-Assisted Drying of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Arils in a Hot-Air Drier
Processes 2020, 8(5), 611; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8050611 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1603
Abstract
The effect of blanching conditions on the hot-air drying kinetics of three pomegranates (cvs. “Acco”, “Herskawitz” and “Wonderful”) were assessed. Water blanching conditions considered were 90 °C for 30 s, 90 °C for 60 s, 100 °C for 30 s and 100 °C [...] Read more.
The effect of blanching conditions on the hot-air drying kinetics of three pomegranates (cvs. “Acco”, “Herskawitz” and “Wonderful”) were assessed. Water blanching conditions considered were 90 °C for 30 s, 90 °C for 60 s, 100 °C for 30 s and 100 °C for 60 s. The drying experiments were carried out at 60 °C, 19.6% relative humidity and at a constant air velocity of 1.0 m s−1. The experimental curves were fitted to seven different drying models. For the Acco cultivar, the drying behaviour was best predicted by the Logarithmic and Page model for blanched (R2 ranging between 0.9966 and 0.9989) and unblanched (R2 = 0.9918) samples, respectively. Furthermore, for the Herskawitz cultivar, Logarithm, Page and Midili models were most suitable for predicting drying behaviour of both blanched and unblanched samples. Also, for the Wonderful cultivar, Logarithm and Midili models were most accurate for predicting the drying behaviour for both blanched and unblanched samples amongst other models. The blanched samples dried faster with shorter drying times: “Acco” (7 h), “Herskawitz” (8 h), and “Wonderful” (7 h), compared to the unblanched samples, which dried after 15, 20 and 11 h, respectively. Effective diffusion coefficient of moisture in pomegranate arils ranged from 4.81 × 10−9 and 1.11 × 10−8 m2 s−1 for the Acco cultivar, for the Herskawitz cultivar; 3.29 × 10−9 and 1.01 × 10−8 m2 s−1 and for the Wonderful cultivar; 5.83 × 10−9 and 1.09 × 10−8 m2 s−1. Overall, blanching resulted in low energy consumption during drying of pomegranate arils. In addition, the Logarithmic model generally showed an appropriate model for blanched samples regardless of cultivar. For unblanched samples, the Page model was more appropriate for “Acco” and “Herskawitz”, while the Midili model was appropriate for “Wonderful”. Therefore, this study provided science-based and practical drying conditions for the investigated pomegranate cultivars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drying Kinetics and Quality Control in Food Processing)
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Article
Effects of Low-Temperature Drying with Intermittent Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide Treatment on Texture and Shelf-Life of Rice Cakes
Processes 2020, 8(3), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8030375 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1722
Abstract
We investigated the effect of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) under low temperature drying to suppress rice cake stickiness during the cutting process by initiating the onset of retrogradation until the stickiness is minimized for shelf-life extension. The intermittent ClO2 application at [...] Read more.
We investigated the effect of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) under low temperature drying to suppress rice cake stickiness during the cutting process by initiating the onset of retrogradation until the stickiness is minimized for shelf-life extension. The intermittent ClO2 application at low-temperature drying was conducted at 10 °C for different drying periods (0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h). Texture analysis showed significant differences with increasing values of hardness (901.39 ± 53.87 to 12,653 ± 1689.35 g) and reduced values of modified adhesiveness (3614.37 ±578.23 to 534.81 ± 89.37 g). The evaluation of rice cake stickiness during the cutting process revealed an optimum drying period of 18 h with no significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) compared to the 24 h drying process. Microbial contamination during the drying process increased, with microbial load from 6.39 ± 0.37 to 7.94 ± 0.29 CFU/g. Intermittent ClO2 application at 22 ppm successfully reduced the microbial load by 63% during drying process. The inhibitory property of ClO2 was further analyzed on a sample with high initial microbial load (3.01 ± 0.14 CFU/g) using primary and modified secondary growth models fitted to all experimental storage temperatures (5–25 °C) with R2 values > 0.99. The model demonstrated a strong inhibition by ClO2 with microbial growth not exceeding the accepted population threshold (106 CFU/g) for toxin production. The shelf-life of rice cake was increased by 86 h and 432 h at room temperature (25 °C) and 5 °C respectively. Microbial inactivation via ClO2 treatment is a novel method for improved food storage without additional thermal sterilization or the use of an additional processing unit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drying Kinetics and Quality Control in Food Processing)
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Article
Model-Based Real Time Operation of the Freeze-Drying Process
Processes 2020, 8(3), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8030325 - 10 Mar 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2059
Abstract
Background: Freeze-drying or lyophilization is a dehydration process employed in high added-value food and biochemical goods. It helps to maintain product organoleptic and nutritional properties. The proper handling of the product temperature during the operation is critical to preserve quality and to reduce [...] Read more.
Background: Freeze-drying or lyophilization is a dehydration process employed in high added-value food and biochemical goods. It helps to maintain product organoleptic and nutritional properties. The proper handling of the product temperature during the operation is critical to preserve quality and to reduce the process duration. Methods: Mathematical models are useful tools that can be used to design optimal policies that minimize production costs while keeping product quality. In this work, we derive an operational mathematical model to describe product quality and stability during the freeze-drying process. Model identification techniques are used to provide the model with predictive capabilities. Then, the model is used to design optimal control policies that minimize process time. Results and conclusion: Experimental measurements suggest splitting the process into two subsystems, product and chamber, to facilitate the calibration task. Both models are successfully validated using experimental data. Optimally designed control profiles are able to reduce the process duration by around 30% as compared with standard policies. The optimization task is introduced into a real time scheme to take into account unexpected process disturbances and model/plant mismatch. The implementation of the real time optimization scheme shows that this approach is able to compensate for such disturbances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drying Kinetics and Quality Control in Food Processing)
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Article
Effect of Dehydration on the Rheological Measurement of Surimi Paste in Cone-Plate Rheometry: Heat and Mass Transfer Simulation
Processes 2020, 8(2), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020234 - 19 Feb 2020
Viewed by 1181
Abstract
Moisture transfer characteristics of Alaska pollock (AP) surimi were investigated at various temperatures. The effective moisture diffusivity increased from 5.50 × 10−11 to 2.07 × 10−9 m2/s as the temperature increased from 30 °C to 90 °C. In order [...] Read more.
Moisture transfer characteristics of Alaska pollock (AP) surimi were investigated at various temperatures. The effective moisture diffusivity increased from 5.50 × 10−11 to 2.07 × 10−9 m2/s as the temperature increased from 30 °C to 90 °C. In order to investigate the mass and heat transfer characteristics of AP surimi, the simulation model was developed and evaluated by root-mean-square error (RMSE) (<2.95%). Rheological properties of AP surimi were investigated at different heating rates (1 °C/min, 5 °C/min, 10 °C/min, 20 °C/min and 30 °C/min). As heating rate increased to 20 °C/min and 30 °C/min, elastic modulus (G’) significantly diminished. The diminished G’ could be explained by impaired gel during temperature sweep supported by the predicted temperature distribution in the simulation model. Changes in moisture content of AP surimi during temperature sweep were also measured and predicted by the simulation model. The results showed the decreased amount of moisture content significantly increased as heating rate increased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drying Kinetics and Quality Control in Food Processing)
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Article
Evaluation of Thermal Effects on the Bioactivity of Curcumin Microencapsulated with Porous Starch-Based Wall Material Using Spray Drying
Processes 2020, 8(2), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020172 - 04 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1257
Abstract
Curcumin was microencapsulated by porous starch using a spray dryer with a particle size between 1.5 and 2.0 µm and subjected to water bath (40–100 °C) and oven heating (150–200 °C) in comparison to non-encapsulated samples. The minimum possible encapsulation rate ranged from [...] Read more.
Curcumin was microencapsulated by porous starch using a spray dryer with a particle size between 1.5 and 2.0 µm and subjected to water bath (40–100 °C) and oven heating (150–200 °C) in comparison to non-encapsulated samples. The minimum possible encapsulation rate ranged from 26.75 to 52.23%. A reasonable thermal stability was observed after water bath heating with regard to 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging activity. On the other hand, the increase in oven heating temperature caused significant alterations compared with the control samples (p < 0.05). The encapsulated particles subjected to oven heating at 170 °C demonstrated serious collapse. The DPPH scavenging activity of non-encapsulated curcumin was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) from 48.94% ± 3.72% (control, 0 °C) to 40.42% ± 2.23% (oven heating, 160 °C); however, remained stable for the encapsulated samples (51.18% ± 4.86%–50.02% ± 1.79%) without significant difference (p < 0.05). The ABTS scavenging activity was promoted as a function of the oven heating temperature. Both DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging activities remained stable after water bath. Nevertheless, the color of microencapsulated curcumin was better preserved in comparison to the controls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drying Kinetics and Quality Control in Food Processing)
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Article
Effect of Drying on Lettuce Leaves Using Indirect Solar Dryer Assisted with Photovoltaic Cells and Thermal Energy Storage
Processes 2020, 8(2), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020168 - 03 Feb 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1249
Abstract
The thin layer drying behavior of lettuce leaves was investigated using an indirect pilot solar dryer with thermal energy storage in water, equipped with solar collectors and photovoltaic cells. The drying procedure consisted of shredded lettuce leaves, temperature ≤ 52 °C, airspeed, 1.0 [...] Read more.
The thin layer drying behavior of lettuce leaves was investigated using an indirect pilot solar dryer with thermal energy storage in water, equipped with solar collectors and photovoltaic cells. The drying procedure consisted of shredded lettuce leaves, temperature ≤ 52 °C, airspeed, 1.0 m∙s−1, and process time ~10.0 h. Fifteen drying models were adjusted to the experimental data obtained; three models with maximum values of coefficient of determination (R2)—Page, Midilli, and Kucuk, and Weibull Distribution, whose values of R2 ≥ 0.998, and other statistical parameters, χ2, SSE, and RMSE values closer to zero were chosen. The initial browning index BI = 120.5 ± 0.7 decreased compared to the dry sample BI = 78.99 ± 0.5, with chromatic coordinate degradations a* and b*; but not the luminosity L*; where ΔE = 8.26; whose meaning is that the dry sample is a “more opaque brownish color” due to the difference in the chroma ΔC = 6.65, and with a change from the yellow-green to yellow-red zone, and a difference in hue angle, Δh° = 14.27, between the fresh and the dried sample. Deff values for shredded lettuce leaves were 1.8 × 10−9 m2 s−1 for values ≤ 52 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drying Kinetics and Quality Control in Food Processing)
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Article
3-D Modeling of Dehydration Kinetics and Shrinkage of Ellipsoidal Fermented Amazonian Cocoa Beans
Processes 2020, 8(2), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020150 - 24 Jan 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1141
Abstract
A recently proposed moving-boundary model for food isothermal dehydration was applied to analyze the dehydration kinetics of ellipsoidal cocoa beans, characterized by a moderate shrinkage and a non-uniform initial distribution of water content between the core and the shell of the bean. The [...] Read more.
A recently proposed moving-boundary model for food isothermal dehydration was applied to analyze the dehydration kinetics of ellipsoidal cocoa beans, characterized by a moderate shrinkage and a non-uniform initial distribution of water content between the core and the shell of the bean. The aim is to predict the influence of air velocity and non-uniformity of the initial water distribution on the dehydration rates, as well as the temporal evolution of the water content in the core and in the shell and of the characteristic lengths of the ellipsoidal bean. The model proved capable of accurately describing the two-phases dehydration process: an initial fast dehydration of the shell, characterized by higher dehydration rates, followed by a slower dehydration of the core, characterized by a linear relationship j d = δ ( T ) X r between the dehydration rate j d and the moisture ratio X r . A shortcut method to estimate the effective water diffusivity D is also proposed, deriving from the basic observation that the asymptotic exponential behaviour of the dehydration curve X r ( t ) for an ellipsoidal bean coincides with that of an equivalent sphere, with the same surface-to-volume ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drying Kinetics and Quality Control in Food Processing)
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Article
Physicochemical Properties of Guava Snacks as Affected by Drying Technology
Processes 2020, 8(1), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8010106 - 14 Jan 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1634
Abstract
Guava is widely consumed because of its agro-industrial use, and its antioxidant properties attributed to vitamin C and carotenoids content. However, it has a short shelf life. Guava has been dried by atomization, fluidized bed, lyophilization (FD) and convective drying (CD). CD requires [...] Read more.
Guava is widely consumed because of its agro-industrial use, and its antioxidant properties attributed to vitamin C and carotenoids content. However, it has a short shelf life. Guava has been dried by atomization, fluidized bed, lyophilization (FD) and convective drying (CD). CD requires long operation times and the product characteristics are not desirable. In contrast, FD produces high quality products, but requires long processing times, high energy consumption and high operation costs. As an alternative, the Refractance Window® (RW) drying is relatively simple and cheap technique. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of CD, FD and RW techniques, on the moisture content, water activity, color, porosity, volume change, vitamin C and carotenoids content in guava samples. The samples dried by RW required less time to reduce the moisture content and exhibited smaller changes in color than CD or FD. There were greater losses of carotenoids and vitamin C when drying by CD whereas RW had similar losses than FD. Lyophilized products exhibited minor change in volume and greater porosity. RW results in better retention of properties, compared with other drying techniques. Based on this, RW is a promising technique for the development of guava snacks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drying Kinetics and Quality Control in Food Processing)
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Article
Effect of Loading on Wheat Germ Drying in a Batch Fluidized Bed for Industrial Production
Processes 2019, 7(12), 864; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7120864 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 1096
Abstract
A high loading production in the manufacturing process of wheat germ (WG) drying is important for reducing the production costs. From a cost perspective, the drying performance become more effective in a batch process when the loading increases. The objective of this investigation [...] Read more.
A high loading production in the manufacturing process of wheat germ (WG) drying is important for reducing the production costs. From a cost perspective, the drying performance become more effective in a batch process when the loading increases. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the drying performance of WG with different loadings, from 2 to 9 kg, at 120 °C in a fluidized bed dryer. The moisture content, according to the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) method, and the water activity using a thermal hygrometer were measured. The absolute humidity, diffusivity of moisture, and thermal efficiency were analyzed using a mathematical model. An analysis of the dehydration flux demonstrated a linear relationship between dehydration time and WG loading using a fluidized bed dryer. The kinetics of WG drying were observed with a simple exponential model used to match the experimental observation, indicating that the drying rate constant decreases with an increase in WG loading. A linear relationship was obtained between the WG loading and heating time (heating time = −0.212 + 0.577 × WG loading). On this basis, a process optimization was developed for industrial operation, and for predicting the drying performance of WG for industrial-scale production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drying Kinetics and Quality Control in Food Processing)
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Review
Reassessment of Thin-Layer Drying Models for Foods: A Critical Short Communication
Processes 2022, 10(1), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10010118 - 07 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 489
Abstract
Modeling the thin-layer drying of foods is based on describing the moisture ratio versus time data by using a suitable mathematical model or models. Several models were proposed for this purpose and almost all studies were related to the application of these models [...] Read more.
Modeling the thin-layer drying of foods is based on describing the moisture ratio versus time data by using a suitable mathematical model or models. Several models were proposed for this purpose and almost all studies were related to the application of these models to the data, a comparison and selecting the best-fitted model. A careful inspection of the existing drying data in literature revealed that there are only a limited number of curves and, therefore, the use of some models, especially the complex ones and the ones that require a transformation of the data, should be avoided. These were listed based on evidence with the use of both synthetic and published drying data. Moreover, the use of some models were encouraged, again based on evidence. Eventually, some suggestions were given to the researchers who plan to use mathematical models for their drying studies. These will help to reduce the time of the analyses and will also avoid the arbitrary usage of the models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drying Kinetics and Quality Control in Food Processing)
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Review
Effect of Freeze-Drying on Quality and Grinding Process of Food Produce: A Review
Processes 2020, 8(3), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8030354 - 20 Mar 2020
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 3486
Abstract
Freeze-drying is an important processing unit operation in food powder production. It offers dehydrated products with extended shelf life and high quality. Unfortunately, food quality attributes and grinding characteristics are affected significantly during the drying process due to the glass transition temperature (during [...] Read more.
Freeze-drying is an important processing unit operation in food powder production. It offers dehydrated products with extended shelf life and high quality. Unfortunately, food quality attributes and grinding characteristics are affected significantly during the drying process due to the glass transition temperature (during drying operation) and stress generated (during grinding operation) in the food structure. However, it has been successfully applied to several biological materials ranging from animal products to plants products owning to its specific advantages. Recently, the market demands for freeze-dried and ground food products such as spices, vegetables, and fruits are on the increase. In this study, the effect of the freeze-drying process on quality attributes, such as structural changes, the influence of glass transition during grinding, together with the effect on grinding efficiency in terms of energy requirement, grinding yield, and morphological changes in the powder as a result of temperature, drying time were discussed. An overview of models for drying kinetics for freeze-dried food sample, and grinding characteristics developed to optimize the drying processes, and a prediction of the grinding characteristics are also provided. Some limitations of the drying process during grinding are also discussed together with innovative methods to improve the drying and grinding processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drying Kinetics and Quality Control in Food Processing)
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Review
Drying Applications during Value-Added Sustainable Processing for Selected Mass-Produced Food Coproducts
Processes 2020, 8(3), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8030307 - 06 Mar 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1872
Abstract
Developing circular value chains for continuing the use of and reducing the waste of the resources of industrial processing would eliminate impairments to the environment. The generation of nutrient-dense byproducts and coproducts with high-moisture contents are considered to be an issue for global [...] Read more.
Developing circular value chains for continuing the use of and reducing the waste of the resources of industrial processing would eliminate impairments to the environment. The generation of nutrient-dense byproducts and coproducts with high-moisture contents are considered to be an issue for global food industries. These byproducts and coproducts spontaneously undergo chemical, biochemical, or microbial deteriorations due to high storage-temperatures, and consequently are turned into direct animal feed sources or even just treated as waste with eutrophication activity. This review provides an overview of selected mass-produced botanical food byproducts and coproducts (BFBC) including soybean okara, wheat germ, banana, and spent coffee grounds, with respect to value-added sustainable processing via proper drying technologies being employed. This review includes the current production of the above-mentioned agricultural products, the nutritional aspects of them, and the sustainable utilization of their coproducts. Additionally, the possible drying kinetics for value-added prospects are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drying Kinetics and Quality Control in Food Processing)
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