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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Drying on Lettuce leaves using Indirect Solar Dryer Assisted with Photovoltaic Cells and Thermal Energy Storage

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Departamento de Ciencias de los Alimentos y Nutrición, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad of Antofagasta. Avenida Universidad de Antofagasta # 02800, Campus Coloso, Casilla 170, Antofagasta 1240000, Chile
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Centro de Desarrollo Energético Antofagasta (CDEA), Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Antofagasta, Avenida Universidad de Antofagasta # 02800, Campus Coloso, Casilla 170, Antofagasta 1240000, Chile
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2020, 8(2), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020168
Received: 24 December 2019 / Revised: 19 January 2020 / Accepted: 22 January 2020 / Published: 3 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drying Kinetics and Quality Control in Food Processing)
: The thin layer drying behavior of lettuce leaves was investigated using an indirect pilot solar dryer with thermal energy storage in water, equipped with solar collectors and photovoltaic cells. The drying procedure consisted of shredded lettuce leaves, temperature ≤ 52 °C, airspeed, 1.0 m∙s−1, and process time ~10.0 h. Fifteen drying models were adjusted to the experimental data obtained; three models with maximum values of coefficient of determination (R2)—Page, Midilli, and Kucuk, and Weibull Distribution, whose values of R2 ≥ 0.998, and other statistical parameters, χ2, SSE, and RMSE values closer to zero were chosen. The initial browning index BI = 120.5 ± 0.7 decreased compared to the dry sample BI = 78.99 ± 0.5, with chromatic coordinate degradations a* and b*; but not the luminosity L*; where ΔE = 8.26; whose meaning is that the dry sample is a “more opaque brownish color” due to the difference in the chroma ΔC = 6.65, and with a change from the yellow-green to yellow-red zone, and a difference in hue angle, Δh° = 14.27, between the fresh and the dried sample. Deff values for shredded lettuce leaves were 1.8 × 10−9 m2 s−1 for values ≤ 52 °C.
Keywords: mathematical modeling; thin layer drying; solar drying; lettuce leaves mathematical modeling; thin layer drying; solar drying; lettuce leaves
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cerezal Mezquita, P.; Álvarez López, A.; Bugueño Muñoz, W. Effect of Drying on Lettuce leaves using Indirect Solar Dryer Assisted with Photovoltaic Cells and Thermal Energy Storage. Processes 2020, 8, 168.

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