Special Issue "Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity"

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2019).

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Masayuki Fujita
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Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the industrial era, the most important and potential threats to crop production are abiotic stresses. Among them, toxic metal stress is one of the major concerns. The growing population and fast industrialization coincide, resulting in the generation and dissemination of huge amounts of toxic metals in the environment. Toxic metals and metalloids result in growth reduction, altered physiology, and metabolisms, and diminish cellular integrity. Toxic metals also alter the redox homeostasis by influencing the reactive oxygen species generation. They also interfere with the nutrient and water uptake. As a result, both the crop yield and quality are hampered. Considering these effects, plant biologists, breeders, and agronomists are working to find approaches to enhancing plants’ tolerance to metal/metalloid toxicity. Remarkable progress has been made in understanding the metal chelation, antioxidant defense, and phytoremediation. A number of biotechnological tools and molecular approaches also contribute to such developments. In this Special Issue, we will publish reviews, mini-reviews, and research articles focusing on plant responses and their tolerance to metal/metalloid stress.

Dr. Mirza Hasanuzzaman
Prof. Dr. Masayuki Fujita
Guest Editor

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Published Papers (19 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Citric Acid Assisted Phytoremediation of Chromium through Sunflower Plants Irrigated with Tannery Wastewater
Plants 2020, 9(3), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9030380 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1243
Abstract
Heavy metals are rapidly polluting the environment as a result of growing industrialization and urbanization. The presence of high concentrations of chromium (Cr), along with other pollutants, is widespread in tannery wastewater. In Pakistan, as a result of a severe shortage of irrigation [...] Read more.
Heavy metals are rapidly polluting the environment as a result of growing industrialization and urbanization. The presence of high concentrations of chromium (Cr), along with other pollutants, is widespread in tannery wastewater. In Pakistan, as a result of a severe shortage of irrigation water, farmers use tannery wastewater to grow various crops with a consequent decline in plants’ yield. This experiment was performed to assess growth revival in sunflower plants irrigated with 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% tannery wastewater, by foliar application of 0, 2.5, and 5.0 mM citric acid (CA). The wastewater treatment curtailed biomass accumulation, the growth rate, and chlorophyll contents by exacerbating the oxidative stress in sunflowers. Foliar application of CA considerably alleviated the outcomes of Cr toxicity by curbing the Cr absorption and oxidative damage, leading to improvements in plant growth, biological yield, and chlorophyll contents. It is concluded that foliar application of CA can successfully mitigate the Cr toxicity in sunflower plants irrigated with tannery wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity)
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Open AccessArticle
Silver Can Induce Oxidative Stress in Parallel to Other Chemical Elicitors to Modulate the Ripening of Chili Cultivars
Plants 2020, 9(2), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9020238 - 12 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 699
Abstract
Two chili cultivars, i.e., cv. Bullet and cv. Tejaswini, were evaluated on postharvest related ripening characteristics with varying durations under hydrogen peroxide, putrescine and silver treatments. The reducing sugar was inversely related to the maximum values at 7 days of ripening. Silver and [...] Read more.
Two chili cultivars, i.e., cv. Bullet and cv. Tejaswini, were evaluated on postharvest related ripening characteristics with varying durations under hydrogen peroxide, putrescine and silver treatments. The reducing sugar was inversely related to the maximum values at 7 days of ripening. Silver and putrescine were the most regulatory in terms of changing of the total carbohydrate content as compared to hydrolysis of the total reducing sugar. Regarding pectin methylesterase activity, both chilies were consistent, regardless of the number of days of incubation. Still, putrescine and silver were significant contributors to variations in cv. Bullet and cv. Tejaswani. For the pigment content, lycopene and chlorophyll increased in a linear manner, although these treatments significantly varied over time. Hydrogen peroxide and putrescine were responsible for the maximum accumulation of lycopene for both the cultivars, whereas, only cv. Tejaswani displayed maximum carotenoid for putrescine. Silver for both chili varieties was the most inhibitory for lycopene and carotenoid content. Superoxide had a good impact on the accumulation of lipid peroxides, irrespective of the chili variety. The maximum accumulation of lipid peroxide was recorded at seven days of treatment. Phenolics and flavonoids were in decreasing order for both the chili varieties, progressing through the days of the study period in a similar manner. Silver was the main contributor to variations in the phenolics and flavonoid contents in cv. Tejaswani. The solubilization of total carbohydrate into reducing sugar was in an inverse relationship, with the maximum values being reached at 7 days of ripening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity)
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Open AccessArticle
Modulation of Cadmium Tolerance in Rice: Insight into Vanillic Acid-Induced Upregulation of Antioxidant Defense and Glyoxalase Systems
Plants 2020, 9(2), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9020188 - 04 Feb 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1035
Abstract
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal that enters the human food chain from the soil via plants. Increased Cd uptake and translocation in plants alters metabolism andreduces crop production. Maintaining crop yield therefore requires both soil remediation andenhanced plant tolerance to Cd. [...] Read more.
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal that enters the human food chain from the soil via plants. Increased Cd uptake and translocation in plants alters metabolism andreduces crop production. Maintaining crop yield therefore requires both soil remediation andenhanced plant tolerance to Cd. In this study, we investigated the effects of vanillic acid (VA) on Cd accumulation and Cd stress tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. BRRI dhan54). Thirteen-day-old rice seedlings treated with CdCl2 (1.0 and 2.0 mM) for 72 h showed reduced growth, biomass accumulation, and water and photosynthetic pigment contents, as well as increased signs of oxidative stress (elevated levels of malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, methylglyoxal, and lipoxygenase) and downregulated antioxidant and glyoxalase systems. Cadmium-induced changes in leaf relative turgidity, photosynthetic pigment content, ascorbate pool size, and glutathione content were suppressed by VA under both mild and severe Cd toxicity stress. The supplementation of VA under Cd stress conditions also increased antioxidant and glyoxylase enzyme activity. Vanillic acid also increased phytochelatin content and the biological accumulation factor, biological accumulation co-efficient, and Cd translocation factor. Vanillic acid, therefore appears to enhance Cd stress tolerance by increasing metal chelation and sequestration, by upregulating antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems, and by facilitating nutrient homeostasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Rhododendron arboreum Leaf Extract on the Antioxidant Defense System against Chromium (VI) Stress in Vigna radiata Plants
Plants 2020, 9(2), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9020164 - 29 Jan 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1006
Abstract
In the current investigation, we studied role of Rhododendron leaf extract in Vigna radiata grown under chromium metal stress. We observed that seed treatment with Rhododendron leaf extract resulted in the recuperation of seedling growth under chromium toxicity. Seed treatment with Rhododendron leaf [...] Read more.
In the current investigation, we studied role of Rhododendron leaf extract in Vigna radiata grown under chromium metal stress. We observed that seed treatment with Rhododendron leaf extract resulted in the recuperation of seedling growth under chromium toxicity. Seed treatment with Rhododendron leaf extract significantly improved the contents of anthocyanin and xanthophyll pigments under stress. The antioxidative defense system triggered after Rhododendron extract treatment, resulting in the increased actions of antioxidant enzymes. Oxidative stress induced by the assembly of reactive oxygen species was reduced after Rhododendron extract treatment under chromium toxicity as indicated by the enhanced contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants, namely ascorbic acid, tocopherol, and glutathione. Furthermore, Rhododendron leaf extract treatment under chromium metal stress also encouraged the biosynthesis of organic acids, polyphenols, as well as amino acids in Vigna radiata. Statistical analysis of the data with multiple linear regression also supported that Rhododendron leaf extract can effectively ease chromium metal-induced phytotoxicity in Vigna radiata. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity)
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Open AccessArticle
Nickel Toxicity Induced Changes in Nutrient Dynamics and Antioxidant Profiling in Two Maize (Zea mays L.) Hybrids
Plants 2020, 9(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010005 - 18 Dec 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1032
Abstract
Nickel (Ni) is among the essential micronutrient heavy metals utilized by plants. However, an elevated level of Ni causes serious concerns for plants’ physiology and their survival. This study evaluated the mechanisms influencing the growth, physiology, and nutrient dynamics in two commercial maize [...] Read more.
Nickel (Ni) is among the essential micronutrient heavy metals utilized by plants. However, an elevated level of Ni causes serious concerns for plants’ physiology and their survival. This study evaluated the mechanisms influencing the growth, physiology, and nutrient dynamics in two commercial maize hybrids (Syngenta and Pioneer) exposed to Ni treatments in hydroponics nutrient solution (NS). Seedlings were raised in plastic trays with quartz sand, and subsequently transferred to Hoagland’s NS at the two leaves stage. After three days of transplantation, Ni levels of 0, 20, and 40 mg L−1 were maintained in the nutrient solution. After 30 days of Ni treatments, seedlings were harvested and different growth, physiological, and nutrient concentrations were determined. The results showed that with increasing Ni concentration, the growth of maize hybrids was significantly reduced, and the maize hybrid, Pioneer, showed significantly higher growth than that of Syngenta at all levels of Ni. Higher growth in Pioneer is ascribed to elevated levels of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GR, APX, and POX), lower damage to cellular membranes (i.e., higher MSI and lower MDA), and higher tissue nutrient concentrations (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu). Furthermore, the maize hybrids showed a difference in nutrient translocation from root to shoot which could be one of the factors responsible for differential response of these hybrids against Ni treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity)
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Open AccessArticle
Bentonite and Biochar Mitigate Pb Toxicity in Pisum sativum by Reducing Plant Oxidative Stress and Pb Translocation
Plants 2019, 8(12), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8120571 - 05 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1066
Abstract
Lead (Pb)-polluted soils pose a serious threat to human health, particularly by transmitting this heavy metal to the food chain via the crops grown on them. The application of novel amendments in Pb-polluted soils can significantly reduce this problem. In this research, we [...] Read more.
Lead (Pb)-polluted soils pose a serious threat to human health, particularly by transmitting this heavy metal to the food chain via the crops grown on them. The application of novel amendments in Pb-polluted soils can significantly reduce this problem. In this research, we report the effects of various organic and inorganic amendments i.e., bentonite (BN), biochar (BR), lignin (LN), magnesium potassium phosphate cement (CM) and iron hydroxyl phosphate (FeHP), on the Pb bioavailability in Pb-polluted soil, upon Pb distribution in shoots, roots, grain, the translocation factor (TF) and the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of Pb in pea (Pisum sativum L.) grain. Furthermore, effects of the said amendments on the plant parameters, as well as grain biochemistry and nutritional quality, were also assessed. Lead pollution significantly elevated Pb concentrations in roots, shoots and grain, as well as the grain TF and BCF of Pb, while reducing the nutritional quality and biochemistry of grain, plant height, relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll contents (chl a and chl b) and the dry weight (DW) of shoot, root and grain. The lowest Pb distribution in shoots, roots and grain were found with BN, FeHP and CM, compared to our control. Likewise, the BN, FeHP and CM significantly lowered the TF and BCF values of Pb in the order FeHP > CM > BN. Similarly, the highest increase in plant height, shoot, root and grain DW, RWC, chl a and chl b contents, grain biochemistry and the micronutrient concentrations, were recorded with BR amendment. Biochar also reduced grain polyphenols as well as plant oxidative stress. Given that the BR and BN amendments gave the best results, we propose to explore their potential synergistic effect to reduce Pb toxicity by using them together in future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity)
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Open AccessArticle
Silicon and Iron Differently Alleviate Copper Toxicity in Cucumber Leaves
Plants 2019, 8(12), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8120554 - 28 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1061
Abstract
Copper (Cu) toxicity in plants may lead to iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and manganese (Mn) deficiencies. Here, we investigated the effect of Si and Fe supply on the concentrations of micronutrients and metal-chelating amino acids nicotianamine (NA) and histidine (His) in leaves of [...] Read more.
Copper (Cu) toxicity in plants may lead to iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and manganese (Mn) deficiencies. Here, we investigated the effect of Si and Fe supply on the concentrations of micronutrients and metal-chelating amino acids nicotianamine (NA) and histidine (His) in leaves of cucumber plants exposed to Cu in excess. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) was treated with 10 µM Cu, and additional 100 µM Fe or/and 1.5 mM Si for five days. High Cu and decreased Zn, Fe and Mn concentrations were found in Cu treatment. Additional Fe supply had a more pronounced effect in decreasing Cu accumulation and improving the molar ratio between micronutrients as compared to the Si supply. However, the simultaneous supply of Fe and Si was the most effective treatment in alleviation of Cu-induced deficiency of Fe, Zn and Mn. Additional Fe supply increased the His but not NA concentration, while Si supply significantly increased both NA and His whereby the NA:Cu and His:Cu molar ratios exceeded the control values indicating that Si recruits Cu-chelation to achieve Cu tolerance. In conclusion, Si-mediated alleviation of Cu toxicity was directed toward Cu tolerance while Fe-alleviative effect was due to a dramatic decrease in Cu accumulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Correlations between Different Traits in Copper-Sensitive and Copper-Resistant Varieties of Jute (Corchorus capsularis L.)
Plants 2019, 8(12), 545; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8120545 - 26 Nov 2019
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 1309
Abstract
The current study was conducted to explore the potential for phytoremediation in different varieties of jute grown under toxic concentrations of copper (Cu). For this purpose, a Petri dish experiment was conducted under controlled conditions using four varieties of jute, i.e., HongTieGuXuan, C-3, [...] Read more.
The current study was conducted to explore the potential for phytoremediation in different varieties of jute grown under toxic concentrations of copper (Cu). For this purpose, a Petri dish experiment was conducted under controlled conditions using four varieties of jute, i.e., HongTieGuXuan, C-3, GuBaChangaJia, and ShangHuoMa, grown in double filter paper under 50 µmol L−1 of artificially spiked copper (Cu) using CuSO4.H2O. The results of the present study revealed that jute varieties C-3 and HongTieGuXuan were able to survive under high concentrations of Cu without a significant decrease in plant height, plant fresh and dry weights, total chlorophyll content, or seed germination, while varieties GuBaChangaJia and ShangHuoMa exhibited a significant reduction in their growth and biomass. Furthermore, high concentrations of Cu in the medium resulted in lipid peroxidation. This could be due to the oxidative damage induced in the roots and leaves of the jute varieties, which might be a result of by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and electrolyte leakage. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated due to Cu toxicity can be overcome by the increasing activity of antioxidants, and it was also noted that GuBaChangaJia and ShangHuoMa exhibited high Cu stress, while C-3 and HongTieGuXuan showed some resistance to Cu toxicity. Contrastingly, Cu accumulation and uptake was higher in C-3 and HongTieGuXuan, while a little Cu was accumulated in the roots and leaves of GuBaChangaJia and ShangHuoMa. On the basis of these findings, it can be suggested that C-3 and HongTieGuXuan have the potential to cope with Cu stress and can be considered Cu-resistant varieties, while GuBaChangaJia and ShangHuoMa are considered Cu-sensitive varieties. Moreover, C-3 and HongTieGuXuan have the potential to revoke large amounts of Cu, and can be cultivated as phytoremediation tools in Cu-contaminated soil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity)
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Open AccessArticle
Exogenously-Sourced Ethylene Modulates Defense Mechanisms and Promotes Tolerance to Zinc Stress in Mustard (Brassica juncea L.)
Plants 2019, 8(12), 540; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8120540 - 25 Nov 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1188
Abstract
Heavy metal (HM) contamination of agricultural soil is primarily related to anthropogenic perturbations. Exposure to high concentration of HMs causes toxicity and undesirable effects in plants. In this study, the significance of ethylene was studied in response of mustard (Brassica juncea) [...] Read more.
Heavy metal (HM) contamination of agricultural soil is primarily related to anthropogenic perturbations. Exposure to high concentration of HMs causes toxicity and undesirable effects in plants. In this study, the significance of ethylene was studied in response of mustard (Brassica juncea) to a high level (200 mg kg−1 soil) of zinc (Zn) exposure. Plants with high Zn showed inhibited photosynthesis and growth with the increase in oxidative stress. Application of ethylene (as ethephon) to Zn-grown plants restored photosynthesis and growth by inhibiting oxidative stress through increased antioxidant activity, the proline metabolism glyoxalase system, and nutrient homoeostasis. The results suggested that ethylene played a role in modulating defense mechanisms for tolerance of plants to Zn stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity)
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Open AccessArticle
Citric Acid Enhances Plant Growth, Photosynthesis, and Phytoextraction of Lead by Alleviating the Oxidative Stress in Castor Beans
Plants 2019, 8(11), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8110525 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2227
Abstract
Lead (Pb) toxicity has a great impact in terms of toxicity towards living organisms as it severely affects crop growth, yield, and food security; thus, warranting appropriate measures for the remediation of Pb polluted soils. Phytoextraction of heavy metals (HMs) using tolerant plants [...] Read more.
Lead (Pb) toxicity has a great impact in terms of toxicity towards living organisms as it severely affects crop growth, yield, and food security; thus, warranting appropriate measures for the remediation of Pb polluted soils. Phytoextraction of heavy metals (HMs) using tolerant plants along with organic chelators has gained global attention. Thus, this study examines the possible influence of citric acid (CA) on unveiling the potential phytoextraction of Pb by using castor beans. For this purpose, different levels of Pb (0, 300, 600 mg kg−1 of soil) and CA (0, 2.5, and 5 mM) were supplied alone and in all possible combinations. The results indicate that elevated levels of Pb (especially 600 mg kg−1 soil) induce oxidative stress, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malanodialdehyde (MDA) production in plants. The Pb stress reduces the photosynthetic traits (chlorophyll and gas exchange parameters) in the tissues of plants (leaves and roots), which ultimately lead to a reduction in growth as well as biomass. Enzyme activities such as guaiacol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and catalase are also linearly increased in a dose-dependent manner under Pb stress. The exogenous application of CA reduced the Pb toxicity in plants by improving photosynthesis and, ultimately, plant growth. The upsurge in antioxidants against oxidative stress shows the potential of CA-treated castor beans plants to counteract stress injuries by lowering H2O2 and MDA levels. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that CA treatments play a promising role in increasing the uptake of Pb and reducing its phytotoxicity. These outcomes recommend that CA application could be an effective approach for the phytoextraction of Pb from polluted soils by growing castor beans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity)
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Open AccessArticle
Metabolic Changes Induced by Silver Ions in Carlina acaulis
Plants 2019, 8(11), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8110517 - 17 Nov 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1227
Abstract
Silver is one of the most toxic heavy metals for plants, inducing various toxic symptoms and metabolic changes. Here, the impact of Ag(I) on Carlina acaulis physiology and selected metabolites was studied using two Ag concentrations (1 or 10 µM) after 14 days [...] Read more.
Silver is one of the most toxic heavy metals for plants, inducing various toxic symptoms and metabolic changes. Here, the impact of Ag(I) on Carlina acaulis physiology and selected metabolites was studied using two Ag concentrations (1 or 10 µM) after 14 days of exposure. The higher concentration of Ag(I) evoked reduction of growth, while 1 µM Ag had a growth-promoting effect on root biomass. The translocation factor (<0.04) showed that Ag was mainly retained in the roots. The 1 µM Ag concentration increased the level of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs), while 10 µM Ag depleted these compounds in the roots. The increased concentration of Ag(I) elevated the accumulation of phytochelatins (PCs) in the roots and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the shoots (but not in the roots). At 1 µM, Ag(I) elevated the level of phenolic and triterpene acids, while the 10 µM Ag treatment increased the carlina oxide content in the roots. The obtained results indicate an alteration of metabolic pathways of C. acaulis to cope with different levels of Ag(I) stress. Our data imply that the intracellular binding of Ag(I) and nonenzymatic antioxidants contribute to the protection against low concentrations of Ag ions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity)
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Open AccessArticle
Protein Carbonylation As a Biomarker of Heavy Metal, Cd and Pb, Damage in Paspalum fasciculatum Willd. ex Flüggé
Plants 2019, 8(11), 513; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8110513 - 16 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1460
Abstract
Heavy metal tolerant plants have phytoremediation potential for the recovery of contaminated soils, and the characterization of their metabolic adaptation processes is an important starting point to elucidate their tolerance mechanisms at molecular, biochemical and physiological levels. In this research, the effects of [...] Read more.
Heavy metal tolerant plants have phytoremediation potential for the recovery of contaminated soils, and the characterization of their metabolic adaptation processes is an important starting point to elucidate their tolerance mechanisms at molecular, biochemical and physiological levels. In this research, the effects of Cd and Pb on growth and protein carbonylation in tissues of Paspalum fasciculatum exposed to 30 and 50 mg·Kg−1 Cd and Pb respectively were determined. P. fasciculatum seedlings exposed to metals grew more than controls until 60 days of cultivation and limited their oxidative effects to a reduced protein group. Carbonyl indexes in leaf and root proteins reached a significant increase concerning their controls in plants exposed 30 days to Cd and 60 days to Pb. From the combined approach of Western Blot with Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and protein analysis by Matrix Asisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation-Time Of Flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry, chloroplastic proteins were identified into the main oxidative stress-inducible proteins to Cd and Pb, such as subunits α, γ of ATP synthetase, Chlorophyll CP26 binding protein, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase and long-chain ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCO LSU). Cd generated damage in the photosynthetic machinery of the leaves of P. fasciculatum into the first 30 days of treatment; five of the oxidized proteins are involved in photosynthesis processes. Moreover, there was a proteolytic fragmentation of the RuBisCO LSU. Results showed that intrinsic tolerance of P. fasciculatum to these metals reached 60 days in our conditions, along with the bioaccumulating appreciable quantities of metals in their roots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of PGPB Inoculation on HSP70 and HMA3 Gene Expression in Switchgrass under Cadmium Stress
Plants 2019, 8(11), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8110504 - 14 Nov 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1219
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the gene expression of HSP70 and HMA3 in the switchgrass inoculated with plant-growth-promoting-bacteria (PGPB) under cadmium (Cd) stress and to observe the benefit of PGPB in plant growth and development. Plants were grown in hydroponic culture and treated [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the gene expression of HSP70 and HMA3 in the switchgrass inoculated with plant-growth-promoting-bacteria (PGPB) under cadmium (Cd) stress and to observe the benefit of PGPB in plant growth and development. Plants were grown in hydroponic culture and treated with PGPB inoculants: Pseudomonas grimontii, Pantoea vagans, Pseudomonas veronii, and Pseudomonas fluorescens with the strains Bc09, So23, E02, and Oj24, respectively. The experimental results revealed that HSP70 and HMA3 genes expressed highly in the PGPB-inoculated plants under Cd stress. In addition, the expression of HSP70 and HMA3 genes was considerably higher in the first two days after successive four-day exposure of Cd in plants compared to the last two days of exposure. Increased biomass and indole-3-acetic-acid production with reduced Cd accumulation were observed in the PGPB-inoculated plants under Cd stress compared to the Cd-control plants. These PGPB, with their beneficial mechanisms, protect plants by modifying the gene expression profile that arises during Cd-toxic conditions and increased the healthy biomass of switchgrass. This demonstrates there is a correlation among the growth parameters under Cd stress. The PGPB in this study may help to intensify agriculture by triggering mechanisms to encourage plant growth and development under heavy metal stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity)
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Open AccessArticle
Micronutrient Status and Selected Physiological Parameters of Roots in Nickel-Exposed Sinapis alba L. Affected by Different Sulphur Levels
Plants 2019, 8(11), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8110440 - 23 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 922
Abstract
An efficient method of improving the micronutrient status of Ni-treated white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) using intensive S-SO4 nutrition was developed. Twelve variants of Hoagland’s nutrient solution differing in the concentration of S-SO4 (standard: 2 mM S, and elevated level: [...] Read more.
An efficient method of improving the micronutrient status of Ni-treated white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) using intensive S-SO4 nutrition was developed. Twelve variants of Hoagland’s nutrient solution differing in the concentration of S-SO4 (standard: 2 mM S, and elevated level: 6 or 9 mM S) and Ni (0, 0.0004, 0.04, or 0.08 mM Ni) were tested. The beneficial effect of intensive S nutrition on Ni-stressed plants was manifested by a significant rise in the content of Fe, Mn, and Zn, especially in the shoots. An increase was also found in the shoot B, Cu, and Mo content, whilst there were no changes in their root concentrations. Simultaneously, the shoot Cl concentrations dropped. The elevated level of S in the nutrient solution in general enhanced the translocation of Fe, Cu, Mo, and B in Ni-exposed plants. The beneficial effect of intensive S nutrition on the growth and micronutrient balance of Ni-exposed plants can be at least partially related to the positive changes in root surface properties, especially in cation exchange capacity (CEC). Meanwhile both reduced glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) probably do not significantly contribute to Ni resistance of white mustard under intensive S nutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity)
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Open AccessArticle
Modulation of the Functional Components of Growth, Photosynthesis, and Anti-Oxidant Stress Markers in Cadmium Exposed Brassica juncea L.
Plants 2019, 8(8), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8080260 - 31 Jul 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1454
Abstract
Heavy metals (including Cadmium) are being entered into the environment through various sources and cause toxicity to plants. Response of Brassica juncea L. var. RLC-1 was evaluated after exposing them to different concentration of cadmium (Cd) for seven days. Seeds of B. juncea [...] Read more.
Heavy metals (including Cadmium) are being entered into the environment through various sources and cause toxicity to plants. Response of Brassica juncea L. var. RLC-1 was evaluated after exposing them to different concentration of cadmium (Cd) for seven days. Seeds of B. juncea were treated with different concentrations of Cd like 0.2–0.6 mM for 7 days, allowing them to grow in Petri-dishes, and seedlings were examined for different physiological responses. Following exposure to Cd, in the seedlings of B. juncea, growth parameters (root and shoot length), stress markers (lipid peroxidation and H2O2 content), secondary metabolites, photosynthetic pigments, and ion analysis, were estimated along with enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. We observed a significant reduction in root and shoot length after Cd treatment as compared to control seedlings. Malondialdehyde and H2O2 contents were increased accompanied by enhanced Cd uptake. Activities of antioxidative enzymes were also significantly altered following Cd exposure to the seedlings of B. juncea. Conclusively, we suggest that Cd exposure to the seedlings triggered an induction of several defense responses in B. juncea including major metabolites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Jute: A Potential Candidate for Phytoremediation of Metals—A Review
Plants 2020, 9(2), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9020258 - 17 Feb 2020
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 2184
Abstract
Jute (Corchorus capsularis) is a widely cultivated fibrous species with important physiological characteristics including biomass, a deep rooting system, and tolerance to metal stress. Furthermore, Corchorus species are indigenous leafy vegetables and show phytoremediation potential for different heavy metals. This species [...] Read more.
Jute (Corchorus capsularis) is a widely cultivated fibrous species with important physiological characteristics including biomass, a deep rooting system, and tolerance to metal stress. Furthermore, Corchorus species are indigenous leafy vegetables and show phytoremediation potential for different heavy metals. This species has been used for the phytoremediation of different toxic pollutants such as copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb). The current literature highlights the physiological and morphological characteristics of jute that are useful to achieve successful phytoremediation of different pollutants. The accumulation of these toxic heavy metals in agricultural regions initiates concerns regarding food safety and reductions in plant productivity and crop yield. We discuss some innovative approaches to increase jute phytoremediation using different chelating agents. There is a need to remediate soils contaminated with toxic substances, and phytoremediation is a cheap, effective, and in situ alternative, and jute can be used for this purpose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity)
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Open AccessReview
Chromium Bioaccumulation and Its Impacts on Plants: An Overview
Plants 2020, 9(1), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010100 - 13 Jan 2020
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 1597
Abstract
Chromium (Cr) is an element naturally occurring in rocky soils and volcanic dust. It has been classified as a carcinogen agent according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Therefore, this metal needs an accurate understanding and thorough investigation in soil–plant systems. [...] Read more.
Chromium (Cr) is an element naturally occurring in rocky soils and volcanic dust. It has been classified as a carcinogen agent according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Therefore, this metal needs an accurate understanding and thorough investigation in soil–plant systems. Due to its high solubility, Cr (VI) is regarded as a hazardous ion, which contaminates groundwater and can be transferred through the food chain. Cr also negatively impacts the growth of plants by impairing their essential metabolic processes. The toxic effects of Cr are correlated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which cause oxidative stress in plants. The current review summarizes the understanding of Cr toxicity in plants via discussing the possible mechanisms involved in its uptake, translocation and sub-cellular distribution, along with its interference with the other plant metabolic processes such as chlorophyll biosynthesis, photosynthesis and plant defensive system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity)
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Open AccessReview
Assisting Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals Using Chemical Amendments
Plants 2019, 8(9), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8090295 - 21 Aug 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2787
Abstract
Phytoremediation is one of the safer, economical, and environment-friendly techniques in which plants are used to recover polluted soils, particularly those containing toxic organic substances and heavy metals. However, it is considered as a slow form of remediation, as plants take time to [...] Read more.
Phytoremediation is one of the safer, economical, and environment-friendly techniques in which plants are used to recover polluted soils, particularly those containing toxic organic substances and heavy metals. However, it is considered as a slow form of remediation, as plants take time to grow and flourish. Various amendments, including the augmentation of certain chemical substances i.e., ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), ethylene glycol tetra acetic acid (EGTA), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) have been used to induce and enhance the phytoextraction capacity in plants. Several reports show that chemical amendments can improve the metal accumulation in different plant parts without actually affecting the growth of the plant. This raises a question about the amount and mechanisms of chemical amendments that may be needed for potentially good plant growth and metal phytoremediation. This review provides a detailed discussion on the mechanisms undertaken by three important chemical amendments that are widely used in enhancing phytoremediation (i.e., EDTA, EGTA, and SDS) to support plant growth as well as soil phytoremediation. A core part of this review focuses on the recent advances that have been made using chemical amendments in assisting metal phytoremediation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Role of Silicon in Mitigation of Heavy Metal Stresses in Crop Plants
Plants 2019, 8(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8030071 - 21 Mar 2019
Cited by 61 | Viewed by 3964
Abstract
Over the past few decades, heavy metal contamination in soil and water has increased due to anthropogenic activities. The higher exposure of crop plants to heavy metal stress reduces growth and yield, and affect the sustainability of agricultural production. In this regard, the [...] Read more.
Over the past few decades, heavy metal contamination in soil and water has increased due to anthropogenic activities. The higher exposure of crop plants to heavy metal stress reduces growth and yield, and affect the sustainability of agricultural production. In this regard, the use of silicon (Si) supplementation offers a promising prospect since numerous studies have reported the beneficial role of Si in mitigating stresses imposed by biotic as well as abiotic factors including heavy metal stress. The fundamental mechanisms involved in the Si-mediated heavy metal stress tolerance include reduction of metal ions in soil substrate, co-precipitation of toxic metals, metal-transport related gene regulation, chelation, stimulation of antioxidants, compartmentation of metal ions, and structural alterations in plants. Exogenous application of Si has been well documented to increase heavy metal tolerance in numerous plant species. The beneficial effects of Si are particularly evident in plants able to accumulate high levels of Si. Consequently, to enhance metal tolerance in plants, the inherent genetic potential for Si uptake should be improved. In the present review, we have discussed the potential role and mechanisms involved in the Si-mediated alleviation of metal toxicity as well as different approaches for enhancing Si-derived benefits in crop plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity)
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