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Open AccessArticle

Bentonite and Biochar Mitigate Pb Toxicity in Pisum sativum by Reducing Plant Oxidative Stress and Pb Translocation

1
Department of Botany, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
2
Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
3
Cholistan Institute of Desert Studies, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan
4
Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan
5
Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Co-first Authors.
Plants 2019, 8(12), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8120571
Received: 30 October 2019 / Revised: 2 December 2019 / Accepted: 3 December 2019 / Published: 5 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity)
Lead (Pb)-polluted soils pose a serious threat to human health, particularly by transmitting this heavy metal to the food chain via the crops grown on them. The application of novel amendments in Pb-polluted soils can significantly reduce this problem. In this research, we report the effects of various organic and inorganic amendments i.e., bentonite (BN), biochar (BR), lignin (LN), magnesium potassium phosphate cement (CM) and iron hydroxyl phosphate (FeHP), on the Pb bioavailability in Pb-polluted soil, upon Pb distribution in shoots, roots, grain, the translocation factor (TF) and the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of Pb in pea (Pisum sativum L.) grain. Furthermore, effects of the said amendments on the plant parameters, as well as grain biochemistry and nutritional quality, were also assessed. Lead pollution significantly elevated Pb concentrations in roots, shoots and grain, as well as the grain TF and BCF of Pb, while reducing the nutritional quality and biochemistry of grain, plant height, relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll contents (chl a and chl b) and the dry weight (DW) of shoot, root and grain. The lowest Pb distribution in shoots, roots and grain were found with BN, FeHP and CM, compared to our control. Likewise, the BN, FeHP and CM significantly lowered the TF and BCF values of Pb in the order FeHP > CM > BN. Similarly, the highest increase in plant height, shoot, root and grain DW, RWC, chl a and chl b contents, grain biochemistry and the micronutrient concentrations, were recorded with BR amendment. Biochar also reduced grain polyphenols as well as plant oxidative stress. Given that the BR and BN amendments gave the best results, we propose to explore their potential synergistic effect to reduce Pb toxicity by using them together in future research. View Full-Text
Keywords: lead pollution; antioxidants; bentonite; translocation factor; grain biochemistry; biochar; oxidative stress lead pollution; antioxidants; bentonite; translocation factor; grain biochemistry; biochar; oxidative stress
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zulqurnain Haider, M.; Hussain, S.; Muhammad Adnan Ramzani, P.; Iqbal, M.; Iqbal, M.; Shahzad, T.; Fatima, M.; Ali Khan, S.; Khan, I.; Shahid, M.; Ibrahim, M.; Tanzeem Ull Haq, H.S.; Mahmood, F. Bentonite and Biochar Mitigate Pb Toxicity in Pisum sativum by Reducing Plant Oxidative Stress and Pb Translocation. Plants 2019, 8, 571. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8120571

AMA Style

Zulqurnain Haider M, Hussain S, Muhammad Adnan Ramzani P, Iqbal M, Iqbal M, Shahzad T, Fatima M, Ali Khan S, Khan I, Shahid M, Ibrahim M, Tanzeem Ull Haq HS, Mahmood F. Bentonite and Biochar Mitigate Pb Toxicity in Pisum sativum by Reducing Plant Oxidative Stress and Pb Translocation. Plants. 2019; 8(12):571. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8120571

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zulqurnain Haider, Muhammad; Hussain, Sabir; Muhammad Adnan Ramzani, Pia; Iqbal, Mutahar; Iqbal, Muhammad; Shahzad, Tanvir; Fatima, Maryam; Ali Khan, Shahbaz; Khan, Imran; Shahid, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Tanzeem Ull Haq, Hafiz S.; Mahmood, Faisal. 2019. "Bentonite and Biochar Mitigate Pb Toxicity in Pisum sativum by Reducing Plant Oxidative Stress and Pb Translocation" Plants 8, no. 12: 571. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8120571

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