Special Issue "Nutrition and Fitness: Mental Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Clinical Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2020) | Viewed by 27082

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Special Issue Editor

Dr. Riccardo Dalle Grave
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Eating and Weight Disorders, Villa Garda Hospital, Garda, Italy
Interests: eating disorders; obesity; nutrition; cognitive behavior therapy; lifestyle modification; digital treatment; weight loss drugs
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mens sana in corpore sano (a healthy mind in a healthy body) is a Latin phrase taken from Giovenale (Satire, X, 356) that remains relevant and is supported by today’s data regarding genetics and nutrition, and their contribution to mental health. The purpose of this Special Issue on “Nutrition and Fitness: Mental Health” is to provide an update on the latest evidence regarding the association between nutrition, physical activity (and inactivity) and physical fitness and the mental health of children, adolescents, and adults. Particularly, papers (reviews and clinical or experimental studies) dealing with the association between nutrition, physical fitness and mental health both in general and with regard to specific mental disorders, and nutrients and physical activity as agents for prevention, treatment, or augmentation of treatment for mental disorders, will be included.

Dr. Riccardo Dalle Grave
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • mental health
  • depression
  • eating disorders
  • obesity
  • nutrition
  • exercise
  • inactivity
  • physical fitness
  • nutraceuticals
  • prevention

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Nutrition and Fitness: Mental Health
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1804; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061804 - 17 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3023
Abstract
Mental disorders are one of the leading causes of disability, being associated with about 18 [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Fitness: Mental Health)

Research

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Article
Quality of Life and Physical Performance in Patients with Obesity: A Network Analysis
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 602; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030602 - 26 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2013
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the interconnections between specific quality-of-life domains in patients with obesity and high or low physical performance using a network approach. Methods: 716 consecutive female and male patients (aged 18–65 years) with obesity seeking weight-loss [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the interconnections between specific quality-of-life domains in patients with obesity and high or low physical performance using a network approach. Methods: 716 consecutive female and male patients (aged 18–65 years) with obesity seeking weight-loss treatment were included. The 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the six-minute walking test (6MWT) were used to assess quality of life and physical performance, respectively. The sample was split into two groups according to the distance walked in the 6MWT. Network structures of the SF-36 domains in the two groups were assessed and compared, and the relative importance of individual items in the network structures was determined using centrality analyses. Results: 35.3% (n = 253) of participants covered more distance than expected, and 64.7% (n = 463) did not. Although low-performing patients showed lower quality of life domain scores, the network structures were similar in the two groups, with the SF-36 Vitality representing the central domain in both networks. Mental Health was a node with strong connections in patients who walked less distance. Conclusions: These findings indicate that psychosocial variables represent the most influential and interconnected features as regards quality of life in both groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Fitness: Mental Health)
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Article
The Effects of the Type of Exercise and Physical Activity on Eating Behavior and Body Composition in Overweight and Obese Subjects
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 557; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020557 - 20 Feb 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4209
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine whether a type of exercise favors better compliance with a prescribed diet, higher eating-related motivation, healthier diet composition or greater changes in body composition in overweight and obese subjects. One hundred and sixty-two (males n [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine whether a type of exercise favors better compliance with a prescribed diet, higher eating-related motivation, healthier diet composition or greater changes in body composition in overweight and obese subjects. One hundred and sixty-two (males n = 79), aged 18–50 years, were randomized into four intervention groups during 24 weeks: strength, endurance, combined strength + endurance and guideline-based physical activity; all in combination with a 25–30% caloric restriction diet. A food frequency questionnaire and a “3-day food and drink record” were applied pre- and post-intervention. Diet and exercise-related motivation levels were evaluated with a questionnaire developed for this study. Body composition was assessed by DXA and habitual physical activity was measured by accelerometry. Body weight, body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage decreased and lean body mass increased after the intervention, without differences by groups. No interactions were observed between intervention groups and time; all showing a decreased in energy intake (p < 0.001). Carbohydrate and protein intakes increased, and fat intake decreased from pre- to post-intervention without significant interactions with intervention groups, BMI category or gender (p < 0.001). Diet-related motivation showed a tendency to increase from pre- to post-intervention (70.0 ± 0.5 vs 71.0 ± 0.6, p = 0.053), without significant interactions with intervention groups, BMI or gender. Regarding motivation for exercise, gender x time interactions were observed (F(1,146) = 7.452, p = 0.007): Women increased their motivation after the intervention (pre: 17.6 ± 0.3, post: 18.2 ± 0.3), while men maintained it. These findings suggest that there are no substantial effects of exercise type on energy intake, macronutrient selection or body composition changes. After a six-month weight loss program, individuals did not reduce their motivation related to diet or exercise, especially women. Individuals who initiate a long-term exercise program do not increase their energy intake in a compensatory fashion, if diet advices are included. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Fitness: Mental Health)
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Article
The Impact of Coconut Oil and Epigallocatechin Gallate on the Levels of IL-6, Anxiety and Disability in Multiple Sclerosis Patients
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020305 - 23 Jan 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3100
Abstract
Background: Due to the inflammatory nature of multiple sclerosis (MS), interleukin 6 (IL-6) is high in blood levels, and it also increases the levels of anxiety related to functional disability. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) decreases IL-6, which could be enhanced by the anti-inflammatory effect [...] Read more.
Background: Due to the inflammatory nature of multiple sclerosis (MS), interleukin 6 (IL-6) is high in blood levels, and it also increases the levels of anxiety related to functional disability. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) decreases IL-6, which could be enhanced by the anti-inflammatory effect of high ketone bodies after administering coconut oil (both of which are an anxiolytic). Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the impact of coconut oil and EGCG on the levels of IL-6, anxiety and functional disability in patients with MS. Methods: A pilot study was conducted for four months with 51 MS patients who were randomly divided into an intervention group and a control group. The intervention group received 800 mg of EGCG and 60 mL of coconut oil, and the control group was prescribed a placebo. Both groups followed the same isocaloric Mediterranean diet. State and trait anxiety were determined before and after the study by means of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). In addition, IL-6 in serum was measured using the ELISA technique and functional capacity was determined with the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and the body mass index (BMI). Results: State anxiety and functional capacity decreased in the intervention group and IL-6 decreased in both groups. Conclusions: EGCG and coconut oil improve state anxiety and functional capacity. In addition, a decrease in IL-6 is observed in patients with MS, possibly due to the antioxidant capacity of the Mediterranean diet and its impact on improving BMI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Fitness: Mental Health)
Article
Association between Depressive Symptoms and Food Insecurity among Indonesian Adults: Results from the 2007–2014 Indonesia Family Life Survey
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3026; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123026 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1657
Abstract
Background: Depressive symptoms and food insecurity are two of the public health concerns in developing countries. Food insecurity is linked to several chronic diseases, while little is known about the association between food insecurity and depressive symptoms among adults. A person with limited [...] Read more.
Background: Depressive symptoms and food insecurity are two of the public health concerns in developing countries. Food insecurity is linked to several chronic diseases, while little is known about the association between food insecurity and depressive symptoms among adults. A person with limited or uncertain availability or access to nutritionally sufficient, socially relevant, and safe foods is defined as a food-insecure person. Materials and methods: Data were obtained from 8613 adults who participated in the Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS) in 2007 and 2014. The 10 items of the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were used in food consumption score analysis to assess food insecurity based on the concept of the World Food Program (WFP). Depressive symptoms were assessed using 10 items of the self-reported Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) questionnaire. A linear and multiple logistic regression model with a generalized estimating equation was used to test the hypothesis while accounting for the health behaviors and sociodemographic characteristics. Results: Food consumption score was negatively associated with CES-D 10 score (β-coefficients: −9.71 × 10−3 to −1.06 × 10−2; 95% CIs: −7.46 × 10−3 to −1.26 × 10−2). The borderline and poor food consumption group was positively associated with the depressive symptoms, both in the unadjusted and adjusted models (exponentiated β-coefficients: 1.13 to 1.18; 95% CIs: 1.06 to 1.28). Conclusions: Depressive symptoms were positively significantly associated with food insecurity. Thus, health professionals must be aware of the issue, and should consider health and nutrition programs for adults at risk of food insecurity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Fitness: Mental Health)

Review

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Review
Microbiota-Orientated Treatments for Major Depression and Schizophrenia
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1024; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041024 - 08 Apr 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4599
Abstract
Background and significance. There is a need to develop new hypothesis-driven treatment for both both major depression (MD) and schizophrenia in which the risk of depression is 5 times higher than the general population. Major depression has been also associated with poor illness [...] Read more.
Background and significance. There is a need to develop new hypothesis-driven treatment for both both major depression (MD) and schizophrenia in which the risk of depression is 5 times higher than the general population. Major depression has been also associated with poor illness outcomes including pain, metabolic disturbances, and less adherence. Conventional antidepressants are partly effective, and 44% of the subjects remain unremitted under treatment. Improving MD treatment efficacy is thus needed to improve the SZ prognosis. Microbiota-orientated treatments are currently one of the most promising tracks. Method. This work is a systematic review synthetizing data of arguments to develop microbiota-orientated treatments (including fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT)) in major depression and schizophrenia. Results. The effectiveness of probiotic administration in MD constitutes a strong evidence for developing microbiota-orientated treatments. Probiotics have yielded medium-to-large significant effects on depressive symptoms, but it is still unclear if the effect is maintained following probiotic discontinuation. Several factors may limit MD improvement when using probiotics, including the small number of bacterial strains administered in probiotic complementary agents, as well as the presence of a disturbed gut microbiota that probably limits the probiotics’ impact. FMT is a safe technique enabling to improve microbiota in several gut disorders. The benefit/risk ratio of FMT has been discussed and has been recently improved by capsule administration. Conclusion. Cleaning up the gut microbiota by transplanting a totally new human gut microbiota in one shot, which is referred to as FMT, is likely to strongly improve the efficacy of microbiota-orientated treatments in MD and schizophrenia and maintain the effect over time. This hypothesis should be tested in future clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Fitness: Mental Health)
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Review
The Association between Energy Balance-Related Behavior and Burn-Out in Adults: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020397 - 02 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2887
Abstract
Although it is believed that physical activity, sedentary, and dietary behavior (i.e., energy balance-related behavior) may decrease the risk of burn-out, the association between both is currently not well understood. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to synthesize studies investigating the [...] Read more.
Although it is believed that physical activity, sedentary, and dietary behavior (i.e., energy balance-related behavior) may decrease the risk of burn-out, the association between both is currently not well understood. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to synthesize studies investigating the relationship between energy balance-related behavior and burn-out risk. A systematic literature search was conducted in four databases, resulting in 25 included studies (ten experimental and 15 observational studies). Nine out of ten experimental studies showed that exercise programs were effective in reducing burn-out risk. Fourteen out of fifteen observational studies found a negative association between physical activity and burn-out risk, whereas one study did not find a relation. Two of the 15 observational studies also showed that being more sedentary was associated with a higher burn-out risk, and two other studies found that a healthier diet was related to a lower burn-out risk. No experimental studies were found for the latter two behaviors. It can be concluded that physical activity may be effective in reducing burn-out risk. The few observational studies linking sedentary and dietary behavior with burn-out risk suggest that being more sedentary and eating less healthy are each associated with higher burn-out risk. More high-quality research is needed to unravel the causal relationship between these two behaviors and burn-out risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Fitness: Mental Health)
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Review
Physical Activity in Eating Disorders: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010183 - 09 Jan 2020
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 5042
Abstract
Abnormally high levels of physical activity have been documented throughout the literature in patients with eating disorders (ED), especially those diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN). Yet no clear definition, conceptualization, or treatment of the problematic use of physical activity (PPA) in ED patients [...] Read more.
Abnormally high levels of physical activity have been documented throughout the literature in patients with eating disorders (ED), especially those diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN). Yet no clear definition, conceptualization, or treatment of the problematic use of physical activity (PPA) in ED patients exists. The aim of this review is to propose a new classification of PPA, report the prevalence, triggers, predictors, maintainers and other related factors of PPA in ED patients, in addition to proposing a comprehensive model of the development of PPA in AN. A total of 47 articles, retrieved from Medline and Web of Science, met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. As a result, the new approach of PPA was divided into two groups (group 1 and group 2) according to the dimension (quantitative vs qualitative approach) of physical activity that was evaluated. The prevalence of PPA in ED was reported in 20 out of 47 studies, the comparison of PPA between ED versus controls in 21 articles, and the links between PPA and psychological factors in ED in 26 articles, including depression (16/26), anxiety (13/26), obsessive–compulsiveness (9/26), self-esteem (4/26), addictiveness (1/26), regulation and verbal expression of emotions (1/26) and anhedonia (1/26). The links between PPA and ED symptomatology, PPA and weight, body mass index (BMI) and body composition in ED, PPA and age, onset, illness duration and lifetime activity status in ED, PPA and ED treatment outcome were reported in 18, 15, 7, 5 articles, respectively. All of the factors have been systematically clustered into group 1 and group 2. Results focused more on AN rather than BN due to the limited studies on the latter. Additionally, a model for the development of PPA in AN patients was proposed, encompassing five periods evolving into three clinical stages. Thus, two very opposite components of PPA in AN were suggested: voluntarily PPA increased in AN was viewed as a conscious strategy to maximize weight loss, while involuntarily PPA increased proportionally with weight-loss, indicating that exercise might be under the control of a subconscious biological drive and involuntary cognition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Fitness: Mental Health)
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