Special Issue "Hydration and Fluid Needs during Physical Activity"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Sports Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Douglas J. Casa
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Korey Stringer Institute, Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
Interests: hydration; exericse in heat; thermoregulation; heat stroke; maximizing performance in the heat
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Stavros Kavouras
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Hydration Science Lab, College of Health Solutions, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, 85004 USA
Interests: water intake and glucose homeostasis; hydration and childhood obesity; fluid and electrolyte balance during exercise; hydration assessment and biomarkers; hydration and cardiovascular health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are excited to announce a Special Issue in the journal of Nutrients that will focus on Hydration during Physical Activity. This Special Issue will specifically address a variety of hydration topics related to the performance, health, heat exposure, safety, recovery, physiology. and other factors that are influenced when fluid balance is altered during physical activity. Our aim is to bring together hydration experts from around the globe, and we hope that you will consider submitting recent data you have compiled that can contribute to the collection of articles in this Special Issue. We encourage outside-the-box concepts, ideas, methodologies, and questions that can invigorate the discussion of this vital topic that has such a huge impact on hundreds of millions of laborers, warfighters, athletes, and recreationally active individuals around the world.

Prof. Dr. Douglas J. Casa
Prof. Dr. Stavros Kavouras
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Hydration status
  • Hydration and performance
  • Hydration and thermoregulation
  • Hydration and health

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Article
Awareness of Fluid Losses Does Not Impact Thirst during Exercise in the Heat: A Double-Blind, Cross-Over Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4357; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124357 - 03 Dec 2021
Viewed by 338
Abstract
Background: Thirst has been used as an indicator of dehydration; however, as a perception, we hypothesized that it could be affected by received information related to fluid losses. The purpose of this study was to identify whether awareness of water loss can impact [...] Read more.
Background: Thirst has been used as an indicator of dehydration; however, as a perception, we hypothesized that it could be affected by received information related to fluid losses. The purpose of this study was to identify whether awareness of water loss can impact thirst perception during exercise in the heat. Methods: Eleven males participated in two sessions in random order, receiving true or false information about their fluid losses every 30 min. Thirst perception (TP), actual dehydration, stomach fullness, and heat perception were measured every 30 min during intermittent exercise until dehydrated by ~4% body mass (BM). Post exercise, they ingested water ad libitum for 30 min. Results: Pre-exercise BM, TP, and hydration status were not different between sessions (p > 0.05). As dehydration progressed during exercise, TP increased significantly (p = 0.001), but it was the same for both sessions (p = 0.447). Post-exercise water ingestion was almost identical (p = 0.949) in the two sessions. Conclusion: In this study, thirst was a good indicator of fluid needs during exercise in the heat when no fluid was ingested, regardless of receiving true or false water loss information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydration and Fluid Needs during Physical Activity)
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Article
Hydration, Eating Attitudes and Behaviors in Age and Weight-Restricted Youth American Football Players
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2565; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082565 - 27 Jul 2021
Viewed by 658
Abstract
There is a paucity of research examining hydration and nutrition behaviors in youth American football players. A potentially unique risk factor are league restrictions based on weight (WR) or age (AR). The purpose of this study was to examine hydration status between WR [...] Read more.
There is a paucity of research examining hydration and nutrition behaviors in youth American football players. A potentially unique risk factor are league restrictions based on weight (WR) or age (AR). The purpose of this study was to examine hydration status between WR and AR leagues. The secondary purpose was to describe eating patterns in players. An observational cohort design with 63 youth football players (10 ± 1 yrs, 148.2 ± 9.4 cm, 44.9 ± 15.3 kg) was utilized. Independent variables were league (AR (n = 36); WR (n = 27)) and activity type (practice (PX = 8); game (GM = 3)). Dependent variables were hydration status (urine osmolality; percent change in body mass (%BM)), eating attitudes (Children’s Eating Attitude Test (ChEAT-26)) and self-reported frequency of meals. On average, players arrived activity mildly hypohydrated (830 ± 296 mOsm/kg) and %BM was minimal (−0.1 ± 0.7%) during events. Players consumed 2 ± 1 meals and 1 ± 1 snack before events. The ChEAT-26 survey reported 21.6% (n = 8) of players were at risk for abnormal eating attitudes. Among these players, eating binges, vomiting, excessive exercise and drastic weight loss were reported. Youth American football players arrived activity mildly hypohydrated and consumed enough fluid during activity to maintain euhydration. Abnormal eating attitudes and the use of unhealthy weight loss methods were reported by some youth American football players. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydration and Fluid Needs during Physical Activity)
Article
Contribution of Dietary Composition on Water Turnover Rates in Active and Sedentary Men
Nutrients 2021, 13(6), 2124; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13062124 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 808
Abstract
Body water turnover is a marker of hydration status for measuring total fluid gains and losses over a 24-h period. It can be particularly useful in predicting (and hence, managing) fluid loss in individuals to prevent potential physical, physiological and cognitive declines associated [...] Read more.
Body water turnover is a marker of hydration status for measuring total fluid gains and losses over a 24-h period. It can be particularly useful in predicting (and hence, managing) fluid loss in individuals to prevent potential physical, physiological and cognitive declines associated with hypohydration. There is currently limited research investigating the interrelationship of fluid balance, dietary intake and activity level when considering body water turnover. Therefore, this study investigates whether dietary composition and energy expenditure influences body water turnover. In our methodology, thirty-eight males (19 sedentary and 19 physically active) had their total body water and water turnover measured via the isotopic tracer deuterium oxide. Simultaneous tracking of dietary intake (food and fluid) is carried out via dietary recall, and energy expenditure is estimated via accelerometery. Our results show that active participants display a higher energy expenditure, water intake, carbohydrate intake and fibre intake; however, there is no difference in sodium or alcohol intake between the two groups. Relative water turnover in the active group is significantly greater than the sedentary group (Mean Difference (MD) [95% CI] = 17.55 g·kg−1·day−1 [10.90, 24.19]; p = < 0.001; g[95% CI] = 1.70 [0.98, 2.48]). A penalised linear regression provides evidence that the fibre intake (p = 0.033), water intake (p = 0.008), and activity level (p = 0.063) predict participants’ relative body water turnover (R2= 0.585). In conclusion, water turnover is faster in individuals undertaking regular exercise than in their sedentary counterparts, and is, in part, explained by the intake of water from fluid and high-moisture content foods. The nutrient analysis of the participant diets indicates that increased dietary fibre intake is also positively associated with water turnover rates. The water loss between groups also contributes to the differences observed in water turnover; this is partly related to differences in sweat output during increased energy expenditure from physical activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydration and Fluid Needs during Physical Activity)
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Article
A Case-Series Observation of Sweat Rate Variability in Endurance-Trained Athletes
Nutrients 2021, 13(6), 1807; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061807 - 26 May 2021
Viewed by 1001
Abstract
Adequate fluid replacement during exercise is an important consideration for athletes, however sweat rate (SR) can vary day-to-day. The purpose of this study was to investigate day-to-day variations in SR while performing self-selected exercise sessions to evaluate error in SR estimations in similar [...] Read more.
Adequate fluid replacement during exercise is an important consideration for athletes, however sweat rate (SR) can vary day-to-day. The purpose of this study was to investigate day-to-day variations in SR while performing self-selected exercise sessions to evaluate error in SR estimations in similar temperature conditions. Thirteen endurance-trained athletes completed training sessions in a case-series design 1x/week for a minimum 30 min of running/biking over 24 weeks. Body mass was recorded pre/post-training and corrected for fluid consumption. Data were split into three Wet-Bulb Globe Thermometer (WBGT) conditions: LOW (<10 °C), MOD (10–19.9 °C), HIGH (>20 °C). No significant differences existed in exercise duration, distance, pace, or WBGT for any group (p > 0.07). Significant differences in SR variability occurred for all groups, with average differences of: LOW = 0.15 L/h; MOD = 0.14 L/h; HIGH = 0.16 L/h (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in mean SR between LOW-MOD (p > 0.9), but significant differences between LOW-HIGH and MOD-HIGH (p < 0.03). The assessment of SR can provide useful data for determining hydration strategies. The significant differences in SR within each temperature range indicates a single assessment may not accurately represent an individual’s typical SR even in similar environmental conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydration and Fluid Needs during Physical Activity)
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Article
Availability of a Flavored Beverage and Impact on Children’s Hydration Status, Sleep, and Mood
Nutrients 2021, 13(6), 1757; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061757 - 21 May 2021
Viewed by 772
Abstract
Euhydration remains a challenge in children due to lack of access and unpalatability of water and to other reasons. The purpose of this study was to determine if the availability/access to a beverage (Creative Roots®) influences hydration in children and, therefore, [...] Read more.
Euhydration remains a challenge in children due to lack of access and unpalatability of water and to other reasons. The purpose of this study was to determine if the availability/access to a beverage (Creative Roots®) influences hydration in children and, therefore, sleep quality and mood. Using a crossover investigation, 46 participants were randomly assigned to a control group (CON) or an intervention group and received Creative Roots® (INT) for two-week periods. We recorded daily first morning and afternoon urine color (Ucol), thirst perception, and bodyweight of the two groups. Participants reported to the lab once per week and provided first morning urine samples to assess Ucol, urine specific gravity (USG), and urine osmolality (Uosmo). Participants also completed the questionnaires Profile of Mood States-Adolescents (POMS-a) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Dependent t-tests were used to assess the effects of the intervention on hydration, mood, and sleep quality. Uosmo was greater and Ucol was darker in the control group (mean ± SD) [Uosmo: INT = 828 ± 177 mOsm·kg−1, CON = 879 ± 184 mOsm·kg−1, (p = 0.037], [Ucol:INT = 5 ± 1, CON = 5 ± 1, p = 0.024]. USG, POMS-a, and PSQI were not significant between the groups. At-home daily afternoon Ucol was darker in the control group [INT = 3 ± 1, CON = 3 ± 1, p = 0.022]. Access to Creative Roots® provides a small, potentially meaningful hydration benefit in children. However, children still demonstrated consistent mild dehydration based on Uosmo, despite consuming the beverage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydration and Fluid Needs during Physical Activity)
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Article
Hydration Status, Fluid Intake, Sweat Rate, and Sweat Sodium Concentration in Recreational Tropical Native Runners
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1374; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041374 - 20 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1307
Abstract
Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate hydration status, fluid intake, sweat rate, and sweat sodium concentration in recreational tropical native runners. Methods: A total of 102 males and 64 females participated in this study. Participants ran at their self-selected pace [...] Read more.
Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate hydration status, fluid intake, sweat rate, and sweat sodium concentration in recreational tropical native runners. Methods: A total of 102 males and 64 females participated in this study. Participants ran at their self-selected pace for 30–100 min. Age, environmental conditions, running profiles, sweat rates, and sweat sodium data were recorded. Differences in age, running duration, distance and pace, and physiological changes between sexes were analysed. A p-value cut-off of 0.05 depicted statistical significance. Results: Males had lower relative fluid intake (6 ± 6 vs. 8 ± 7 mL·kg−1·h−1, p < 0.05) and greater relative fluid balance deficit (−13 ± 8 mL·kg−1·h−1 vs. −8 ± 7 mL·kg−1·h−1, p < 0.05) than females. Males had higher whole-body sweat rates (1.3 ± 0.5 L·h−1 vs. 0.9 ± 0.3 L·h−1, p < 0.05) than females. Mean rates of sweat sodium loss (54 ± 27 vs. 39 ± 22 mmol·h−1) were higher in males than females (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The sweat profile and composition in tropical native runners are similar to reported values in the literature. The current fluid replacement guidelines pertaining to volume and electrolyte replacement are applicable to tropical native runners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydration and Fluid Needs during Physical Activity)
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Article
Heat Acclimatization, Cooling Strategies, and Hydration during an Ultra-Trail in Warm and Humid Conditions
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1085; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041085 - 26 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1817
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the history of exertional heat illness (EHI), heat preparation, cooling strategies, heat related symptoms, and hydration during an ultra-endurance running event in a warm and humid environment. This survey-based study was open to all people [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess the history of exertional heat illness (EHI), heat preparation, cooling strategies, heat related symptoms, and hydration during an ultra-endurance running event in a warm and humid environment. This survey-based study was open to all people who participated in one of the three ultra-endurance races of the Grand Raid de la Réunion. Ambient temperature and relative humidity were 18.6 ± 5.7 °C (max = 29.7 °C) and 74 ± 17%, respectively. A total of 3317 runners (56% of the total eligible population) participated in the study. Overall, 78% of the runners declared a history of heat-related symptoms while training or competing, and 1.9% reported a previous diagnosis of EHI. Only 24.3% of study participants living in temperate climates declared having trained in the heat before the races, and 45.1% of all respondents reported a cooling strategy during the races. Three quarter of all participants declared a hydration strategy. The planned hydration volume was 663 ± 240 mL/h. Fifty-nine percent of the runners had enriched their food or drink with sodium during the race. The present study shows that ultra-endurance runners have a wide variability of hydration and heat preparation strategies. Understandings of heat stress repercussions in ultra-endurance running need to be improved by specific field research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydration and Fluid Needs during Physical Activity)
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Article
Change in Exercise Performance and Markers of Acute Kidney Injury Following Heat Acclimation with Permissive Dehydration
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 841; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030841 - 04 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 916
Abstract
Implementing permissive dehydration (DEH) during short-term heat acclimation (HA) may accelerate adaptations to the heat. However, HA with DEH may augment risk for acute kidney injury (AKI). This study investigated the effect of HA with permissive DEH on time-trial performance and markers of [...] Read more.
Implementing permissive dehydration (DEH) during short-term heat acclimation (HA) may accelerate adaptations to the heat. However, HA with DEH may augment risk for acute kidney injury (AKI). This study investigated the effect of HA with permissive DEH on time-trial performance and markers of AKI. Fourteen moderately trained men (age and VO2max = 25 ± 0.5 yr and 51.6 ± 1.8 mL.kg−1.min−1) were randomly assigned to DEH or euhydration (EUH). Time-trial performance and VO2max were assessed in a temperate environment before and after 7 d of HA. Heat acclimation consisted of 90 min of cycling in an environmental chamber (40 °C, 35% RH). Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) were assessed pre- and post-exercise on day 1 and day 7 of HA. Following HA, VO2max did not change in either group (p = 0.099); however, time-trial performance significantly improved (3%, p < 0.01) with no difference between groups (p = 0.485). Compared to pre-exercise, NGAL was not significantly different following day 1 and 7 of HA (p = 0.113) with no difference between groups (p = 0.667). There was a significant increase in KIM-1 following day 1 and 7 of HA (p = 0.002) with no difference between groups (p = 0.307). Heat acclimation paired with permissive DEH does not amplify improvements in VO2max or time-trial performance in a temperate environment versus EUH and does not increase markers of AKI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydration and Fluid Needs during Physical Activity)
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Article
Does the Minerals Content and Osmolarity of the Fluids Taken during Exercise by Female Field Hockey Players Influence on the Indicators of Water-Electrolyte and Acid-Basic Balance?
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020505 - 04 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1304
Abstract
Although it is recognized that dehydration and acidification of the body may reduce the exercise capacity, it remains unclear whether the qualitative and quantitative shares of certain ions in the drinks used by players during the same exertion may affect the indicators of [...] Read more.
Although it is recognized that dehydration and acidification of the body may reduce the exercise capacity, it remains unclear whether the qualitative and quantitative shares of certain ions in the drinks used by players during the same exertion may affect the indicators of their water–electrolyte and acid–base balance. This question was the main purpose of the publication. The research was carried out on female field hockey players (n = 14) throughout three specialized training sessions, during which the players received randomly assigned fluids of different osmolarity and minerals contents. The water–electrolyte and acid–base balance of the players was assessed on the basis of biochemical blood and urine indicators immediately before and after each training session. There were statistically significant differences in the values of all examined indicators for changes before and after exercise, while the differences between the consumed drinks with different osmolarities were found for plasma osmolality, and concentrations of sodium and potassium ions and aldosterone. Therefore, it can be assumed that the degree of mineralization of the consumed water did not have a very significant impact on the indicators of water–electrolyte and acid–base balance in blood and urine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydration and Fluid Needs during Physical Activity)
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Article
Fluid Balance, Sweat Na+ Losses, and Carbohydrate Intake of Elite Male Soccer Players in Response to Low and High Training Intensities in Cool and Hot Environments
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020401 - 27 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2158
Abstract
Hypohydration increases physiological strain and reduces physical and technical soccer performance, but there are limited data on how fluid balance responses change between different types of sessions in professional players. This study investigated sweat and fluid/carbohydrate intake responses in elite male professional soccer [...] Read more.
Hypohydration increases physiological strain and reduces physical and technical soccer performance, but there are limited data on how fluid balance responses change between different types of sessions in professional players. This study investigated sweat and fluid/carbohydrate intake responses in elite male professional soccer players training at low and high intensities in cool and hot environments. Fluid/sodium (Na+) losses and ad-libitum carbohydrate/fluid intake of fourteen elite male soccer players were measured on four occasions: cool (wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT): 15 ± 7 °C, 66 ± 6% relative humidity (RH)) low intensity (rating of perceived exertion (RPE) 2–4, m·min−1 40–46) (CL); cool high intensity (RPE 6–8, m·min−1 82–86) (CH); hot (29 ± 1 °C, 52 ± 7% RH) low intensity (HL); hot high intensity (HH). Exercise involved 65 ± 5 min of soccer-specific training. Before and after exercise, players were weighed in minimal clothing. During training, players had ad libitum access to carbohydrate beverages and water. Sweat [Na+] (mmol·L−1), which was measured by absorbent patches positioned on the thigh, was no different between conditions, CL: 35 ± 9, CH: 38 ± 8, HL: 34 ± 70.17, HH: 38 ± 8 (p = 0.475). Exercise intensity and environmental condition significantly influenced sweat rates (L·h−1), CL: 0.55 ± 0.20, CH: 0.98 ± 0.21, HL: 0.81 ± 0.17, HH: 1.43 ± 0.23 (p =0.001), and percentage dehydration (p < 0.001). Fluid intake was significantly associated with sweat rate (p = 0.019), with no players experiencing hypohydration > 2% of pre-exercise body mass. Carbohydrate intake varied between players (range 0–38 g·h−1), with no difference between conditions. These descriptive data gathered on elite professional players highlight the variation in the hydration status, sweat rate, sweat Na+ losses, and carbohydrate intake in response to training in cool and hot environments and at low and high exercise intensities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydration and Fluid Needs during Physical Activity)
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Review

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Review
Rehydration during Endurance Exercise: Challenges, Research, Options, Methods
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 887; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030887 - 09 Mar 2021
Viewed by 2289
Abstract
During endurance exercise, two problems arise from disturbed fluid–electrolyte balance: dehydration and overhydration. The former involves water and sodium losses in sweat and urine that are incompletely replaced, whereas the latter involves excessive consumption and retention of dilute fluids. When experienced at low [...] Read more.
During endurance exercise, two problems arise from disturbed fluid–electrolyte balance: dehydration and overhydration. The former involves water and sodium losses in sweat and urine that are incompletely replaced, whereas the latter involves excessive consumption and retention of dilute fluids. When experienced at low levels, both dehydration and overhydration have minor or no performance effects and symptoms of illness, but when experienced at moderate-to-severe levels they degrade exercise performance and/or may lead to hydration-related illnesses including hyponatremia (low serum sodium concentration). Therefore, the present review article presents (a) relevant research observations and consensus statements of professional organizations, (b) 5 rehydration methods in which pre-race planning ranges from no advanced action to determination of sweat rate during a field simulation, and (c) 9 rehydration recommendations that are relevant to endurance activities. With this information, each athlete can select the rehydration method that best allows her/him to achieve a hydration middle ground between dehydration and overhydration, to optimize physical performance, and reduce the risk of illness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydration and Fluid Needs during Physical Activity)
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