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Special Issue "Food and Appetite"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Hollie A. Raynor

Department of Nutrition University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA
Website | E-Mail
Fax: (865) 974-3491
Interests: lifestyle intervention; weight management; dietary variety; energy density; eating patterns; eating behaviors
Guest Editor
Dr. Heather J. Leidy

Associate Professor, Clinical Research Center (CTSI) Director, Dept. Nutrition Science, Purdue University, 1144E Lyles-Porter Hall, 715 Clinic Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: hormonal control of appetite (with specific emphasis on ghrelin; PYY; GLP-1; CCK; leptin); diet and exercise interventions to prevent obesity; increased dietary protein; breakfast skipping; adolescents

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Hunger, satiation, and satiety are biological processes that influence the pattern of eating. These processes initiate consumption, sustain an eating occasion and then cause it to end, and then inhibit eating for a period of time. In addition, hedonic (i.e., reward-driven) processes also influence eating behavior by increasing food cravings and motivation to consume highly palatable, highly rewarding foods. Collectively, these processes are believed to be important in overall energy intake and can contribute to an energy intake that creates an energy balance state, as well as to both under- and over-consumption, leading to either negative or positive energy balance.

There is a large body of literature examining food-associated influences on appetite regulation. Results have found that the nutrient composition of food, physical properties of food, functionality of food, pattern of food ingestion, and sensory aspects of food can all influence motivation to eat, as well as hunger, satiation, and satiety. Developing a greater understanding of the mechanisms by which these food-associated influences alter consumption, how these influences may be implemented in interventions to improve health outcomes, and what individual factors may moderate outcomes is essential.

This Special Issue of Nutrients will contain contributions from leading experts in the field of food-associated influences on human appetite regulation.

Dr. Hollie A. Raynor
Dr. Heather J. Leidy
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Satiation
  • Satiety
  • appetite regulation
  • food reward
  • food-associated influences

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Variation in the Oral Processing of Everyday Meals Is Associated with Fullness and Meal Size; A Potential Nudge to Reduce Energy Intake?
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050315
Received: 17 February 2016 / Revised: 24 March 2016 / Accepted: 1 April 2016 / Published: 21 May 2016
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (1052 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Laboratory studies have demonstrated that experimental manipulations of oral processing can have a marked effect on energy intake. Here, we explored whether variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals could affect post-meal fullness and meal size. In Study 1, [...] Read more.
Laboratory studies have demonstrated that experimental manipulations of oral processing can have a marked effect on energy intake. Here, we explored whether variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals could affect post-meal fullness and meal size. In Study 1, female participants (N = 12) attended the laboratory over 20 lunchtime sessions to consume a 400-kcal portion of a different commercially available pre-packaged meal. Prior to consumption, expected satiation was assessed. During each meal, oral processing was characterised using: (i) video-recordings of the mouth and (ii) real-time measures of plate weight. Hunger and fullness ratings were elicited pre- and post-consumption, and for a further three hours. Foods that were eaten slowly had higher expected satiation and delivered more satiation and satiety. Building on these findings, in Study 2 we selected two meals (identical energy density) from Study 1 that were equally liked but maximised differences in oral processing. On separate days, male and female participants (N = 24) consumed a 400-kcal portion of either the “fast” or “slow” meal followed by an ad libitum meal (either the same food or a dessert). When continuing with the same food, participants consumed less of the slow meal. Further, differences in food intake during the ad libitum meal were not compensated at a subsequent snacking opportunity an hour later. Together, these findings suggest that variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals can affect fullness after consuming a fixed portion and can also impact meal size. Modifying food form to encourage increased oral processing (albeit to a lesser extent than in experimental manipulations) might represent a viable target for food manufacturers to help to nudge consumers to manage their weight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Appetite)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Oral Exposure Duration and Gastric Energy Content on Appetite Ratings and Energy Intake in Lean Men
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020064
Received: 16 September 2015 / Revised: 19 January 2016 / Accepted: 20 January 2016 / Published: 26 January 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1631 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Studies show that longer oral exposure to food leads to earlier satiation and lowers energy intake. Moreover, higher energy content of food has been shown to lead to higher satiety. Up to now, it has not been studied systematically how oral exposure duration [...] Read more.
Studies show that longer oral exposure to food leads to earlier satiation and lowers energy intake. Moreover, higher energy content of food has been shown to lead to higher satiety. Up to now, it has not been studied systematically how oral exposure duration and gastric energy content interact in satiety regulation. Thirty-seven men (22 ± 4 years, 22 ± 2 kg/m2) participated in a randomized cross-over trial, in which we independently manipulated: (1) oral exposure duration by modified sham feeding (MSF) for 1 or 8 min; and (2) energy content of gastric load (GL) by a nasogastric tube: 100 kcal/500 mL or 700 kcal/500 mL. Outcome measures were appetite ratings and subsequent energy intake from an ad libitum meal. Energy intake was 35% lower after the GLs with 700 kcal than with 100kcal (p < 0.0001). All appetite ratings were lower in the 700 kcal than in the 100 kcal treatments (area under the curve (AUC); p-values ≤ 0.002); fullness was higher and prospective consumption was lower in the 8 min than in the 1 min MSF treatments (AUC; p-values ≤ 0.02). In conclusion, the current showed that a GL of 700 kcal/500 mL vs. 100 kcal/500 mL increased satiety and lowered energy intake. No additional effects of oral exposure duration could be observed, presumably due to the high contrast in energy between the manipulations. Future research should also focus on the role of oral exposure as such and not only the duration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Appetite)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Dietary Protein Source and Quantity during Weight Loss on Appetite, Energy Expenditure, and Cardio-Metabolic Responses
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020063
Received: 3 December 2015 / Revised: 11 January 2016 / Accepted: 14 January 2016 / Published: 26 January 2016
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (2295 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Higher protein meals increase satiety and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) in acute settings, but it is unclear whether these effects remain after a person becomes acclimated to energy restriction or a given protein intake. This study assessed the effects of predominant [...] Read more.
Higher protein meals increase satiety and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) in acute settings, but it is unclear whether these effects remain after a person becomes acclimated to energy restriction or a given protein intake. This study assessed the effects of predominant protein source (omnivorous, beef/pork vs. lacto-ovo vegetarian, soy/legume) and quantity (10%, 20%, or 30% of energy from protein) on appetite, energy expenditure, and cardio-metabolic indices during energy restriction (ER) in overweight and obese adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to one protein source and then consumed diets with different quantities of protein (4 weeks each) in a randomized crossover manner. Perceived appetite ratings (free-living and in-lab), TEF, and fasting cardio-metabolic indices were assessed at the end of each 4-week period. Protein source and quantity did not affect TEF, hunger, or desire to eat, other than a modestly higher daily composite fullness rating with 30% vs. 10% protein diet (p = 0.03). While the 20% and 30% protein diets reduced cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and APO-B vs. 10% protein (p < 0.05), protein source did not affect cardio-metabolic indices. In conclusion, diets varying in protein quantity with either beef/pork or soy/legume as the predominant source have minimal effects on appetite control, energy expenditure and cardio-metabolic risk factors during ER-induced weight loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Appetite)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010021
Received: 30 November 2015 / Revised: 14 December 2015 / Accepted: 17 December 2015 / Published: 5 January 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1284 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m2; [...] Read more.
Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m2; aged 26 ± 1 year) consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g) + normal fiber (2 g), normal protein (12 g) + high fiber (8 g), high protein (25 g) + normal fiber (2 g), high protein (25 g) + high fiber (8 g)). The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Appetite)
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Open AccessArticle
Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8700-8711; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105421
Received: 26 July 2015 / Revised: 9 October 2015 / Accepted: 12 October 2015 / Published: 21 October 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2283 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p < 0.05), and post-snack fullness was greater following the snacks (except for the Bev-3.0) vs. CON (all, p < 0.05). Gel-Heated treatment led to lower prospective food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Appetite)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Gastrointestinal Nutrient Infusion Site and Eating Behavior: Evidence for A Proximal to Distal Gradient within the Small Intestine?
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8030117
Received: 24 November 2015 / Revised: 16 February 2016 / Accepted: 19 February 2016 / Published: 26 February 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (564 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The rapidly increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity demands new strategies focusing on prevention and treatment of this significant health care problem. In the search for new and effective therapeutic modalities for overweight subjects, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is increasingly considered as an [...] Read more.
The rapidly increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity demands new strategies focusing on prevention and treatment of this significant health care problem. In the search for new and effective therapeutic modalities for overweight subjects, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is increasingly considered as an attractive target for medical and food-based strategies. The entry of nutrients into the small intestine activates so-called intestinal “brakes”, negative feedback mechanisms that influence not only functions of more proximal parts of the GI tract but also satiety and food intake. Recent evidence suggests that all three macronutrients (protein, fat, and carbohydrates) are able to activate the intestinal brake, although to a different extent and by different mechanisms of action. This review provides a detailed overview of the current evidence for intestinal brake activation of the three macronutrients and their effects on GI function, satiety, and food intake. In addition, these effects appear to depend on region and length of infusion in the small intestine. A recommendation for a therapeutic approach is provided, based on the observed differences between intestinal brake activation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Appetite)
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Open AccessReview
Anorexia of Aging: Risk Factors, Consequences, and Potential Treatments
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020069
Received: 19 December 2015 / Accepted: 20 January 2016 / Published: 27 January 2016
Cited by 53 | PDF Full-text (1622 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Older people frequently fail to ingest adequate amount of food to meet their essential energy and nutrient requirements. Anorexia of aging, defined by decrease in appetite and/or food intake in old age, is a major contributing factor to under-nutrition and adverse health outcomes [...] Read more.
Older people frequently fail to ingest adequate amount of food to meet their essential energy and nutrient requirements. Anorexia of aging, defined by decrease in appetite and/or food intake in old age, is a major contributing factor to under-nutrition and adverse health outcomes in the geriatric population. This disorder is indeed highly prevalent and is recognized as an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in different clinical settings. Even though anorexia is not an unavoidable consequence of aging, advancing age often promotes its development through various mechanisms. Age-related changes in life-style, disease conditions, as well as social and environmental factors have the potential to directly affect dietary behaviors and nutritional status. In spite of their importance, problems related to food intake and, more generally, nutritional status are seldom attended to in clinical practice. While this may be the result of an “ageist” approach, it should be acknowledged that simple interventions, such as oral nutritional supplementation or modified diets, could meaningfully improve the health status and quality of life of older persons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Appetite)
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Open AccessReview
Effect of Polydextrose on Subjective Feelings of Appetite during the Satiation and Satiety Periods: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010045
Received: 5 October 2015 / Revised: 15 December 2015 / Accepted: 18 December 2015 / Published: 14 January 2016
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (720 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Introduction: Subjective feelings of appetite are measured using visual analogue scales (VAS) in controlled trials. However, the methods used to analyze VAS during the Satiation (pre- to post-meal) and Satiety (post-meal to subsequent meal) periods vary broadly, making it difficult to compare results [...] Read more.
Introduction: Subjective feelings of appetite are measured using visual analogue scales (VAS) in controlled trials. However, the methods used to analyze VAS during the Satiation (pre- to post-meal) and Satiety (post-meal to subsequent meal) periods vary broadly, making it difficult to compare results amongst independent studies testing the same product. This review proposes a methodology to analyze VAS during both the Satiation and Satiety periods, allowing us to compare results in a meta-analysis. Methods: A methodology to express VAS results as incremental areas under the curve (iAUC) for both the Satiation and Satiety periods is proposed using polydextrose as a case study. Further, a systematic review and meta-analysis on subjective feelings of appetite was conducted following the PRISMA methodology. Meta-analyses were expressed as Standardized Mean Difference (SMD). Results: Seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. There were important differences in the methods used to analyze appetite ratings amongst these studies. The separate subjective feelings of appetite reported were Hunger, Satisfaction, Fullness, Prospective Food Consumption, and the Desire to Eat. The method proposed here allowed the results of the different studies to be homogenized. The meta-analysis showed that Desire to Eat during the Satiation period favors polydextrose for the reduction of this subjective feeling of appetite (SMD = 0.24, I2 < 0.01, p = 0.018); this effect was also significant in the sub-analysis by sex for the male population (SMD = 0.35, I2 < 0.01, p = 0.015). There were no other significant results. Conclusion: It is possible to compare VAS results from separate studies. The assessment of iAUC for both the Satiation and Satiety periods generates results of homogeneous magnitudes. This case study demonstrates, for the first time, that polydextrose reduces the Desire to Eat during the Satiation period. This may explain, at least in part, the observed effects of polydextrose on the reduction of levels of energy intake at subsequent meals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Appetite)
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Open AccessReview
Effect of Glycemic Index of Breakfast on Energy Intake at Subsequent Meal among Healthy People: A Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010037
Received: 14 November 2015 / Revised: 9 December 2015 / Accepted: 18 December 2015 / Published: 4 January 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1360 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Meals with low glycemic index (GI) may suppress short-term appetite and reduce subsequent food intake compared with high-GI meals. However, no meta-analysis has been conducted to synthesize the evidence. This meta-analytic study was conducted to assess the effect of high- and low-GI breakfast [...] Read more.
Meals with low glycemic index (GI) may suppress short-term appetite and reduce subsequent food intake compared with high-GI meals. However, no meta-analysis has been conducted to synthesize the evidence. This meta-analytic study was conducted to assess the effect of high- and low-GI breakfast on subsequent short-term food intake. Trials were identified through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, and manual searches of bibliographies until May 2015. Randomized controlled and cross-over trials comparing the effect of low- with high-GI breakfast on subsequent energy intake among healthy people were included. Nine studies consisting of 11 trials met the inclusion criteria. Only one trial was classified with high methodological quality. A total of 183 participants were involved in the trials. The meta-analytic results revealed no difference in breakfast GI (high-GI vs. low-GI) on subsequent short-term energy intake. In conclusion, it seems that breakfast GI has no effect on short-term energy intake among healthy people. However, high quality studies are still warranted to provide more concrete evidence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Appetite)
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