Special Issue "Dietary Modifications and Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Clinical Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 July 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Javier Delgado-Lista
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Medicine Department, School of Medicine and Nursing, University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain
Interests: Human Metabolism; Diet; Genetics; Nutrigenetics; nutrigenomics; Endothelial function; Diabetes; Lipids; Cardiovascular dieases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Diet is, along with smoking, the most important environmental factor affecting human health. It has been calculated that one in five deaths are associated with poor diet, or, that in America, a poor diet is linked to nearly half of the deaths from heart disease, stroke, or diabetes. From cancer to cardiovascular disease, metabolic diseases or dementia, there are few chronic diseases where diet has not been included as an important modifier. In this Special Issue, we will cover some important topics relating to diet modifications and its impact on different chronic diseases. We will explore the effects of not only the changes in some nutrients, but also of the effect of the circadian rhythm and the potent contribution of the microbiota to the dietary effect on human health.

Dr. Javier Delgado-Lista
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Diet and chronic diseases
  • Cancer
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Public health nutrition
  • Genes and nutrition

Published Papers (7 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Assessment of Changes over Time of Lipid Profile, C-Reactive Protein Level and Body Mass Index in Teenagers and Young Adults on Different Diets Belonging to Autism Spectrum Disorder
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2594; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092594 - 26 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1026
Abstract
Background: Numerous scientific studies on patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggest a significant role of inflammation processes or lipid disorders in this spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders. Unfortunately, there is a lack of assessments of changes over time regarding level of lipids and [...] Read more.
Background: Numerous scientific studies on patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggest a significant role of inflammation processes or lipid disorders in this spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders. Unfortunately, there is a lack of assessments of changes over time regarding level of lipids and inflammatory markers in people diagnosed with ASD using different diets. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in lipid profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and body mass index (BMI) in individuals diagnosed with ASD and healthy controls. Variables were assessed at two time points (2015/17 and 2017/20) for each subject. Methods: After applying the selection criteria, for the first assessment period, 96 participants were qualified (the group consisted of 59 males with ASD and 37 healthy volunteers, i.e., age-matched control group—CG). The final assessment included 93 participants (57 from ASD group and 36 from CG). Subjects were on low-fat diet (LFD), gluten–casein-free diet (GF–CF) and regular diet (RD), respectively. All members of CG were on regular diet. A fasting lipid profile and hs-CRP level were analyzed. BMI and percentiles were calculated. Eating habits were checked by analyzing data from questionnaires. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used separately for every assessment. The Mann–Whitney U test was used to compare the medians of variables in the scheme of pairwise comparisons between control and ASD groups on different diets for separate assessment, while differences over time between variables were tested by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Statistically significant differences between BMI, CRP, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), non-HDL-C and TC/HDL ratio were found in ASD group in comparison to healthy volunteers (increased BMI, CRP and TC/HDL and decreased HDL-C for all types of diets, increased TG in the group of LFD and RD individual and increased non-HDL-C in the group of GF–CF and RD individuals) during the first assessment period. The second assessment over time also showed increased levels of TC, non HDL-C and TC/HDL and decreased level of HDL-C for all ASD individuals regardless of diets used, while BMI and CRP increased only for individuals on LFD and RD. No statistically significant correlations between age of participants and other variables comparing with CG were found. Conclusions: Our studies suggest that targeted, individualized nutritional pattern and periodic screening for lipid and immune disorders would be beneficial for teenagers and adults diagnosed with ASD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Modifications and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Rheological Characteristics of Soluble Fibres during Chemically Simulated Digestion and their Suitability for Gastroparesis Patients
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2479; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082479 - 17 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1405
Abstract
Dietary fibres are an integral part of a balanced diet. Consumption of a high-fibre diet confers many physiological and metabolic benefits. However, fibre is generally avoided by individuals with gastrointestinal motility disorders like gastroparesis due to increased likelihood of exacerbated symptoms. Low-viscosity soluble [...] Read more.
Dietary fibres are an integral part of a balanced diet. Consumption of a high-fibre diet confers many physiological and metabolic benefits. However, fibre is generally avoided by individuals with gastrointestinal motility disorders like gastroparesis due to increased likelihood of exacerbated symptoms. Low-viscosity soluble fibres have been identified as a possible source of fibre tolerable for these individuals. The aim of this study is to determine the rheological properties of 10 common commercially available soluble fibres in chemically simulated digestive conditions and evaluate their suitability for individuals with mild to moderate gastroparesis, a gastric motility disorder. Rheological testing under neutral condition (distilled water pH 7) and chemically simulated gastric digestion were evaluated to determine the yield point and relative viscosity of each fibre. Our results reveal two rheological categories of soluble fibres; pseudoplastic and dilatant. Simulated digestion was shown to significantly alter the yield-points of psyllium husk, iota-carrageenan, beta-glucan, apple-fibre pectin, and inulin. Gum Arabic and partially hydrolysed guar gum showed the lowest viscosities and were not affected under simulated digestion, characteristics that make them potential candidate fibres for patients with gastroparesis. Altogether, our results demonstrate that digestion can have a significant impact on fibre viscosity and should be taken into consideration when evaluating the suitability of fibres for patients with gastric motility disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Modifications and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Oils’ Impact on Comprehensive Fatty Acid Analysis and Their Metabolites in Rats
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1232; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051232 - 27 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 877
Abstract
Fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated, and their metabolites (eicosanoids) play many pivotal roles in human body, influencing various physiological and pathological processes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with edible oils diverse in terms of fatty acid composition [...] Read more.
Fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated, and their metabolites (eicosanoids) play many pivotal roles in human body, influencing various physiological and pathological processes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with edible oils diverse in terms of fatty acid composition on fatty acid contents, activities of converting their enzymes, and on lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic and linoleic acids (eicosanoids) in rat serum. Female Sprague-Dawley rats divided into seven groups were used in the study. Animals from six groups were fed one of oils daily (carotino oil, made up by combining of red palm oil and canola oil, linseed oil, olive oil, rice oil, sesame oil, or sunflower oil). One group received a standard diet only. Fatty acids were determined using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Eicosanoids—hydroxyeicosatetraenoic (HETE) and hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODE) were extracted using a solid-phase extraction method and analyzed with HPLC. Vegetable oils given daily to rats caused significant changes in serum fatty acid profile and eicosanoid concentrations. Significant differences were also found in desaturases’ activity, with the linseed and olive oil supplemented groups characterized by the highest D6D and D5D activity. These findings may play a significant role in various pathological states. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Modifications and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Decreased Consumption of Added Fructose Reduces Waist Circumference and Blood Glucose Concentration in Patients with Overweight and Obesity. The DISFRUTE Study: A Randomised Trial in Primary Care
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1149; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041149 - 19 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1871
Abstract
The relationship between fructose intake and insulin resistance remains controversial. Our purpose was to determine whether a reduction in dietary fructose is effective in decreasing insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR). This field trial was conducted on 438 adults with overweight and obese status, without diabetes. [...] Read more.
The relationship between fructose intake and insulin resistance remains controversial. Our purpose was to determine whether a reduction in dietary fructose is effective in decreasing insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR). This field trial was conducted on 438 adults with overweight and obese status, without diabetes. A total of 121 patients in a low fructose diet (LFD) group and 118 in a standard diet (SD) group completed the 24-week study. Both diets were prescribed with 30–40% of energy intake restriction. There were no between-group differences in HOMA2-IR. However, larger decreases were seen in the LFD group in waist circumference (−7.0 vs. −4.8 = −2.2 cms, 95% CI: −3.7, −0.7) and fasting blood glucose −0.25 vs. −0.11 = −0.14 mmol/L, 95% CI: −0.028, −0.02). The percentage of reduction in calorie intake was similar. Only were differences observed in the % energy intake for some nutrients: total fructose (−2 vs. −0.6 = −1.4, 95% CI: −2.6, −0.3), MUFA (−1.7 vs. −0.4 = −1.3, 95% CI: −2.4, −0.2), protein (5.1 vs. 3.6 = 1.4, 95% CI: 0.1, 2.7). The decrease in fructose consumption originated mainly from the reduction in added fructose (−2.8 vs. −1.9 = −0.9, 95% CI: −1.6, −0.03). These results were corroborated after multivariate adjustments. The low fructose diet did not reduce insulin resistance. However, it reduced waist circumference and fasting blood glucose concentration, which suggests a decrease in hepatic insulin resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Modifications and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Ceruloplasmin and Coronary Heart Disease—A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3219; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103219 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 927
Abstract
Several studies indicate that oxidative stress might play a central role in the initiation and maintenance of cardiovascular diseases. It remains unclear whether ceruloplasmin acts as a passive marker of inflammation or as a causal mediator. To better understand the impact of ceruloplasmin [...] Read more.
Several studies indicate that oxidative stress might play a central role in the initiation and maintenance of cardiovascular diseases. It remains unclear whether ceruloplasmin acts as a passive marker of inflammation or as a causal mediator. To better understand the impact of ceruloplasmin blood levels on the risk of cardiovascular disease, and paying special attention to coronary heart disease, we conducted a search on the two most commonly used electronic databases (Medline via PubMed and EMBASE) to analyze current assessment using observational studies in the general adult population. Each study was quality rated using criteria developed by the US Preventive Services Task Force. Most of 18 eligible studies reviewed support a direct relationship between ceruloplasmin elevated levels and incidence of coronary heart disease. Our results highlight the importance of promoting clinical trials that determine the functions of ceruloplasmin as a mediator in the development of coronary heart disease and evaluate whether the treatment of elevated ceruloplasmin levels has a role in the prognosis or prevention of this condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Modifications and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Mediterranean Diet and Endothelial Function: A Review of its Effects at Different Vascular Bed Levels
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2212; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082212 - 24 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 951
Abstract
The Mediterranean diet has recently been the focus of considerable attention as a palatable model of a healthy diet. Its influence on many cardiovascular risk factors, combined with its proven effect in reducing the risk of cardiovascular events in primary prevention, has boosted [...] Read more.
The Mediterranean diet has recently been the focus of considerable attention as a palatable model of a healthy diet. Its influence on many cardiovascular risk factors, combined with its proven effect in reducing the risk of cardiovascular events in primary prevention, has boosted scientific interest in this age-old nutritional model. Many of the underlying mechanisms behind its health-giving effects have been revealed, from the modulation of the microbiota to the function of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), and it seems to deliver its health benefits mainly by regulating several key mechanisms of atherosclerosis. In this review, we will review the evidence for its regulation of endothelial function, a key element in the early and late stages of atherosclerosis. In addition, we will assess studies which evaluate its effects on the functioning of different arterial territory vessels (mainly the microvascular, peripheral and central vascular beds), focusing mainly on the capillary, brachial and carotid arteries. Finally, we will evaluate the molecular mechanisms which may be involved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Modifications and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
It’s No Has Bean: A Review of the Effects of White Kidney Bean Extract on Body Composition and Metabolic Health
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1398; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051398 - 13 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1934
Abstract
The rising prevalence of overweight and obesity is a global concern, increasing the risk of numerous non-communicable diseases and reducing quality of life. A healthy diet and exercise remain the cornerstone treatments for obesity. However, adherence rates can be low and the effectiveness [...] Read more.
The rising prevalence of overweight and obesity is a global concern, increasing the risk of numerous non-communicable diseases and reducing quality of life. A healthy diet and exercise remain the cornerstone treatments for obesity. However, adherence rates can be low and the effectiveness of these interventions is often less than anticipated, due to compensatory changes in other aspects of the energy balance equation. Whilst some alternative weight-loss therapies are available, these strategies are often associated with side effects and are expensive. An alternative or adjunct to traditional weight-loss approaches may be the use of bioactive compounds extracted from food sources, which can be incorporated into habitual diet with a low cost and minimal burden. One product which has attracted attention in this regard is white kidney bean extract (WKBE), which has been suggested to inhibit the enzyme α-amylase, limiting carbohydrate digestion and absorption with small but potentially meaningful attendant beneficial effects on body weight and metabolic health. In this review, drawing evidence from both human and animal studies, we discuss the current evidence around the effects of WKBE on body composition and metabolic health. In addition, we discuss evidence on the safety of this supplement and explore potential directions for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Modifications and Human Health)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop