Special Issue "Dietary Fat and Human Health Outcomes"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Lipids".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Katerina Vafeiadou
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Life and Medical Sciences, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, AL10 9AB, UK
Interests: dietary fats; flavonoids; cardiovascular disease (CVD); hypertension; type 2 diabetes; obesity; inflammation; neurodegeneration

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are very excited to announce that in this Special Issue of Nutrients we are planning to bring together articles that discuss the link between dietary fats and health to include all age-related conditions and beyond.

The postulated impact of dietary fats and particularly saturated fats on cardiovascular disease has been a topic of debate for many decades. Numerous enlightening publications in previous years have aimed to elucidate this controversy. Despite the plethora of published research, many questions and controversies remain concerning the scientific basis of the current fat-specific dietary recommendations. The role of dietary fats in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and many other conditions is complex, and further research is required to provide strong evidence on the association between dietary fats and health.

We welcome different types of manuscript submissions, including original research articles and up-to-date reviews (systematic reviews and meta-analyses).

Potential topics may include but are not limited to the associations between dietary fats (saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, omega 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids) and health outcomes including cardiovascular disease, obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, inflammation, immune function, neurodegeneration/cognitive function/mental health, and child health and development. As food reformulation may be integral in meeting dietary recommendations, we also welcome articles on sustainable product reformulation and fat intake.

Dr. Katerina Vafeiadou
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dietary fats
  • saturated fatty acids (SFAs)
  • monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)
  • polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)
  • cardiovascular disease (CVD)
  • hypertension
  • type 2 diabetes
  • obesity
  • immune function
  • inflammation
  • pregnancy
  • neurodegeneration
  • cognitive function
  • cancer
  • reformulation

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Article
The Influence of Prenatal DHA Supplementation on Individual Domains of Behavioral Functioning in School-Aged Children: Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 2996; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13092996 - 27 Aug 2021
Viewed by 523
Abstract
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulates in the fetal brain during pregnancy and is thought to have a role in supporting neurodevelopment. We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, randomized controlled trial in women with a singleton pregnancy who were <21 weeks’ gestation at trial entry. Women [...] Read more.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulates in the fetal brain during pregnancy and is thought to have a role in supporting neurodevelopment. We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, randomized controlled trial in women with a singleton pregnancy who were <21 weeks’ gestation at trial entry. Women were provided with 800 mg DHA/day or a placebo supplement from trial entry until birth. When children reached seven years of age, we invited parents to complete the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), and the Conners 3rd Edition Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Index to assess child behavior and behavioral manifestations of executive dysfunction. There were 543 parent–child pairs (85% of those eligible) that participated in the follow-up. Scores were worse in the DHA group than the placebo group for the BRIEF Global Executive, Behavioral Regulation and Metacognition Indexes, and the Shift, Inhibit, Monitor, Working Memory, and Organization of Materials scales, as well as for the Conners 3 ADHD index, and the SDQ Total Difficulties score, Hyperactivity/Inattention score, and Peer Relationship Problems score. In this healthy, largely term-born sample of children, prenatal DHA supplementation conferred no advantage to childhood behavior, and instead appeared to have an adverse effect on behavioral functioning, as assessed by standardized parental report scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fat and Human Health Outcomes)
Article
Fatty Acids Quality in Middle Eastern Traditional Dishes, Arabic Sweets and Market Foods Frequently Consumed in Lebanon
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2462; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072462 - 19 Jul 2021
Viewed by 830
Abstract
The prevalence of diet-related non-communicable diseases is on the rise in the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean, including Lebanon. This study aimed to provide data on fatty acid profiles and ratios of Lebanese composite dishes, Arabic sweets, and market foods. Methods: Thirty types [...] Read more.
The prevalence of diet-related non-communicable diseases is on the rise in the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean, including Lebanon. This study aimed to provide data on fatty acid profiles and ratios of Lebanese composite dishes, Arabic sweets, and market foods. Methods: Thirty types of traditional dishes, collected from five different Lebanese governorates, thirty-seven types of Arabic sweets and forty-six market food products were considered for analysis. Food samples were chemically analyzed for total, unsaturated and saturated fatty acids. The range of total fatty acids in composite dishes, Arabic sweets, and market food products was between 1.2–11.7 g/100 g, 5.3–25.8 g/100 g, and 0.5–100 g/100 g, respectively. Additionally, the range of saturated fatty acids in composite dishes, Arabic sweets, and market food products was between 0.5–4.9 g/100 g, 2.5–23.6 g/100 g and 0.1–56.4 g/100 g, respectively. Furthermore, about 75% of these foods were poor in unsaturated fatty acids. Regarding saturated fatty acid, the polyunsaturated to monounsaturated (P.M.S) ratio was lower than the recommended ratio of 1:1:1 in 96% of samples. To conclude, there is a need to prioritize fat content in foods and consider processing modifications in the food production system with the aim of achieving a higher P:M:S ratio intake among the population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fat and Human Health Outcomes)
Article
Heart Rate Variability and Long Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients on Haemodialysis: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2453; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072453 - 18 Jul 2021
Viewed by 884
Abstract
Low heart rate variability (HRV) is independently associated with increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) and all cardiac death in haemodialysis patients. Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) may exert anti-arrhythmic effects. This study aimed to investigate [...] Read more.
Low heart rate variability (HRV) is independently associated with increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) and all cardiac death in haemodialysis patients. Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) may exert anti-arrhythmic effects. This study aimed to investigate relationships between dialysis, sleep and 24 h HRV and LC n-3 PUFA status in patients who have recently commenced haemodialysis. A cross-sectional study was conducted in adults aged 40–80 with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5 (n = 45, mean age 58, SD 9, 20 females and 25 males, 39% with type 2 diabetes). Pre-dialysis blood samples were taken to measure erythrocyte and plasma fatty acid composition (wt % fatty acids). Mean erythrocyte omega-3 index was not associated with HRV following adjustment for age, BMI and use of β-blocker medication. Higher ratios of erythrocyte eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were associated with lower 24 h vagally-mediated beat-to-beat HRV parameters. Higher plasma EPA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-3) were also associated with lower sleep-time and 24 h beat-to-beat variability. In contrast, higher plasma EPA was significantly related to higher overall and longer phase components of 24 h HRV. Further investigation is required to investigate whether patients commencing haemodialysis may have compromised conversion of EPA to DHA, which may impair vagally-mediated regulation of cardiac autonomic function, increasing risk of SCD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fat and Human Health Outcomes)
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Article
Effect of High Fat and Fructo-Oligosaccharide Consumption on Immunoglobulin A in Saliva and Salivary Glands in Rats
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1252; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041252 - 10 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 705
Abstract
Consumption of indigestible dietary fiber increases immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels in saliva. The purpose of this study is to clarify the synergistic effect of the intake of a high amount of fats and indigestible dietary fiber on IgA levels in saliva and submandibular [...] Read more.
Consumption of indigestible dietary fiber increases immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels in saliva. The purpose of this study is to clarify the synergistic effect of the intake of a high amount of fats and indigestible dietary fiber on IgA levels in saliva and submandibular glands (SMG). Seven-week-old Wistar rats were fed a low-fat (60 g/kg) fiberless diet, low-fat fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS, 30 g/kg) diet, high-fat (220 g/kg) fiberless diet, or high-fat FOS diet for 70 days. The IgA flow rate of saliva (IgA FR-saliva) was higher in the low-fat FOS group than in the other groups (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the concentration of tyrosine hydroxylase (a marker of sympathetic nerve activation) in the SMG was higher in the low-fat FOS group (p < 0.05) and positively correlated with the IgA FR-saliva (rs = 0.68. p < 0.0001. n = 32) in comparison to that in the other groups. These findings suggest that during low-fat FOS intake, salivary IgA levels may increase through sympathetic nerve activation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fat and Human Health Outcomes)
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Article
A Ketogenic Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Diet Increases LDL Cholesterol in Healthy, Young, Normal-Weight Women: A Randomized Controlled Feeding Trial
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 814; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030814 - 02 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 6010
Abstract
Ketogenic low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diets are popular among young, healthy, normal-weight individuals for various reasons. We aimed to investigate the effect of a ketogenic LCHF diet on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (primary outcome), LDL cholesterol subfractions and conventional cardiovascular risk factors in the [...] Read more.
Ketogenic low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diets are popular among young, healthy, normal-weight individuals for various reasons. We aimed to investigate the effect of a ketogenic LCHF diet on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (primary outcome), LDL cholesterol subfractions and conventional cardiovascular risk factors in the blood of healthy, young, and normal-weight women. The study was a randomized, controlled, feeding trial with crossover design. Twenty-four women were assigned to a 4 week ketogenic LCHF diet (4% carbohydrates; 77% fat; 19% protein) followed by a 4 week National Food Agency recommended control diet (44% carbohydrates; 33% fat; 19% protein), or the reverse sequence due to the crossover design. Treatment periods were separated by a 15 week washout period. Seventeen women completed the study and treatment effects were evaluated using mixed models. The LCHF diet increased LDL cholesterol in every woman with a treatment effect of 1.82 mM (p < 0.001). In addition, Apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB), small, dense LDL cholesterol as well as large, buoyant LDL cholesterol increased (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, and p < 0.001, respectively). The data suggest that feeding healthy, young, normal-weight women a ketogenic LCHF diet induces a deleterious blood lipid profile. The elevated LDL cholesterol should be a cause for concern in young, healthy, normal-weight women following this kind of LCHF diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fat and Human Health Outcomes)
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Article
Greater Loss of Central Adiposity from Low-Carbohydrate versus Low-Fat Diet in Middle-Aged Adults with Overweight and Obesity
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020475 - 31 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4168
Abstract
The objective of this study is to determine whether middle-aged adults prescribed a low carbohydrate-high fat (LCHF) or low fat (LF) diet would have greater loss of central fat and to determine whether the insulin resistance (IR) affects intervention response. A total of [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to determine whether middle-aged adults prescribed a low carbohydrate-high fat (LCHF) or low fat (LF) diet would have greater loss of central fat and to determine whether the insulin resistance (IR) affects intervention response. A total of 50 participants (52.3 ± 10.7 years old; 36.6 ± 7.4 kg/m2 BMI; 82% female) were prescribed either a LCHF diet (n = 32, carbohydrate: protein: fat of 5%:30%:65% without calorie restriction), or LF diet (n = 18, 63%:13–23%: 10–25% with calorie restriction of total energy expenditure—500 kcal) for 15 weeks. Central and regional body composition changes from dual-x-ray absorptiometry and serum measures were compared using paired t-tests and ANCOVA with paired contrasts. IR was defined as homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) > 2.6. Compared to the LF group, the LCHF group lost more android (15.6 ± 11.2% vs. 8.3 ± 8.1%, p < 0.01) and visceral fat (18.5 ± 22.2% vs. 5.1 ± 15.8%, p < 0.05). Those with IR lost more android and visceral fat on the LCHF verses LF group (p < 0.05). Therefore, the clinical prescription to a LCHF diet may be an optimal strategy to reduce disease risk in middle-aged adults, particularly those with IR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fat and Human Health Outcomes)
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Article
Low Levels of Omega-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Are Associated with Bone Metastasis Formation in Premenopausal Women with Breast Cancer: A Retrospective Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3832; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123832 - 15 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 993
Abstract
In the present study, we investigated various biochemical, clinical, and histological factors associated with bone metastases in a large cohort of pre- and postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Two hundred and sixty-one consecutive women with breast cancer were included in this study. Breast [...] Read more.
In the present study, we investigated various biochemical, clinical, and histological factors associated with bone metastases in a large cohort of pre- and postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Two hundred and sixty-one consecutive women with breast cancer were included in this study. Breast adipose tissue specimens were collected during surgery. After having established the fatty acid profile of breast adipose tissue by gas chromatography, we determined whether there were differences associated with the occurrence of bone metastases in these patients. Regarding the clinical and histological criteria, a majority of the patients with bone metastases (around 70%) had tumors with a luminal phenotype and 59% of them showed axillary lymph node involvement. Moreover, we found a negative association between the levels of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in breast adipose tissue and the development of bone metastases in premenopausal women. No significant association was observed in postmenopausal women. In addition to a luminal phenotype and axillary lymph node involvement, low levels of n-3 LC-PUFA in breast adipose tissue may constitute a risk factor that contributes to breast cancer bone metastases formation in premenopausal women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fat and Human Health Outcomes)
Article
Dietary Pattern and Dietary Energy from Fat Associated with Sarcopenia in Community-Dwelling Older Chinese People: A Cross-Sectional Study in Three Regions of China
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3689; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123689 - 30 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 791
Abstract
Associations between dietary patterns (DPs) and sarcopenia remain controversial, and fewer studies have mentioned the relationship between dietary energy composition and sarcopenia. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in three regions of China, to detect the associations between DPs and sarcopenia, and to [...] Read more.
Associations between dietary patterns (DPs) and sarcopenia remain controversial, and fewer studies have mentioned the relationship between dietary energy composition and sarcopenia. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in three regions of China, to detect the associations between DPs and sarcopenia, and to identify the influencing nutrients. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted for DP identification. Logistic regressions were performed to explore the associations between DPs and sarcopenia. Dietary nutrients and dietary energy composition were calculated and compared among different DPs. Three DPs were identified from 861 community-dwelling older people. The “mushrooms–fruits–milk” pattern was negatively associated with sarcopenia (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.14~0.77, p-trend = 0.009). Subjects in the highest quartile of the “mushrooms–fruits–milk” pattern showed more abundant intake (1.7 g/kg/d) of dietary protein, and lower percentage (31%) of energy from fat (PEF) than the other two DPs. Further analyses indicated that lower PEF (<30%) was negatively associated with sarcopenia. In conclusion, the “mushrooms–fruits–milk” pattern was negatively associated with sarcopenia in community-dwelling older Chinese people. This pattern showed abundant protein intake and low PEF, which may partially contribute to its protective effect on sarcopenia. Therefore, besides protein, dietary fat and PEF may also be considered in the prevention and management of sarcopenia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fat and Human Health Outcomes)
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Review

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Review
Beneficial Outcomes of Omega-6 and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Human Health: An Update for 2021
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2421; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072421 - 15 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2111
Abstract
Oxidative stress and inflammation have been recognized as important contributors to the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may regulate the antioxidant signaling pathway and modulate inflammatory processes. They also influence hepatic lipid metabolism and physiological responses of other organs, [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress and inflammation have been recognized as important contributors to the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may regulate the antioxidant signaling pathway and modulate inflammatory processes. They also influence hepatic lipid metabolism and physiological responses of other organs, including the heart. Longitudinal prospective cohort studies demonstrate that there is an association between moderate intake of the omega-6 PUFA linoleic acid and lower risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), most likely as a result of lower blood cholesterol concentration. Current evidence suggests that increasing intake of arachidonic acid (up to 1500 mg/day) has no adverse effect on platelet aggregation and blood clotting, immune function and markers of inflammation, but may benefit muscle and cognitive performance. Many studies show that higher intakes of omega-3 PUFAs, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are associated with a lower incidence of chronic diseases characterized by elevated inflammation, including CVDs. This is because of the multiple molecular and cellular actions of EPA and DHA. Intervention trials using EPA + DHA indicate benefit on CVD mortality and a significant inverse linear dose–response relationship has been found between EPA + DHA intake and CVD outcomes. In addition to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory roles, omega-3 fatty acids are considered to regulate platelet homeostasis and lower risk of thrombosis, which together indicate their potential use in COVID-19 therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fat and Human Health Outcomes)
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