Special Issue "Vitamin A: Dietary Intake and Bioavailability of Provitamin A Carotenoids and Retinol in Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Micronutrients and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Begoña Olmedilla-Alonso
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
CSIC - Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Alimentos y Nutricion (ICTAN), Madrid, Spain
Interests: carotenoids in the context diet and health / disease; fat-soluble vitamins; bioavailability; biomarkers
Dr. Elena Rodríguez Rodríguez
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Pharmacy faculty, Complutense University of Madrid
Interests: Biochemical analysis of nutritional status indicators

Special Issue Information

Vitamin A is an essential nutrient obtained through diet, either as retinol from animal products or as provitamin A carotenoids, although mainly from plant products. The contribution of the provitamin A carotenoids depends not only on the amounts of fruits and vegetables consumed and on their proportion with respect to retinol intake from animal sources, but also on the bioavailability and capacity of conversion into retinol of the carotenoids consumed.

The evaluation of the suitability of the diet or the risk associated with excessive or inadequate vitamin A intakes are based in the assessment of nutritional status, using biochemical markers (retinol in serum/plasma, the gold standard) or dietary estimation. Data on nutritional status based on food intake are highly useful for decision-making in the public health setting and in the context of epidemiological studies. However, its validity is limited for several reasons related to food intake assessment, and the way in which data are presented in the food composition table, as well as how vitamin A activity is measured (retinol equivalents, RE or retinol activity equivalents, RAE), among others. Current assumptions about RAE or RE provided for the major provitamin A dietary carotenoids (β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, α-carotene), based on its bioavailability from foods, consider β-carotene as major contributor to the vitamin A intake and that the other two provitamin A carotenoids have the same bioavailability and potential for conversion to retinol, which is half that of β-carotene. However, there is a growing research showing that the use of RAE or RE could lead to the underestimation of the contribution of β-cryptoxanthin and of α-carotene. Among them, there are intervention studies involving foods rich in β-cryptoxanthin that lead to better serum retinol responses than β-carotene supplements and also bioaccessibity studies in which β-cryptoxanthin seems to be more efficiently absorbed and converted into retinol than the carotenes (depending on the type of food).

The aim of this Special Issue is to encourage the submission of original research or reviews of scientific literature on the intake of vitamin A broken down into its different components (retinol, β-carotene, α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin) in representative groups, as well as on studies to assess the bioavailability and the capacity of conversion into retinol that could contribute to answer the question of whether expressions of vitamin A intake in terms of RAE or RE reflect its dietary intake in the population.

Dr. Begoña Olmedilla-Alonso
Dr. Elena Rodríguez-Rodríguez
Guest Editors

 

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • provitamin-A carotenoids
  • bioavailability from food and food supplements
  • bioaccessibility
  • bioconversion
  • human health
  • nutritional status
  • dietary markers

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Dietary β-Cryptoxanthin and α-Carotene Have Greater Apparent Bioavailability Than β-Carotene in Subjects from Countries with Different Dietary Patterns
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2639; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092639 - 29 Aug 2020
Abstract
β-carotene, α-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin are greater contributors to vitamin A intake than retinol in the human diet for most people around the world. Their contribution depends on several factors, including bioavailability and capacity of conversion into retinol. There is an increasing body of [...] Read more.
β-carotene, α-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin are greater contributors to vitamin A intake than retinol in the human diet for most people around the world. Their contribution depends on several factors, including bioavailability and capacity of conversion into retinol. There is an increasing body of research showing that the use of retinol activity equivalents or retinol equivalents could lead to the underestimation of the contribution of β-cryptoxanthin and of α-carotene. The aim is to assess their apparent bioavailability by comparing concentrations in blood to their dietary intakes and identifying the major food contributors to their dietary intake. Dietary intake (3-day 24-h records) and serum concentrations (by HPLC) were calculated in normolipemic subjects with adequate retinol status (≥1.1 µmol/L) from our studies (n = 633) and apparent bioavailability calculated from 22 other studies (n = 29,700). Apparent bioavailability was calculated as the ratio of concentration in the blood to carotenoid intake. Apparent bioavailabilities for α-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin were compared to those for β-carotene. Eating comparable amounts of α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene foods resulted in 55% greater α-carotene (95% CI 35, 90) and 686% higher β-cryptoxanthin (95% CI 556, 1016) concentrations than β-carotene in blood. This suggests differences in the apparent bioavailability of α-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin and even larger differences with β-cryptoxanthin, greater than that of β-carotene. Four fruits (tomato, orange, tangerine, red pepper) and two vegetables (carrot, spinach) are the main contributors to their dietary intake (>50%) in Europeans. Full article
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