Special Issue "Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Macronutrients and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Alessandra Bordoni
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agro-Food Sciences and Technologies (DISTAL), University of Bologna, piazza Goidanich, 60, 47521 Cesena (FC), Italy
Interests: human nutrition; nutritional biochemistry; fatty acids; in vitro digestion; bioavailability; nutrigenomics; bioactive compounds
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dietary lipids are important for human health, providing not only caloric energy, but also taking part in vital cellular functions. While saturated (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) can be synthesized de novo, two polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), namely linolenic (LA) and alpha-linolenic (ALA) acid, must be obtained via dietary intake. LA and ALA are then metabolized to longer and more unsaturated n-6 and n-3 PUFAs, respectively. Since endogenous conversion is not sufficient, an adequate amount of PUFAs must be introduced with the diet.

Dietary PUFAs, especially n-3 PUFAs, are important for human health. High fat consumption and high ratios of n-6/n-3 PUFAs are associated with an increased incidence of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Although an adequate intake has been estimated for n-6 and n-3 PUFAs, many factors contribute to the difference in response to the diet—among others, the genetic background that influences dietary lipid absorption and metabolism, the gut microenvironment, and the bioavailability of fatty acids embedded in different food matrices.

This Special Issue invites comprehensive reviews, clinical trials, epidemiological analyses, and studies employing cell and animal models that further elucidate the relationship between dietary intake of PUFAs and human health.

Prof. Dr. Alessandra Bordoni
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Polyunsaturated fatty acids
  • Dietary lipids
  • Bioavailability
  • Nutrigenetics
  • Nutrigenomics
  • Human health

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
The Role of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Different Sources in Bone Development
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3494; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113494 - 13 Nov 2020
Abstract
N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential nutrients that must be obtained from the diet. We have previously showed that endogenous n-3 PUFAs contribute to skeletal development and bone quality in fat-1 mice. Unlike other mammals, these transgenic mice, carry the n-3 desaturase [...] Read more.
N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential nutrients that must be obtained from the diet. We have previously showed that endogenous n-3 PUFAs contribute to skeletal development and bone quality in fat-1 mice. Unlike other mammals, these transgenic mice, carry the n-3 desaturase gene and thus can convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs endogenously. Since this model does not mimic dietary exposure to n-3 PUFAs, diets rich in fish and flaxseed oils were used to further elucidate the role of n-3 PUFAs in bone development. Our investigation reveals that dietary n-3 PUFAs decrease fat accumulation in the liver, lower serum fat levels, and alter fatty acid (FA) content in liver and serum. Bone analyses show that n-3 PUFAs improve mechanical properties, which were measured using a three-point bending test, but exert complex effects on bone structure that vary according to its source. In a micro-CT analysis, we found that the flaxseed oil diet improves trabecular bone micro-architecture, whereas the fish oil diet promotes higher bone mineral density (BMD) with no effect on trabecular bone. The transcriptome characterization of bone by RNA-seq identified regulatory mechanisms of n-3 PUFAs via modulation of the cell cycle and peripheral circadian rhythm genes. These results extend our knowledge and provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of bone remodeling regulation induced by different sources of dietary n-3 PUFAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Omega-3 Source Effect on the Fatty Acid Profile of Intramuscular and Perimuscular Fat—Preliminary Study on a Rat Model
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3382; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113382 - 04 Nov 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Fatty acids from the omega-3 family are an important element of both human and animal diets. Their activity involves a range of functions for the functioning of a whole organism, and their presence in animal diets can be considered as a means for [...] Read more.
Fatty acids from the omega-3 family are an important element of both human and animal diets. Their activity involves a range of functions for the functioning of a whole organism, and their presence in animal diets can be considered as a means for animal origin product enrichment for human benefit or as compounds profitable for an animal’s health status. The aim of this preliminary study was to compare the effect of supplements rich in omega-3 fatty acids (linseed oil, linseed oil ethyl esters, and fish oil) in rat feed on the fatty acid profile of their intramuscular and perimuscular fat. The results demonstrated beneficial changes in fatty acid profiles (a decrease in saturated acids, an increase in unsaturated ones, i.e., omega-3 acids share) of examined tissues in the case of all supplements however, particular attention should be paid to linseed oil ethyl esters, which significantly increased the content of all omega-3 acids. Supplementation of animal diet with linseed oil ethyl esters may be beneficial for both animals, as omega-3 fatty acids exhibit profitable properties related to an animal’s health status and productivity, and humans who consume such enriched products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Co-Administration of Propionate or Protocatechuic Acid Does Not Affect DHA-Specific Transcriptional Effects on Lipid Metabolism in Cultured Hepatic Cells
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 2952; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12102952 - 26 Sep 2020
Abstract
Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) are collectively recognized triglyceride-lowering agents, and their preventive action is likely mediated by changes in gene expression. However, as most studies employ fish oil, which contains a mixture of n-3 LC-PUFAs, the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-specific transcriptional [...] Read more.
Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) are collectively recognized triglyceride-lowering agents, and their preventive action is likely mediated by changes in gene expression. However, as most studies employ fish oil, which contains a mixture of n-3 LC-PUFAs, the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-specific transcriptional effects on lipid metabolism are still unclear. The aim of the present study was to further elucidate the DHA-induced transcriptional effects on lipid metabolism in the liver, and to investigate the effects of co-administration with other bioactive compounds having effects on lipid metabolism. To this purpose, HepG2 cells were treated for 6 or 24 h with DHA, the short-chain fatty acid propionate (PRO), and protocatechuic acid (PCA), the main human metabolite of cyanidin-glucosides. Following supplementation, we mapped the global transcriptional changes. PRO and PCA alone had a very slight effect on the transcriptome; on the contrary, supplementation of DHA highly repressed the steroid and fatty acid biosynthesis pathways, this transcriptional modulation being not affected by co-supplementation. Our results confirm that DHA effect on lipid metabolism are mediated at least in part by modulation of the expression of specific genes. PRO and PCA could contribute to counteracting dyslipidemia through other mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Antimicrobial Activity of EPA and DHA against Oral Pathogenic Bacteria Using an In Vitro Multi-Species Subgingival Biofilm Model
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2812; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092812 - 14 Sep 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
In search for natural products with antimicrobial properties for use in the prevention and treatment of periodontitis, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of two omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), using an in [...] Read more.
In search for natural products with antimicrobial properties for use in the prevention and treatment of periodontitis, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of two omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), using an in vitro multi-species subgingival biofilm model including Streptococcus oralis, Actinomyces naeslundii, Veillonella parvula, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The antimicrobial activities of EPA and DHA extracts (100 µM) and the respective controls were assessed on 72 h biofilms by their submersion onto discs for 60 s. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). ANOVA with Bonferroni correction was used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of each of the fatty acids. Both DHA and EPA significantly reduced (p < 0.001 in all cases) the bacterial strains used in this biofilm model. The results with CLSM were consistent with those reported with qPCR. Structural damage was evidenced by SEM in some of the observed bacteria. It was concluded that both DHA and EPA have significant antimicrobial activity against the six bacterial species included in this biofilm model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids EPA and DHA as an Adjunct to Non-Surgical Treatment of Periodontitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2614; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092614 - 27 Aug 2020
Abstract
Periodontitis is a chronic multifactorial inflammatory disease that leads to the loss of supportive tissues around the teeth with gradual deterioration of masticatory function and esthetics, resulting eventually in the decrease of the life quality. Host immune response triggered by bacterial biofilm is [...] Read more.
Periodontitis is a chronic multifactorial inflammatory disease that leads to the loss of supportive tissues around the teeth with gradual deterioration of masticatory function and esthetics, resulting eventually in the decrease of the life quality. Host immune response triggered by bacterial biofilm is responsible for the chronic periodontal inflammation and ongoing tissue loss. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have anti-inflammatory properties, thus may be used for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with omega-3 PUFA in the patients with stage III and IV periodontitis. Thirty otherwise healthy patients were treated with scaling and root planning (SRP). In the test group (n = 16), patients were additionally supplemented with 2.6 g of EPA and 1.8 g of DHA. In the control group (n = 14), patients received only SRP. Periodontal examination was performed at baseline and three months following initial therapy. Salivary samples were taken twice at baseline and at the end of the experiment. We found that there was a statistically significant reduction in the bleeding on probing (BOP) and improvement of clinical attachment loss (CAL) at three months in the test group compared to the control group. Moreover, a statistically significant higher percentage of closed pockets (probing depth ≤ 4 mm without BOP) was achieved in the test group vs. control group after three months of treatment. Accordingly, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-17 were markedly lower, while the level of anti-inflammatory IL-10 was significantly higher in the salivary samples of the patients supplemented with omega-3 PUFA at three months in comparison to the patients treated with SRP alone. Our findings demonstrate that dietary intervention with high-dose of omega-3 PUFA during non-surgical therapy may have potential benefits in the management of periodontitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary n-6/n-3 Ratio Influences Brain Fatty Acid Composition in Adult Rats
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1847; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061847 - 21 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
There is mounting evidence that diets supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) can impact brain biology and functions. This study investigated whether moderately high-fat diets differing in n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio could impact fatty acid composition in regions of the [...] Read more.
There is mounting evidence that diets supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) can impact brain biology and functions. This study investigated whether moderately high-fat diets differing in n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio could impact fatty acid composition in regions of the brain linked to various psychopathologies. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats consumed isocaloric diets (35% kcal from fat) containing different ratios of linoleic acid (n-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (n-3) for 2 months. It was found that the profiles of PUFA in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus reflected the fatty acid composition of the diet. In addition, region-specific changes in saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids were detected in the hypothalamus, but not in the hippocampus or prefrontal cortex. This study in adult rats demonstrates that fatty acid remodeling in the brain by diet can occur within months and provides additional evidence for the suggestion that diet could impact mental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Plasma Trans Fatty Acid Levels, Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Lifestyle: Results from the Akershus Cardiac Examination 1950 Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1419; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051419 - 14 May 2020
Abstract
Intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (iTFAs) has previously been associated with dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hypertension and inflammation, as well as increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. iTFA intake declined in Norway after the introduction of legislative bans against iTFA consumption. However, [...] Read more.
Intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (iTFAs) has previously been associated with dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hypertension and inflammation, as well as increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. iTFA intake declined in Norway after the introduction of legislative bans against iTFA consumption. However, the relationship between the current iTFA intake and CV health is unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between current iTFA intake, reflected by plasma iTFA levels, and established CV risk factors. We also examined the associations between plasma ruminant TFA levels and CV risk factors. In this cross-sectional study, we included 3706 participants from a Norwegian general population, born in 1950 and residing in Akershus County, Norway. The statistical method was multivariable linear regression. Plasma iTFA levels were inversely associated with serum triglycerides (p < 0.001), fasting plasma glucose (p < 0.001), body mass index (p < 0.001), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.001 and p = 0.03) and C-reactive protein (p = 0.001). Furthermore, high plasma iTFA levels were associated with higher education and less smoking and alcohol consumption. We found that plasma ruminant trans fatty acids (rTFA) levels were favorably associated with CV risk factors. Furthermore, plasma iTFA levels were inversely associated with CV risk factors. However, our results might have been driven by lifestyle factors. Overall, our findings suggest that the current low intake of iTFAs in Norway does not constitute a threat to CV health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Omega-3 Eicosapentaenoic Acid Versus Docosahexaenoic Acid-Rich Fish Oil Supplementation on Plasma Lipids and Lipoproteins in Normolipidemic Adults
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 749; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030749 - 12 Mar 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Background: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have both shared and different cardiovascular effects, and commonly used fish oil supplements have considerably varied EPA/DHA ratios. Aims: We compared the effects of fish oil supplements with different EPA/DHA ratios on lipoprotein metabolism. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have both shared and different cardiovascular effects, and commonly used fish oil supplements have considerably varied EPA/DHA ratios. Aims: We compared the effects of fish oil supplements with different EPA/DHA ratios on lipoprotein metabolism. Methods: In a double-blind, randomized cross-over study, normolipidemic adults (n = 30) consumed 12 g/day of EPA-rich (EPA/DHA: 2.3) or DHA-rich (EPA/DHA: 0.3) fish oil for 8-weeks, separated by an 8-week washout period. Results: Both fish oil supplements similarly lowered plasma TG levels and TG-related NMR parameters versus baseline (p < 0.05). There were no changes in plasma cholesterol-related parameters due to either fish oil, although on-treatment levels for LDL particle number were slightly higher for DHA-rich oil compared with EPA-rich oil (p < 0.05). Both fish oil supplements similarly altered HDL subclass profile and proteome, and down regulated HDL proteins related to inflammation, with EPA-rich oil to a greater extent. Furthermore, EPA-rich oil increased apoM abundance versus DHA-rich oil (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Overall, fish oil supplements with varied EPA/DHA ratios had similar effects on total lipids/lipoproteins, but differences were observed in lipoprotein subfraction composition and distribution, which could impact on the use of EPA versus DHA for improving cardiovascular health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Increased Cellular Uptake of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Phytosterols from Natural Micellar Oil
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010150 - 05 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The transport of hydrophobic compounds to recipient cells is a critical step in nutrient supplementation. Here, we tested the effect of phospholipid-based emulsification on the uptake of hydrophobic compounds into various tissue culture cell lines. In particular, the uptake of ω-3 fatty acids [...] Read more.
The transport of hydrophobic compounds to recipient cells is a critical step in nutrient supplementation. Here, we tested the effect of phospholipid-based emulsification on the uptake of hydrophobic compounds into various tissue culture cell lines. In particular, the uptake of ω-3 fatty acids from micellar or nonmicellar algae oil into cell models for enterocytes, epithelial cells, and adipocytes was tested. Micellization of algae oil did not result in adverse effects on cell viability in the target cells. In general, both micellar and nonmicellar oil increased intracellular docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels. However, micellar oil was more effective in terms of augmenting the intracellular levels of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) than nonmicellar oil. These effects were rather conserved throughout the cells tested, indicating that fatty acids from micellar oils are enriched by mechanisms independent of lipases or lipid transporters. Importantly, the positive effect of emulsification was not restricted to the uptake of fatty acids. Instead, the uptake of phytosterols from phytogenic oils into target cells also increased after micellization. Taken together, phospholipid-based emulsification is a straightforward, effective, and safe approach to delivering hydrophobic nutrients, such as fatty acids or phytosterols, to a variety of cell types in vitro. It is proposed that this method of emulsification is suitable for the effective supplementation of numerous hydrophobic nutrients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of n-3 PUFA Binding Phosphatidylglycerol on Metabolic Syndrome-Related Parameters and n-3 PUFA Accretion in Diabetic/Obese KK-Ay Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2866; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122866 - 22 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acid binding phospholipids (n-3 PUFA-PLs) are known to be potent carriers of n-3 PUFAs and provide health benefits. We previously prepared n-3 PUFA binding phosphatidylglycerol (n-3 PUFA-PG) by phospholipase D-mediated transphosphatidylation. Because PG [...] Read more.
n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acid binding phospholipids (n-3 PUFA-PLs) are known to be potent carriers of n-3 PUFAs and provide health benefits. We previously prepared n-3 PUFA binding phosphatidylglycerol (n-3 PUFA-PG) by phospholipase D-mediated transphosphatidylation. Because PG has excellent emulsifiability, n-3 PUFA-PG is expected to work as a functional molecule with properties of both PG and n-3 PUFAs. In the present study, the health benefits and tissue accretion of dietary n-3 PUFA-PG were examined in diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice. After a feeding duration over 30 days, n-3 PUFA-PG significantly reduced the total and non-HDL cholesterols in the serum of diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice. In the mice fed n-3 PUFA-PG, but not n-3 PUFA-TAG, hepatic lipid content was markedly alleviated depending on the neutral lipid reduction compared with the SoyPC-fed mice. Further, the n-3 PUFA-PG diet increased eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and reduced arachidonic acid in the small intestine, liver, perirenal white adipose tissue, and brain, and the ratio of the n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs in those tissues became lower compared to the SoyPC-fed mice. Especially, the DHA level was more significantly elevated in the brains of n-3 PUFA-PG-fed mice compared to the SoyPC-fed mice, whereas n-3 PUFA-TAG did not significantly alter DHA in the brain. The present results indicate that n-3 PUFA-PG is a functional lipid for reducing serum and liver lipids and is able to supply n-3 PUFAs to KK-Ay mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Single-Dose SDA-Rich Echium Oil Increases Plasma EPA, DPAn3, and DHA Concentrations
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2346; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102346 - 02 Oct 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The omega-3 (n3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are associated with health benefits. The primary dietary source of EPA and DHA is seafood. Alpha-linoleic acid (ALA) has not been shown to be a good source [...] Read more.
The omega-3 (n3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are associated with health benefits. The primary dietary source of EPA and DHA is seafood. Alpha-linoleic acid (ALA) has not been shown to be a good source for EPA and DHA; however, stearidonic acid (SDA)—which is naturally contained in echium oil (EO)—may be a more promising alternative. This study was aimed at investigating the short-term n3 PUFA metabolism after the ingestion of a single dose of EO. Healthy young male subjects (n = 12) ingested a single dose of 26 g of EO after overnight fasting. Plasma fatty acid concentrations and relative amounts were determined at baseline and 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, 48, and 72 h after the ingestion of EO. During the whole examination period, the participants received standardized nutrition. Plasma ALA and SDA concentrations increased rapidly after the single dose of EO. Additionally, EPA and DPAn3 concentrations both increased significantly by 47% after 72 h compared to baseline; DHA concentrations also significantly increased by 21% after 72 h. To conclude, EO increases plasma ALA, SDA, EPA, DPAn3, and DHA concentrations and may be an alternative source for these n3 PUFAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Human Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Expert Opinion on Benefits of Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids (DHA and EPA) in Aging and Clinical Nutrition
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2555; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092555 - 24 Aug 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Life expectancy is increasing and so is the prevalence of age-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Consequently, older people and patients present with multi-morbidities and more complex needs, putting significant pressure on healthcare systems. Effective nutrition interventions could be an important tool to address patient [...] Read more.
Life expectancy is increasing and so is the prevalence of age-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Consequently, older people and patients present with multi-morbidities and more complex needs, putting significant pressure on healthcare systems. Effective nutrition interventions could be an important tool to address patient needs, improve clinical outcomes and reduce healthcare costs. Inflammation plays a central role in NCDs, so targeting it is relevant to disease prevention and treatment. The long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 LCPUFAs) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are known to reduce inflammation and promote its resolution, suggesting a beneficial role in various therapeutic areas. An expert group reviewed the data on omega-3 LCPUFAs in specific patient populations and medical conditions. Evidence for benefits in cognitive health, age- and disease-related decline in muscle mass, cancer treatment, surgical patients and critical illness was identified. Use of DHA and EPA in some conditions is already included in some relevant guidelines. However, it is important to note that data on the effects of omega-3 LCPUFAs are still inconsistent in many areas (e.g., cognitive decline) due to a range of factors that vary amongst the trials performed to date; these factors include dose, timing and duration; baseline omega-3 LCPUFA status; and intake of other nutrients. Well-designed intervention studies are required to optimize the effects of DHA and EPA in specific patient populations and to develop more personalized strategies for their use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
The Effects of Linoleic Acid Consumption on Lipid Risk Markers for Cardiovascular Disease in Healthy Individuals: A Review of Human Intervention Trials
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2329; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082329 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Risk factors for developing this disease include high serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoproteins, very-low density lipoproteins, and low concentrations of high-density lipoproteins. One proposed dietary strategy for decreasing risk factors [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Risk factors for developing this disease include high serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoproteins, very-low density lipoproteins, and low concentrations of high-density lipoproteins. One proposed dietary strategy for decreasing risk factors involves replacing a portion of dietary saturated fatty acids with mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The essential omega-6 PUFA, linoleic acid (LA), is suggested to decrease the risk for CVD by affecting these lipid risk markers. Reviewing human intervention trials will provide further evidence of the effects of LA consumption on risk factors for CVD. PubMed was used to search for peer-reviewed articles. The purpose of this review was: (1) To summarize human intervention trials that studied the effects of LA consumption on lipid risk markers for CVD in healthy individuals, (2) to provide mechanistic details, and (3) to provide recommendations regarding the consumption of LA to decrease the lipid risk markers for CVD. The results from this review provided evidence that LA consumption decreases CVD lipid risk markers in healthy individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Human Health)
Open AccessReview
Could Omega 3 Fatty Acids Preserve Muscle Health in Rheumatoid Arthritis?
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010223 - 15 Jan 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by a high prevalence of death due to cardiometabolic diseases. As observed during the aging process, several comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disorders (CVD), insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and sarcopenia, are frequently associated to RA. [...] Read more.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by a high prevalence of death due to cardiometabolic diseases. As observed during the aging process, several comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disorders (CVD), insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and sarcopenia, are frequently associated to RA. These abnormalities could be closely linked to alterations in lipid metabolism. Indeed, RA patients exhibit a lipid paradox, defined by reduced levels of total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol whereas the CVD risk is increased. Moreover, the accumulation of toxic lipid mediators (i.e., lipotoxicity) in skeletal muscles can induce mitochondrial dysfunctions and insulin resistance, which are both crucial determinants of CVD and sarcopenia. The prevention or reversion of these biological perturbations in RA patients could contribute to the maintenance of muscle health and thus be protective against the increased risk for cardiometabolic diseases, dysmobility and mortality. Yet, several studies have shown that omega 3 fatty acids (FA) could prevent the development of RA, improve muscle metabolism and limit muscle atrophy in obese and insulin-resistant subjects. Thereby, dietary supplementation with omega 3 FA should be a promising strategy to counteract muscle lipotoxicity and for the prevention of comorbidities in RA patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Human Health)
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