Special Issue "Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Macronutrients and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Alessandra Bordoni
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agro-Food Sciences and Technologies (DISTAL), University of Bologna, piazza Goidanich, 60, 47521 Cesena (FC), Italy
Interests: human nutrition; nutritional biochemistry; fatty acids; in vitro digestion; bioavailability; nutrigenomics; bioactive compounds
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dietary lipids are important for human health, providing not only caloric energy, but also taking part in vital cellular functions. While saturated (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) can be synthesized de novo, two polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), namely linolenic (LA) and alpha-linolenic (ALA) acid, must be obtained via dietary intake. LA and ALA are then metabolized to longer and more unsaturated n-6 and n-3 PUFAs, respectively. Since endogenous conversion is not sufficient, an adequate amount of PUFAs must be introduced with the diet.

Dietary PUFAs, especially n-3 PUFAs, are important for human health. High fat consumption and high ratios of n-6/n-3 PUFAs are associated with an increased incidence of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Although an adequate intake has been estimated for n-6 and n-3 PUFAs, many factors contribute to the difference in response to the diet—among others, the genetic background that influences dietary lipid absorption and metabolism, the gut microenvironment, and the bioavailability of fatty acids embedded in different food matrices.

This Special Issue invites comprehensive reviews, clinical trials, epidemiological analyses, and studies employing cell and animal models that further elucidate the relationship between dietary intake of PUFAs and human health.

Prof. Dr. Alessandra Bordoni
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Polyunsaturated fatty acids
  • Dietary lipids
  • Bioavailability
  • Nutrigenetics
  • Nutrigenomics
  • Human health

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Increased Cellular Uptake of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Phytosterols from Natural Micellar Oil
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010150 - 05 Jan 2020
Abstract
The transport of hydrophobic compounds to recipient cells is a critical step in nutrient supplementation. Here, we tested the effect of phospholipid-based emulsification on the uptake of hydrophobic compounds into various tissue culture cell lines. In particular, the uptake of ω-3 fatty acids [...] Read more.
The transport of hydrophobic compounds to recipient cells is a critical step in nutrient supplementation. Here, we tested the effect of phospholipid-based emulsification on the uptake of hydrophobic compounds into various tissue culture cell lines. In particular, the uptake of ω-3 fatty acids from micellar or nonmicellar algae oil into cell models for enterocytes, epithelial cells, and adipocytes was tested. Micellization of algae oil did not result in adverse effects on cell viability in the target cells. In general, both micellar and nonmicellar oil increased intracellular docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels. However, micellar oil was more effective in terms of augmenting the intracellular levels of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) than nonmicellar oil. These effects were rather conserved throughout the cells tested, indicating that fatty acids from micellar oils are enriched by mechanisms independent of lipases or lipid transporters. Importantly, the positive effect of emulsification was not restricted to the uptake of fatty acids. Instead, the uptake of phytosterols from phytogenic oils into target cells also increased after micellization. Taken together, phospholipid-based emulsification is a straightforward, effective, and safe approach to delivering hydrophobic nutrients, such as fatty acids or phytosterols, to a variety of cell types in vitro. It is proposed that this method of emulsification is suitable for the effective supplementation of numerous hydrophobic nutrients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of n-3 PUFA Binding Phosphatidylglycerol on Metabolic Syndrome-Related Parameters and n-3 PUFA Accretion in Diabetic/Obese KK-Ay Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2866; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122866 - 22 Nov 2019
Abstract
n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acid binding phospholipids (n-3 PUFA-PLs) are known to be potent carriers of n-3 PUFAs and provide health benefits. We previously prepared n-3 PUFA binding phosphatidylglycerol (n-3 PUFA-PG) by phospholipase D-mediated transphosphatidylation. Because PG [...] Read more.
n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acid binding phospholipids (n-3 PUFA-PLs) are known to be potent carriers of n-3 PUFAs and provide health benefits. We previously prepared n-3 PUFA binding phosphatidylglycerol (n-3 PUFA-PG) by phospholipase D-mediated transphosphatidylation. Because PG has excellent emulsifiability, n-3 PUFA-PG is expected to work as a functional molecule with properties of both PG and n-3 PUFAs. In the present study, the health benefits and tissue accretion of dietary n-3 PUFA-PG were examined in diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice. After a feeding duration over 30 days, n-3 PUFA-PG significantly reduced the total and non-HDL cholesterols in the serum of diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice. In the mice fed n-3 PUFA-PG, but not n-3 PUFA-TAG, hepatic lipid content was markedly alleviated depending on the neutral lipid reduction compared with the SoyPC-fed mice. Further, the n-3 PUFA-PG diet increased eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and reduced arachidonic acid in the small intestine, liver, perirenal white adipose tissue, and brain, and the ratio of the n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs in those tissues became lower compared to the SoyPC-fed mice. Especially, the DHA level was more significantly elevated in the brains of n-3 PUFA-PG-fed mice compared to the SoyPC-fed mice, whereas n-3 PUFA-TAG did not significantly alter DHA in the brain. The present results indicate that n-3 PUFA-PG is a functional lipid for reducing serum and liver lipids and is able to supply n-3 PUFAs to KK-Ay mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Single-Dose SDA-Rich Echium Oil Increases Plasma EPA, DPAn3, and DHA Concentrations
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2346; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102346 - 02 Oct 2019
Abstract
The omega-3 (n3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are associated with health benefits. The primary dietary source of EPA and DHA is seafood. Alpha-linoleic acid (ALA) has not been shown to be a good source [...] Read more.
The omega-3 (n3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are associated with health benefits. The primary dietary source of EPA and DHA is seafood. Alpha-linoleic acid (ALA) has not been shown to be a good source for EPA and DHA; however, stearidonic acid (SDA)—which is naturally contained in echium oil (EO)—may be a more promising alternative. This study was aimed at investigating the short-term n3 PUFA metabolism after the ingestion of a single dose of EO. Healthy young male subjects (n = 12) ingested a single dose of 26 g of EO after overnight fasting. Plasma fatty acid concentrations and relative amounts were determined at baseline and 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, 48, and 72 h after the ingestion of EO. During the whole examination period, the participants received standardized nutrition. Plasma ALA and SDA concentrations increased rapidly after the single dose of EO. Additionally, EPA and DPAn3 concentrations both increased significantly by 47% after 72 h compared to baseline; DHA concentrations also significantly increased by 21% after 72 h. To conclude, EO increases plasma ALA, SDA, EPA, DPAn3, and DHA concentrations and may be an alternative source for these n3 PUFAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Human Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Could Omega 3 Fatty Acids Preserve Muscle Health in Rheumatoid Arthritis?
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010223 - 15 Jan 2020
Abstract
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by a high prevalence of death due to cardiometabolic diseases. As observed during the aging process, several comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disorders (CVD), insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and sarcopenia, are frequently associated to RA. [...] Read more.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by a high prevalence of death due to cardiometabolic diseases. As observed during the aging process, several comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disorders (CVD), insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and sarcopenia, are frequently associated to RA. These abnormalities could be closely linked to alterations in lipid metabolism. Indeed, RA patients exhibit a lipid paradox, defined by reduced levels of total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol whereas the CVD risk is increased. Moreover, the accumulation of toxic lipid mediators (i.e., lipotoxicity) in skeletal muscles can induce mitochondrial dysfunctions and insulin resistance, which are both crucial determinants of CVD and sarcopenia. The prevention or reversion of these biological perturbations in RA patients could contribute to the maintenance of muscle health and thus be protective against the increased risk for cardiometabolic diseases, dysmobility and mortality. Yet, several studies have shown that omega 3 fatty acids (FA) could prevent the development of RA, improve muscle metabolism and limit muscle atrophy in obese and insulin-resistant subjects. Thereby, dietary supplementation with omega 3 FA should be a promising strategy to counteract muscle lipotoxicity and for the prevention of comorbidities in RA patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Human Health)
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