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Open AccessArticle

Increased Cellular Uptake of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Phytosterols from Natural Micellar Oil

1
Center of Excellence Food Technology and Nutrition, University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, 4600 Wels, Austria
2
Austrian Competence Center for Feed and Food Quality, Safety and Innovation, 4600 Wels, Austria
3
Institute for Chemical Technology of Organic Materials, Johannes Kepler University, 4040 Linz, Austria
4
PM International AG, 15 Wäistrooss Schengen, Luxembourg 5445, Luxembourg
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010150
Received: 14 November 2019 / Revised: 16 December 2019 / Accepted: 3 January 2020 / Published: 5 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Human Health)
The transport of hydrophobic compounds to recipient cells is a critical step in nutrient supplementation. Here, we tested the effect of phospholipid-based emulsification on the uptake of hydrophobic compounds into various tissue culture cell lines. In particular, the uptake of ω-3 fatty acids from micellar or nonmicellar algae oil into cell models for enterocytes, epithelial cells, and adipocytes was tested. Micellization of algae oil did not result in adverse effects on cell viability in the target cells. In general, both micellar and nonmicellar oil increased intracellular docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels. However, micellar oil was more effective in terms of augmenting the intracellular levels of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) than nonmicellar oil. These effects were rather conserved throughout the cells tested, indicating that fatty acids from micellar oils are enriched by mechanisms independent of lipases or lipid transporters. Importantly, the positive effect of emulsification was not restricted to the uptake of fatty acids. Instead, the uptake of phytosterols from phytogenic oils into target cells also increased after micellization. Taken together, phospholipid-based emulsification is a straightforward, effective, and safe approach to delivering hydrophobic nutrients, such as fatty acids or phytosterols, to a variety of cell types in vitro. It is proposed that this method of emulsification is suitable for the effective supplementation of numerous hydrophobic nutrients. View Full-Text
Keywords: Micellization; algae oil; DHA; PUFAs; phytosterols; fatty acid; cellular uptake Micellization; algae oil; DHA; PUFAs; phytosterols; fatty acid; cellular uptake
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Röhrl, C.; Stübl, F.; Maier, M.; Schwarzinger, B.; Schwarzinger, C.; Pitsch, J.; Lanzerstorfer, P.; Iken, M.; Weghuber, J. Increased Cellular Uptake of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Phytosterols from Natural Micellar Oil. Nutrients 2020, 12, 150.

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