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Could Omega 3 Fatty Acids Preserve Muscle Health in Rheumatoid Arthritis?

1
Université Clermont Auvergne, INRAE, Unité de Nutrition Humaine (UNH), 28 Place Henri Dunant—BP 38, UFR Médecine, UMR1019, 63009 Clermont-Ferrand, France
2
CHU de Clermont-Ferrand, Service de rhumatologie, 63003 Clermont-Ferrand, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010223
Received: 13 November 2019 / Revised: 23 December 2019 / Accepted: 10 January 2020 / Published: 15 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Human Health)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by a high prevalence of death due to cardiometabolic diseases. As observed during the aging process, several comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disorders (CVD), insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and sarcopenia, are frequently associated to RA. These abnormalities could be closely linked to alterations in lipid metabolism. Indeed, RA patients exhibit a lipid paradox, defined by reduced levels of total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol whereas the CVD risk is increased. Moreover, the accumulation of toxic lipid mediators (i.e., lipotoxicity) in skeletal muscles can induce mitochondrial dysfunctions and insulin resistance, which are both crucial determinants of CVD and sarcopenia. The prevention or reversion of these biological perturbations in RA patients could contribute to the maintenance of muscle health and thus be protective against the increased risk for cardiometabolic diseases, dysmobility and mortality. Yet, several studies have shown that omega 3 fatty acids (FA) could prevent the development of RA, improve muscle metabolism and limit muscle atrophy in obese and insulin-resistant subjects. Thereby, dietary supplementation with omega 3 FA should be a promising strategy to counteract muscle lipotoxicity and for the prevention of comorbidities in RA patients.
Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; cardiovascular diseases; muscle; lipids; omega 3 rheumatoid arthritis; cardiovascular diseases; muscle; lipids; omega 3
MDPI and ACS Style

Lanchais, K.; Capel, F.; Tournadre, A. Could Omega 3 Fatty Acids Preserve Muscle Health in Rheumatoid Arthritis? Nutrients 2020, 12, 223.

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