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Open AccessArticle

Plasma Trans Fatty Acid Levels, Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Lifestyle: Results from the Akershus Cardiac Examination 1950 Study

1
Department of Renal Medicine, Division of Medicine, Akershus University Hospital, 1478 Lørenskog, Norway
2
Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, 0315 Oslo, Norway
3
Division of Medicine, Akershus University Hospital, 1478 Lørenskog, Norway
4
Division of Research and Innovation, Akershus University Hospital, 1478 Lørenskog, Norway
5
Department of Medical Research, Bærum Hospital, Vestre Viken Hospital Trust, 3004 Drammen, Norway
6
Department of Cardiology, Aalborg University Hospital, 9100 Aalborg, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1419; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051419
Received: 29 April 2020 / Revised: 10 May 2020 / Accepted: 12 May 2020 / Published: 14 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Human Health)
Intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (iTFAs) has previously been associated with dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hypertension and inflammation, as well as increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. iTFA intake declined in Norway after the introduction of legislative bans against iTFA consumption. However, the relationship between the current iTFA intake and CV health is unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between current iTFA intake, reflected by plasma iTFA levels, and established CV risk factors. We also examined the associations between plasma ruminant TFA levels and CV risk factors. In this cross-sectional study, we included 3706 participants from a Norwegian general population, born in 1950 and residing in Akershus County, Norway. The statistical method was multivariable linear regression. Plasma iTFA levels were inversely associated with serum triglycerides (p < 0.001), fasting plasma glucose (p < 0.001), body mass index (p < 0.001), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.001 and p = 0.03) and C-reactive protein (p = 0.001). Furthermore, high plasma iTFA levels were associated with higher education and less smoking and alcohol consumption. We found that plasma ruminant trans fatty acids (rTFA) levels were favorably associated with CV risk factors. Furthermore, plasma iTFA levels were inversely associated with CV risk factors. However, our results might have been driven by lifestyle factors. Overall, our findings suggest that the current low intake of iTFAs in Norway does not constitute a threat to CV health. View Full-Text
Keywords: industrial trans fatty acids; ruminant trans fatty acids; cardiovascular health; legislative bans; cardiovascular risk factors industrial trans fatty acids; ruminant trans fatty acids; cardiovascular health; legislative bans; cardiovascular risk factors
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Chandra, A.; Lyngbakken, M.N.; Eide, I.A.; Røsjø, H.; Vigen, T.; Ihle-Hansen, H.; Orstad, E.B.; Rønning, O.M.; Berge, T.; Schmidt, E.B.; Tveit, A.; Omland, T.; Svensson, M. Plasma Trans Fatty Acid Levels, Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Lifestyle: Results from the Akershus Cardiac Examination 1950 Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1419.

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