Special Issue "Selected papers from the 1st International Food Bioactives and Health Conference 2016"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2017).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Maria Traka
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Guest Editor
Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7UA, UK
Prof. Dr. Alessandra Bordoni
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Guest Editor
Department of Agro-Food Sciences and Technologies (DISTAL), University of Bologna, piazza Goidanich, 60, 47521 Cesena (FC), Italy
Interests: human nutrition; nutritional biochemistry; fatty acids; in vitro digestion; bioavailability; nutrigenomics; bioactive compounds
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Paul Kroon
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Guest Editor
Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7UA, UK

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue contains a selection of papers presented at the 1st International Food Bioactives and Health Conference 2016 in Norwich, UK in September 2016. The Special Issue will highlight the following topics:

  1. Latest evidence of the beneficial effects of food bioactives in humans (Cardiometabolic health, brain health/cognitive function, cancer prevention and interception, gut health, etc.)
  2. Bioavailability and metabolism of food bioactives (Mechanisms of absorption and metabolism; Role of the gut flora; Quantification and profiling of bioactive metabolites)
  3. Inter-individual variation in response to food bioactives (Genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors affecting the absorption, metabolism and efficacy of food bioactives)
  4. Mechanisms of action (Latest research into underlying mechanisms, connecting bioactives with absorption/metabolism through to mechanisms both in and beyond the gut; Use of omics technologies and Identification of novel biomarkers; Novel models for mechanistic studies)
  5. Functional foods and health claims (Determining effective and safe doses, formulation and delivery, combination products; Health claim regulations, effects of regulations on industry innovation and consumers)
  6. Bioactive intakes and exposure, novel sources (New and improved methods of analysis for bioactives in foods; Novel sources of bioactives; Databases; New and improved methods for quantifying intakes/exposure including metabolomics approaches and modelling)

Dr. Maria Traka
Prof. Alessandra Bordoni
Dr. Paul Kroon
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Targeting Colorectal Cancer Proliferation, Stemness and Metastatic Potential Using Brassicaceae Extracts Enriched in Isothiocyanates: A 3D Cell Model-Based Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040368 - 10 Apr 2017
Cited by 20
Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) recurrence is often attributable to circulating tumor cells and/or cancer stem cells (CSCs) that resist to conventional therapies and foster tumor progression. Isothiocyanates (ITCs) derived from Brassicaceae vegetables have demonstrated anticancer effects in CRC, however little is known about their [...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) recurrence is often attributable to circulating tumor cells and/or cancer stem cells (CSCs) that resist to conventional therapies and foster tumor progression. Isothiocyanates (ITCs) derived from Brassicaceae vegetables have demonstrated anticancer effects in CRC, however little is known about their effect in CSCs and tumor initiation properties. Here we examined the effect of ITCs-enriched Brassicaceae extracts derived from watercress and broccoli in cell proliferation, CSC phenotype and metastasis using a previously developed three-dimensional HT29 cell model with CSC-like traits. Both extracts were phytochemically characterized and their antiproliferative effect in HT29 monolayers was explored. Next, we performed cell proliferation assays and flow cytometry analysis in HT29 spheroids treated with watercress and broccoli extracts and respective main ITCs, phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) and sulforaphane (SFN). Soft agar assays and relative quantitative expression analysis of stemness markers and Wnt/β-catenin signaling players were performed to evaluate the effect of these phytochemicals in stemness and metastasis. Our results showed that both Brassicaceae extracts and ITCs exert antiproliferative effects in HT29 spheroids, arresting cell cycle at G2/M, possibly due to ITC-induced DNA damage. Colony formation and expression of LGR5 and CD133 cancer stemness markers were significantly reduced. Only watercress extract and PEITC decreased ALDH1 activity in a dose-dependent manner, as well as β-catenin expression. Our research provides new insights on CRC therapy using ITC-enriched Brassicaceae extracts, specially watercress extract, to target CSCs and circulating tumor cells by impairing cell proliferation, ALDH1-mediated chemo-resistance, anoikis evasion, self-renewal and metastatic potential. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Regular Intake of Dry-Cured Ham Rich in Bioactive Peptides on Inflammation, Platelet and Monocyte Activation Markers in Humans
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040321 - 23 Mar 2017
Cited by 10
Abstract
Background and aims: Dietary studies have shown that active biopeptides provide protective health benefits, although the mediating pathways are somewhat uncertain. To throw light on this situation, we studied the effects of consuming Spanish dry-cured ham on platelet function, monocyte activation markers [...] Read more.
Background and aims: Dietary studies have shown that active biopeptides provide protective health benefits, although the mediating pathways are somewhat uncertain. To throw light on this situation, we studied the effects of consuming Spanish dry-cured ham on platelet function, monocyte activation markers and the inflammatory status of healthy humans with pre-hypertension. Methods: Thirty-eight healthy volunteers with systolic blood pressure of >125 mmHg were enrolled in a two-arm crossover randomized controlled trial. Participants received 80 g/day dry-cured pork ham of >11 months proteolysis or 100 g/day cooked ham (control product) for 4 weeks followed by a 2-week washout before “crossing over” to the other treatment for 4 more weeks. Soluble markers and cytokines were analyzed by ELISA. Platelet function was assessed by measuring P-selectin expression and PAC-1 binding after ADP (adenosine diphosphate) stimulation using whole blood flow cytometry. Monocyte markers of the pathological status (adhesion, inflammatory and scavenging receptors) were also measured by flow cytometry in the three monocyte subsets after the interventional period. Results: The mean differences between dry-cured ham and cooked ham followed by a time period adjustment for plasmatic P-selectin and interleukin 6 proteins slightly failed (p = 0.062 and p = 0.049, respectively), notably increased for MCP-1 levels (p = 0.023) while VCAM-1 was not affected. Platelet function also decreased after ADP stimulation. The expression of adhesion and scavenging markers (ICAM1R, CXCR4 and TLR4) in the three subsets of monocytes was significantly higher (all p < 0.05). Conclusions: The regular consumption of biopeptides contained in the dry-cured ham but absent in cooked ham impaired platelet and monocyte activation and the levels of plasmatic P-selectin, MCP-1 and interleukin 6 in healthy subjects. This study strongly suggests the existence of a mechanism that links dietary biopeptides and beneficial health effects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
eBASIS (Bioactive Substances in Food Information Systems) and Bioactive Intakes: Major Updates of the Bioactive Compound Composition and Beneficial Bioeffects Database and the Development of a Probabilistic Model to Assess Intakes in Europe
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040320 - 23 Mar 2017
Cited by 9
Abstract
eBASIS (Bioactive Substances in Food Information Systems), a web-based database that contains compositional and biological effects data for bioactive compounds of plant origin, has been updated with new data on fruits and vegetables, wheat and, due to some evidence of potential beneficial effects, [...] Read more.
eBASIS (Bioactive Substances in Food Information Systems), a web-based database that contains compositional and biological effects data for bioactive compounds of plant origin, has been updated with new data on fruits and vegetables, wheat and, due to some evidence of potential beneficial effects, extended to include meat bioactives. eBASIS remains one of only a handful of comprehensive and searchable databases, with up-to-date coherent and validated scientific information on the composition of food bioactives and their putative health benefits. The database has a user-friendly, efficient, and flexible interface facilitating use by both the scientific community and food industry. Overall, eBASIS contains data for 267 foods, covering the composition of 794 bioactive compounds, from 1147 quality-evaluated peer-reviewed publications, together with information from 567 publications describing beneficial bioeffect studies carried out in humans. This paper highlights recent updates and expansion of eBASIS and the newly-developed link to a probabilistic intake model, allowing exposure assessment of dietary bioactive compounds to be estimated and modelled in human populations when used in conjunction with national food consumption data. This new tool could assist small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the development of food product health claim dossiers for submission to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Absorption, Metabolism and Excretion of Cranberry (Poly)phenols in Humans: A Dose Response Study and Assessment of Inter-Individual Variability
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030268 - 11 Mar 2017
Cited by 19
Abstract
The beneficial health effects of cranberries have been attributed to their (poly)phenol content. Recent studies have investigated the absorption, metabolism and excretion of cranberry (poly)phenols; however, little is known about whether they follow a dose response in vivo at different levels of intake. [...] Read more.
The beneficial health effects of cranberries have been attributed to their (poly)phenol content. Recent studies have investigated the absorption, metabolism and excretion of cranberry (poly)phenols; however, little is known about whether they follow a dose response in vivo at different levels of intake. An acute double-blind randomized controlled trial in 10 healthy men with cranberry juices containing 409, 787, 1238, 1534 and 1910 mg total (poly)phenols was performed. Blood and urine were analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Sixty metabolites were identified in plasma and urine including cinnamic acids, dihydrocinnamic, flavonols, benzoic acids, phenylacetic acids, benzaldehydes, valerolactones, hippuric acids, catechols, and pyrogallols. Total plasma, but not excreted urinary (poly)phenol metabolites, exhibited a linear dose response (r2 = 0.74, p < 0.05), driven by caffeic acid 4-O-ß-d-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-ß-d-glucuronide, ferulic acid 4-O-ß-d-glucuronide, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid 3-O-ß-d-glucuronide, sinapic acid, ferulic acid 4-O-sulfate, 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid-4-O-sulfate, (4R)-5-(3′-hydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone-4′-O-sulfate, 4-methylgallic acid-3-O-sulfate, and isoferulic acid 3-O-sulfate (all r2 ≥ 0.89, p < 0.05). Inter-individual variability of the plasma metabolite concentration was broad and dependent on the metabolite. Herein, we show that specific plasma (poly)phenol metabolites are linearly related to the amount of (poly)phenols consumed in cranberry juice. The large inter-individual variation in metabolite profile may be due to variations in the gut microbiome. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Broccoli Alters Rat Cecal Microbiota to Improve Glucoraphanin Hydrolysis to Bioactive Isothiocyanates
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030262 - 10 Mar 2017
Cited by 12
Abstract
Broccoli consumption brings many health benefits, including reducing the risk of cancer and inflammatory diseases. The objectives of this study were to identify global alterations in the cecal microbiota composition using 16S rRNA sequencing analysis and glucoraphanin (GRP) hydrolysis to isothiocyanates ex vivo [...] Read more.
Broccoli consumption brings many health benefits, including reducing the risk of cancer and inflammatory diseases. The objectives of this study were to identify global alterations in the cecal microbiota composition using 16S rRNA sequencing analysis and glucoraphanin (GRP) hydrolysis to isothiocyanates ex vivo by the cecal microbiota, following different broccoli diets. Rats were randomized to consume AIN93G (control) or different broccoli diets; AIN93G plus cooked broccoli, a GRP-rich powder, raw broccoli, or myrosinase-treated cooked broccoli. Feeding raw or cooked broccoli for four days or longer both changed the cecal microbiota composition and caused a greater production of isothiocyanates ex vivo. A more than two-fold increase in NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 activity of the host colon mucosa after feeding cooked broccoli for seven days confirmed the positive health benefits. Further studies revealed that dietary GRP was specifically responsible for the increased microbial GRP hydrolysis ex vivo, whereas changes in the cecal microbial communities were attributed to other broccoli components. Interestingly, a three-day withdrawal from a raw broccoli diet reversed the increased microbial GRP hydrolysis ex vivo. Findings suggest that enhanced conversion of GRP to bioactive isothiocyanates by the cecal microbiota requires four or more days of broccoli consumption and is reversible. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Inhibition of VEGF-Induced VEGFR-2 Activation and HUVEC Migration by Melatonin and Other Bioactive Indolic Compounds
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030249 - 08 Mar 2017
Cited by 18
Abstract
Excessive concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) trigger angiogenesis, which causes complications such as the destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques and increased growth of tumors. This work focuses on the determination of the inhibitory activity of melatonin and other indolic related compounds on [...] Read more.
Excessive concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) trigger angiogenesis, which causes complications such as the destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques and increased growth of tumors. This work focuses on the determination of the inhibitory activity of melatonin and other indolic related compounds on VEGF-induced VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) activation and an approximation to the molecular mechanism underlying the inhibition. Quantification of phosphorylated VEGFR-2 was measured by ELISA. Migration wound-healing assay was used to determine cell migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). This is the first time that melatonin, 3-indolacetic acid, 5-hydroxytryptophol, and serotonin are proved to significantly inhibit VEGF-induced VEGFR-2 activation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and subsequent angiogenesis. 3-Indolacetic acid showed the highest inhibitory effect (IC50 value of 0.9704 mM), followed by 5-hydroxytryptophol (35% of inhibition at 0.1 mM), melatonin (30% of inhibition at 1 mM), and serotonin (24% of inhibition at 1 mM). An approximation to the molecular mechanism of the inhibition has been proposed, suggesting that indolic compounds might interact with the cell surface components of the endothelial membrane in a way that prevents VEGF from activating the receptor. Additionally, wound-healing assay revealed that exposure of HUVECs to melatonin and 3-indolacetic acid in the presence of VEGF significantly inhibited cell migration by 87% and 99%, respectively, after 24 h. These data demonstrate that melatonin, 3-indolacetic acid, 5-hydroxytryptophol, and serotonin would be good molecules for future exploitation as anti-VEGF signaling agents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Acute Blueberry Flavonoids on Mood in Children and Young Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020158 - 20 Feb 2017
Cited by 19
Abstract
Epidemiological evidence suggests that consumption of flavonoids (usually via fruits and vegetables) is associated with decreased risk of developing depression. One plausible explanation for this association is the well-documented beneficial effects of flavonoids on executive function (EF). Impaired EF is linked to cognitive [...] Read more.
Epidemiological evidence suggests that consumption of flavonoids (usually via fruits and vegetables) is associated with decreased risk of developing depression. One plausible explanation for this association is the well-documented beneficial effects of flavonoids on executive function (EF). Impaired EF is linked to cognitive processes (e.g., rumination) that maintain depression and low mood; therefore, improved EF may reduce depressionogenic cognitive processes and improve mood. Study 1: 21 young adults (18–21 years old) consumed a flavonoid-rich blueberry drink and a matched placebo in a counterbalanced cross-over design. Study 2: 50 children (7–10 years old) were randomly assigned to a flavonoid-rich blueberry drink or a matched placebo. In both studies, participants and researchers were blind to the experimental condition, and mood was assessed using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule before and 2 h after consumption of the drinks. In both studies, the blueberry intervention increased positive affect (significant drink by session interaction) but had no effect on negative affect. This observed effect of flavonoids on positive affect in two independent samples is of potential practical value in improving public health. If the effect of flavonoids on positive affect is replicated, further investigation will be needed to identify the mechanisms that link flavonoid interventions with improved positive mood. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Towards an Understanding of the Low Bioavailability of Quercetin: A Study of Its Interaction with Intestinal Lipids
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020111 - 05 Feb 2017
Cited by 11
Abstract
We have studied the uptake of quercetin aglycone into CaCo-2/TC7 cells in the presence and absence of mixed micelles that are present in the human small intestine. The micelles inhibited the transport of quercetin into the cells. To gain an understanding of why [...] Read more.
We have studied the uptake of quercetin aglycone into CaCo-2/TC7 cells in the presence and absence of mixed micelles that are present in the human small intestine. The micelles inhibited the transport of quercetin into the cells. To gain an understanding of why this is the case we examined the solubilisation of quercetin in micelles of differing composition and into pure lipid phases. We did this by using the environmental sensitivity of quercetin’s UV-visible absorption spectra and measurement of free quercetin by filtration of the micellar solutions. The nature of the micelles was also studied by pyrene fluorescence. We found that the partitioning of quercetin into simple bile salt micelles was low and for mixed micelles was inhibited by increasing the bile salt concentration. The affinity of quercetin decreased in the order egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) = lysoPC > mixed micelles > bile salts. These results, together with the innate properties of quercetin, contribute to an understanding of the low bioavailability of quercetin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Parenchymal and Stromal Cells Contribute to Pro-Inflammatory Myocardial Environment at Early Stages of Diabetes: Protective Role of Resveratrol
Nutrients 2016, 8(11), 729; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8110729 - 16 Nov 2016
Cited by 7
Abstract
Background: Little information is currently available concerning the relative contribution of cardiac parenchymal and stromal cells in the activation of the pro-inflammatory signal cascade, at the initial stages of diabetes. Similarly, the effects of early resveratrol (RSV) treatment on the negative impact of [...] Read more.
Background: Little information is currently available concerning the relative contribution of cardiac parenchymal and stromal cells in the activation of the pro-inflammatory signal cascade, at the initial stages of diabetes. Similarly, the effects of early resveratrol (RSV) treatment on the negative impact of diabetes on the different myocardial cell compartments remain to be defined. Methods: In vitro challenge of neonatal cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts to high glucose and in vivo/ex vivo experiments on a rat model of Streptozotocin-induced diabetes were used to specifically address these issues. Results: In vitro data indicated that, besides cardiomyocytes, neonatal fibroblasts contribute to generating initial changes in the myocardial environment, in terms of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. These findings were mostly confirmed at the myocardial tissue level in diabetic rats, after three weeks of hyperglycemia. Specifically, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and Fractalkine were up-regulated and initial abnormalities in cardiomyocyte contractility occurred. At later stages of diabetes, a selective enhancement of pro-inflammatory macrophage M1 phenotype and a parallel reduction of anti-inflammatory macrophage M2 phenotype were associated with a marked disorganization of cardiomyocyte ultrastructural properties. RSV treatment inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine production, leading to a recovery of cardiomyocyte contractile efficiency and a reduced inflammatory cell recruitment. Conclusion: Early RSV administration could inhibit the pro-inflammatory diabetic milieu sustained by different cardiac cell types. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Angiotensin-I-Converting Enzyme (ACE)-Inhibitory Peptides from Plants
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040316 - 23 Mar 2017
Cited by 43
Abstract
Hypertension is an important factor in cardiovascular diseases. Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors like synthetic drugs are widely used to control hypertension. ACE-inhibitory peptides from food origins could be a good alternative to synthetic drugs. A number of plant-based peptides have been investigated for [...] Read more.
Hypertension is an important factor in cardiovascular diseases. Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors like synthetic drugs are widely used to control hypertension. ACE-inhibitory peptides from food origins could be a good alternative to synthetic drugs. A number of plant-based peptides have been investigated for their potential ACE inhibitor activities by using in vitro and in vivo assays. These plant-based peptides can be obtained by solvent extraction, enzymatic hydrolysis with or without novel food processing methods, and fermentation. ACE-inhibitory activities of peptides can be affected by their structural characteristics such as chain length, composition and sequence. ACE-inhibitory peptides should have gastrointestinal stability and reach the cardiovascular system to show their bioactivity. This paper reviews the current literature on plant-derived ACE-inhibitory peptides including their sources, production and structure, as well as their activity by in vitro and in vivo studies and their bioavailability. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Impact of Flavonols on Cardiometabolic Biomarkers: A Meta‐Analysis of Randomized Controlled Human Trials to Explore the Role of Inter‐Individual Variability
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020117 - 09 Feb 2017
Cited by 36
Abstract
Several epidemiological studies have linked flavonols with decreased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, some heterogeneity in the individual physiological responses to the consumption of these compounds has been identified. This meta‐analysis aimed to study the effect of flavonol supplementation on biomarkers of [...] Read more.
Several epidemiological studies have linked flavonols with decreased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, some heterogeneity in the individual physiological responses to the consumption of these compounds has been identified. This meta‐analysis aimed to study the effect of flavonol supplementation on biomarkers of CVD risk such as, blood lipids, blood pressure and plasma glucose, as well as factors affecting their inter‐individual variability. Data from 18 human randomized controlled trials were pooled and the effect was estimated using fixed or random effects meta‐analysis model and reported as difference in means (DM). Variability in the response of blood lipids to supplementation with flavonols was assessed by stratifying various population subgroups: age, sex, country, and health status. Results showed significant reductions in total cholesterol (DM = −0.10 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.20, −0.01), LDL cholesterol (DM = −0.14 mmol/L; Nutrients 2017, 9, 117 2 of 21 95% CI: −0.21, 0.07), and triacylglycerol (DM = −0.10 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.18, 0.03), and a significant increase in HDL cholesterol (DM = 0.05 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.07). A significant reduction was also observed in fasting plasma glucose (DM = −0.18 mmol/L; 95%CI: −0.29, −0.08), and in blood pressure (SBP: DM = −4.84 mmHg; 95% CI: −5.64, −4.04; DBP: DM = −3.32 mmHg; 95% CI: -4.09, -2.55). Subgroup analysis showed a more pronounced effect of flavonol intake in participants from Asian countries and in participants with diagnosed disease or dyslipidemia, compared to healthy and normal baseline values. In conclusion, flavonol consumption improved biomarkers of CVD risk, however, country of origin and health status may influence the effect of flavonol intake on blood lipid levels Full article
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