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Article

The Role of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Different Sources in Bone Development

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The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Institute of Biochemistry and Nutrition, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 7610001, Israel
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Animal Science, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 7610001, Israel
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The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 7610001, Israel
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3494; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113494
Received: 26 September 2020 / Revised: 5 November 2020 / Accepted: 10 November 2020 / Published: 13 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Human Health)
N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential nutrients that must be obtained from the diet. We have previously showed that endogenous n-3 PUFAs contribute to skeletal development and bone quality in fat-1 mice. Unlike other mammals, these transgenic mice, carry the n-3 desaturase gene and thus can convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs endogenously. Since this model does not mimic dietary exposure to n-3 PUFAs, diets rich in fish and flaxseed oils were used to further elucidate the role of n-3 PUFAs in bone development. Our investigation reveals that dietary n-3 PUFAs decrease fat accumulation in the liver, lower serum fat levels, and alter fatty acid (FA) content in liver and serum. Bone analyses show that n-3 PUFAs improve mechanical properties, which were measured using a three-point bending test, but exert complex effects on bone structure that vary according to its source. In a micro-CT analysis, we found that the flaxseed oil diet improves trabecular bone micro-architecture, whereas the fish oil diet promotes higher bone mineral density (BMD) with no effect on trabecular bone. The transcriptome characterization of bone by RNA-seq identified regulatory mechanisms of n-3 PUFAs via modulation of the cell cycle and peripheral circadian rhythm genes. These results extend our knowledge and provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of bone remodeling regulation induced by different sources of dietary n-3 PUFAs. View Full-Text
Keywords: n-3 fatty acids; n-6 fatty acids; growth plate; bone mechanics; RNA-sequencing n-3 fatty acids; n-6 fatty acids; growth plate; bone mechanics; RNA-sequencing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rozner, R.; Vernikov, J.; Griess-Fishheimer, S.; Travinsky, T.; Penn, S.; Schwartz, B.; Mesilati-Stahy, R.; Argov-Argaman, N.; Shahar, R.; Monsonego-Ornan, E. The Role of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Different Sources in Bone Development. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3494. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113494

AMA Style

Rozner R, Vernikov J, Griess-Fishheimer S, Travinsky T, Penn S, Schwartz B, Mesilati-Stahy R, Argov-Argaman N, Shahar R, Monsonego-Ornan E. The Role of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Different Sources in Bone Development. Nutrients. 2020; 12(11):3494. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113494

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rozner, Reut, Janna Vernikov, Shelley Griess-Fishheimer, Tamar Travinsky, Svetlana Penn, Betty Schwartz, Ronit Mesilati-Stahy, Nurit Argov-Argaman, Ron Shahar, and Efrat Monsonego-Ornan. 2020. "The Role of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Different Sources in Bone Development" Nutrients 12, no. 11: 3494. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113494

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