Special Issue "Nutrition on Endothelial Function"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutritional Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Emilio Ros
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Guest Editor
CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
Lipid Clinic, Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clínic, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
Interests: nutrition in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and cognitive decline with special interest in the Mediterranean diet and walnuts; plant sterols; blood membrane fatty acids; genetic dyslipidemias; cardiovascular risk assessment; and vascular imaging techniques, especially carotid ultrasound
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Endothelial dysfunction is a critical cardiovascular risk marker and a central component in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. It is characterized by impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, usually through the reduced availability of nitrous oxide, as well as endothelial activation, leading to the release into the circulation of soluble adhesion molecules and other pro-inflammatory mediators. Either via the modulation of cardiovascular risk factors or by a direct effect on the endothelium or both, dietary components can have a profound influence on endothelial function, however knowledge of this critical diet–disease relationship is still fragmentary.

This Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled “Nutrition and Endothelial Function”, welcomes the submission of manuscripts either describing original research or reviewing the scientific literature, including systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The proposed manuscripts should cover the effects of nutrients, foods, or dietary patterns on endothelial function, assessed in the arterial bed, with circulating molecules, or both, and either in the fasting state or postprandially.

Dr. Emilio Ros
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Endothelial function
  • Vascular reactivity
  • Flow-mediated vasodilation
  • Vascular adhesion molecules
  • Nutrients
  • Foods
  • Dietary patterns

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
A Protein/Lipid Preload Attenuates Glucose-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction in Individuals with Abnormal Glucose Tolerance
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2053; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072053 - 10 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 593
Abstract
Postprandial hyperglycemia interferes with vascular reactivity and is a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease. Macronutrient preloads reduce postprandial hyperglycemia in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the effect on endothelial function is unknown. Therefore, we examined whether [...] Read more.
Postprandial hyperglycemia interferes with vascular reactivity and is a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease. Macronutrient preloads reduce postprandial hyperglycemia in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the effect on endothelial function is unknown. Therefore, we examined whether a protein/lipid preload can attenuate postprandial endothelial dysfunction by lowering plasma glucose responses in subjects with IGT/T2D. Endothelial function was assessed by the reactive hyperemia index (RHI) at fasting, 60 min and 120 min during two 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) preceded by either water or a macronutrient preload (i.e., egg and parmesan cheese) in 22 volunteers with IGT/T2D. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon, free fatty acids, and amino acids were measured through each test. RHI negatively correlated with fasting plasma glucose. During the control OGTT, RHI decreased by 9% and its deterioration was associated with the rise in plasma glucose. The macronutrient preload attenuated the decline in RHI and markedly reduced postprandial glycemia. The beneficial effect of the macronutrient preload on RHI was proportional to the improvement in glucose tolerance and was associated with the increase in plasma GLP-1 and arginine levels. In conclusion, a protein/lipid macronutrient preload attenuates glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction in individuals with IGT/T2D by lowering plasma glucose excursions and by increasing GLP-1 and arginine levels, which are known regulators of the nitric oxide vasodilator system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition on Endothelial Function)
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Open AccessArticle
Ubiquinol Ameliorates Endothelial Dysfunction in Subjects with Mild-to-Moderate Dyslipidemia: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1098; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041098 - 15 Apr 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 11708
Abstract
In this randomized, double-blind, single-center trial (ANZCTR number ACTRN12619000436178) we aimed to investigate changes in endothelium-dependent vasodilation induced by ubiquinol, the reduced form of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), in healthy subjects with moderate dyslipidemia. Fifty-one subjects with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels of 130–200 [...] Read more.
In this randomized, double-blind, single-center trial (ANZCTR number ACTRN12619000436178) we aimed to investigate changes in endothelium-dependent vasodilation induced by ubiquinol, the reduced form of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), in healthy subjects with moderate dyslipidemia. Fifty-one subjects with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels of 130–200 mg/dL, not taking statins or other lipid lowering treatments, moderate (2.5%–6.0%) endothelial dysfunction as measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, and no clinical signs of cardiovascular disease were randomized to receive either ubiquinol (200 or 100 mg/day) or placebo for 8 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the effect of ubiquinol supplementation on FMD at the end of the study. Secondary outcomes included changes in FMD on week 4, changes in total and oxidized plasma CoQ10 on week 4 and week 8, and changes in serum nitrate and nitrite levels (NOx), and plasma LDL susceptibility to oxidation in vitro on week 8. Analysis of the data of the 48 participants who completed the study demonstrated a significantly increased FMD in both treated groups compared with the placebo group (200 mg/day, +1.28% ± 0.90%; 100 mg/day, +1.34% ± 1.44%; p < 0.001) and a marked increase in plasma CoQ10, either total (p < 0.001) and reduced (p < 0.001). Serum NOx increased significantly and dose-dependently in all treated subjects (p = 0.016), while LDL oxidation lag time improved significantly in those receiving 200 mg/day (p = 0.017). Ubiquinol significantly ameliorated dyslipidemia-related endothelial dysfunction. This effect was strongly related to increased nitric oxide bioavailability and was partly mediated by enhanced LDL antioxidant protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition on Endothelial Function)
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Open AccessArticle
Endothelial Dysfunction and Advanced Glycation End Products in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Versus Established Diabetes: From the CORDIOPREV Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010238 - 16 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1315
Abstract
Endothelial dysfunction and intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries (IMT-CC) are considered subclinical markers of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, compared with non-diabetics, being implicated in micro- and macrovascular complications. [...] Read more.
Endothelial dysfunction and intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries (IMT-CC) are considered subclinical markers of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, compared with non-diabetics, being implicated in micro- and macrovascular complications. Our aim was to compare serum AGEs levels and subclinical atherosclerotic markers between patients with established and newly diagnosed T2DM. Among 540 patients with T2DM and coronary heart disease from the CORDIOPREV study, 350 patients had established T2DM and 190 patients had newly diagnosed T2DM. Serum levels of AGEs (methylglyoxal (MG) and N-carboxymethyl lysine (CML)) and subclinical atherosclerotic markers (brachial flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) and IMT-CC) were measured. AGEs levels (all p < 0.001) and IMT-CC (p = 0.025) were higher in patients with established vs. newly diagnosed T2DM, whereas FMD did not differ between the two groups. Patients with established T2DM and severe endothelial dysfunction (i.e., FMD < 2%) had higher serum MG levels, IMT-CC, HOMA-IR and fasting insulin levels than those with newly diagnosed T2DM and non-severe endothelial dysfunction (i.e., FMD ≥ 2%) (all p < 0.05). Serum CML levels were greater in patients with established vs. newly diagnosed T2DM, regardless of endothelial dysfunction severity. Serum AGEs levels and IMT-CC were significantly higher in patients with established vs. newly diagnosed T2DM, highlighting the progressively increased risk of ASCVD in the course of T2DM. Establishing therapeutic strategies to reduce AGEs production and delay the onset of cardiovascular complications in newly diagnosed T2DM patients or minimize ASCVD risk in established T2DM patients is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition on Endothelial Function)
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Open AccessArticle
Efficacy of Isomaltulose Compared to Sucrose in Modulating Endothelial Function in Overweight Adults
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010141 - 03 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1023
Abstract
Hyperglycemia is linked to impaired arterial endothelial function (EF), an early sign of cardiovascular disease. We compared the efficacy of low-glycemic index isomaltulose (Palatinose™) with that of sucrose in modulating EF, as assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). In this double-blinded cross-over study, 80 [...] Read more.
Hyperglycemia is linked to impaired arterial endothelial function (EF), an early sign of cardiovascular disease. We compared the efficacy of low-glycemic index isomaltulose (Palatinose™) with that of sucrose in modulating EF, as assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). In this double-blinded cross-over study, 80 overweight mildly hypertensive subjects were randomized to receive 50 g of either isomaltulose or sucrose. On two non-consecutive days, brachial artery ultrasound FMD scans were obtained prior to and hourly (T0–T3) after carbohydrate load. Blood was drawn immediately after scanning. Glucose and insulin levels were analyzed. Overall, the FMD decrease was attenuated by isomaltulose compared to sucrose (ΔFMD = −0.003% and −0.151%; p > 0.05 for the interaction treatment x period). At T2, FMD was significantly higher after isomaltulose administration compared to that after sucrose administration (FMD = 5.9 ± 2.9% and 5.4 ± 2.6%, p = 0.047). Pearson correlations between FMD and blood glucose showed a trend for a negative association at T0 and T2 independently of the carbohydrate (r-range = −0.20 to −0.23, p < 0.1). Sub-analysis suggested a lower FMD in insulin-resistant (IR) compared to insulin-sensitive subjects. Isomaltulose attenuated the postprandial decline of FMD, particularly in IR persons. These data support the potential of isomaltulose to preserve the endothelial function postprandially and consequently play a favorable role in cardiovascular health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition on Endothelial Function)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Alpha-Lipoic Acid Supplementation on Endothelial Function and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Overweight/Obese Youths: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020375 - 12 Feb 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1875
Abstract
Endothelial dysfunction is recognized as an early sign of systemic atherosclerosis, and it represents a therapeutic target to prevent long-term cardiovascular (CV) consequences. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is a commonly used dietary supplement exerting anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated whether a three-month treatment [...] Read more.
Endothelial dysfunction is recognized as an early sign of systemic atherosclerosis, and it represents a therapeutic target to prevent long-term cardiovascular (CV) consequences. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is a commonly used dietary supplement exerting anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated whether a three-month treatment with ALA improves endothelial function, as assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, and clinical and metabolic risk factors in overweight/obese youths. We enrolled 67 overweight/obese children, and 22 normal-weight metabolically healthy controls. Overweight/obese youths were randomly allocated in a double-blinded manner to receive ALA (n = 34) or placebo (n = 33). Of these, 64 (32 ALA, 32 placebo) completed the follow-up. At baseline, in ALA and placebo groups, FMD was similar, but lower as compared with that in controls (p = 0.045). At three months, within the ALA and placebo groups, FMD did not change significantly. However, the basal and peak diameter of brachial artery significantly increased after ALA treatment as compared to placebo (p = 0.036 and p = 0.01, respectively). There were no significant within- and between-group changes for anthropometric and metabolic variables. The results show that ALA supplementation improves vascular tone and may have a beneficial effect on CV health in overweight/obese youths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition on Endothelial Function)
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