Special Issue "Celiac Disease and Nonceliac Gluten Sensitivity: Update of the Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Treatment"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Clinical Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 April 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Antonio Gasbarrini
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Guest Editor
CEMAD-Centro Malattie Apparato Digerente, Digestive Diseases Center; Universita’ Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Gemelli IRCCS, Roma, Italy
Interests: gut microbiota in health and diseases; inflammatory bowell diseases; irritable bowell diseases; liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma; liver transplantation; celiac and not celiac wheat related diseases; gut barrier permeability; food allergy and intolerance; pancreatic diseases
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Giovanni Cammarota

Guest Editor
A. Gemelli” Hospital, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart; Gastroenterological Area; Rome, Italy
2. CEMAD-Centro Malattie Apparato Digerente, Digestive Diseases Center; Universita’ Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Gemelli IRCCS, Roma, Italy
Interests: gastro-esophageal reflux; celiac disease; gastrointestinal endoscopy; gut microbiota; fecal microbiota transplantation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The avoidance of wheat- and gluten-containing products is a worldwide phenomenon, because the prevalence of gluten-related disorders is rising, and increasing numbers of individuals are empirically trying a gluten-free diet for a variety of signs and symptoms. Celiac disease (CD) is a common immune-mediated enteropathy characterized by gluten-induced small intestinal damage with loss of absorptive villi in genetically susceptible individuals. On the other hand, nonceliac gluten sensitivity (also referred to as wheat intolerance syndrome) is diagnosed in individuals who do not have celiac disease or wheat allergy but who have symptoms related to ingestion of gluten-containing grains, with symptomatic improvement on their withdrawal. However, while celiac disease is well-established, much remains unknown about how and whether gluten can be a trigger of gastrointestinal and/or extra-intestinal symptoms in patients without celiac disease. In addition, many questions remain unanswered, and although both conditions are treated with a gluten-free diet, distinguishing between celiac disease and nonceliac gluten sensitivity is important for long-term therapy.

The list of topics to be covered should deal with this exciting and evolving field, covering updated information concerning pathogenesis, role of the gut microbiota, evolving clinical presentations, diagnostic approaches, and new treatments appearing on the horizon.

Prof. Dr. Antonio Gasbarrini
Prof. Dr. Giovanni Cammarota
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Celiac disease
  • Diagnosis
  • Diet
  • Nonceliac gluten sensitivity
  • Pathogenesis
  • Treatment
  • Wheat intolerance syndrome

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Intestinal TG3- and TG2-Specific Plasma Cell Responses in Dermatitis Herpetiformis Patients Undergoing a Gluten Challenge
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020467 - 13 Feb 2020
Abstract
Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), a cutaneous manifestation of coeliac disease, is characterized by transglutaminase (TG) 3-targeted dermal immunoglobulin A (IgA) deposits. The treatment for DH is the same as for coeliac disease, namely a life-long gluten-free diet. DH patients typically have gluten-dependent circulating autoantibodies [...] Read more.
Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), a cutaneous manifestation of coeliac disease, is characterized by transglutaminase (TG) 3-targeted dermal immunoglobulin A (IgA) deposits. The treatment for DH is the same as for coeliac disease, namely a life-long gluten-free diet. DH patients typically have gluten-dependent circulating autoantibodies targeting TG3 and TG2, and plasma cells secreting such autoantibodies have been detected in the small intestinal mucosa. This study investigates the gluten-responsiveness of intestinal TG3 and TG2 antibody-secreting plasma cells in 16 treated DH patients undergoing a gluten challenge. The frequency of both plasma cell populations increased significantly during the challenge, and their frequency correlated with the corresponding serum autoantibody levels at post-challenge. TG3-specific plasma cells were absent in all 18 untreated coeliac disease patients and seven non-coeliac control subjects on gluten-containing diets. These findings indicate that, in DH, both intestinal TG3- and TG2-antibody secreting plasma cells are gluten-dependent, and that TG3-antibody secreting plasma cells are DH-specific. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Stimulatory Response of Celiac Disease Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Induced by RNAi Wheat Lines Differing in Grain Protein Composition
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2933; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122933 - 03 Dec 2019
Abstract
Wheat gluten proteins are responsible for the bread-making properties of the dough but also for triggering important gastrointestinal disorders. Celiac disease (CD) affects approximately 1% of the population in Western countries. The only treatment available is the strict avoidance of gluten in the [...] Read more.
Wheat gluten proteins are responsible for the bread-making properties of the dough but also for triggering important gastrointestinal disorders. Celiac disease (CD) affects approximately 1% of the population in Western countries. The only treatment available is the strict avoidance of gluten in the diet. Interference RNA (RNAi) is an excellent approach for the down-regulation of genes coding for immunogenic proteins related to celiac disease, providing an alternative for the development of cereals suitable for CD patients. In the present work, we report a comparative study of the stimulatory capacity of seven low-gluten RNAi lines differing in grain gluten and non-gluten protein composition, relevant for CD and other gluten pathologies. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 35 patients with active CD were included in this study to assess the stimulatory response induced by protein extracts from the RNAi lines. Analysis of the proliferative response and interferon-gamma (INF-γ) release of PBMCs demonstrated impaired stimulation in response to all RNAi lines. The lower response was provided by lines with a very low content of α- and γ-gliadins, and low or almost devoid of DQ2.5 and p31–43 α-gliadin epitopes. The non-gluten protein seems not to play a key role in PBMC stimulation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
CX3CL1–CX3CR1 Axis: A New Player in Coeliac Disease Pathogenesis
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2551; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112551 - 23 Oct 2019
Abstract
Background: The CX3CL1–CX3CR1 axis has been related to numerous diseases. The aim of our study was to investigate its involvement in coeliac disease (CD) pathogenesis, particularly in the early phase of the disease. Methods: We collected peripheral blood from CD patients and controls, [...] Read more.
Background: The CX3CL1–CX3CR1 axis has been related to numerous diseases. The aim of our study was to investigate its involvement in coeliac disease (CD) pathogenesis, particularly in the early phase of the disease. Methods: We collected peripheral blood from CD patients and controls, enrolled in a 3-day gluten challenge, to study soluble CX3CL1, I-TAC and MIG by Luminex, CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 gene expression by qPCR, and CX3CR1 protein expression in monocytes and CD8+, CD4+ and γδ+ T cells, by flow cytometry. We also analysed the expression of the CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 mRNA and protein in the duodenal biopsies of CD patients with active and treated disease, and in non-CD control individuals, by qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Results: After the gluten challenge, increased levels of CX3CL1, I-TAC and MIG proteins were observed in the peripheral blood of CD patients, with no changes in CX3CL1 mRNA, or CX3CR1 mRNA and protein. Regarding duodenal tissue, CX3CL1 was absent or barely present in the superficial and basal epithelium of CD patients, contrasting with the moderate to high levels present in controls. Conclusions: CX3CL1 seems to be involved in the appearance and progression of CD, and it appears to be a potential diagnostic biomarker. Its use as an alternative therapeutic target in CD deserves further research. Full article
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