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Magnesium and Microelements in Older Persons

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Micronutrients and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020) | Viewed by 62066

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department DI.PE.CA, Geriatric Unit, University Hospital AOUP, University of Palermo, 90127 Palermo, Italy
Interests: Mediterranean diet; aging; diabetes; hypertension; dementia; magnesium
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In this Special Issue, Prof. Mario Barbagallo and I would like to invite you to submit a paper regarding microelements and health status in older people. It is globally accepted that older people suffer from macro- and micronutrient deficiencies. This is often due to the high prevalence of malnutrition that is unfortunately associated with advancing age.

The limited introduction of microelements seems to be associated with a wide spectrum of medical conditions that are common in older people, especially metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, dementia, frailty, sarcopenia and, finally, mortality. However, the scientific literature regarding microelements deficiency in older people is still limited.

In our opinion, this Special Issue might offer readers the state-of-the-art regarding this important topic in order to better understand the clinical importance of microelements in older people.

Dr. Nicola Veronese
Prof. Mario Barbagallo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • microelements
  • micronutrients
  • malnutrition
  • older people

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 199 KiB  
Editorial
Magnesium and Micro-Elements in Older Persons
by Nicola Veronese and Mario Barbagallo
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 847; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030847 - 5 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3062
Abstract
Macro- and micro-element deficiencies are widely diffused in older people [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium and Microelements in Older Persons)

Research

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16 pages, 643 KiB  
Article
Association between Changes in Nutrient Intake and Changes in Muscle Strength and Physical Performance in the SarcoPhAge Cohort
by Laetitia Lengelé, Pauline Moehlinger, Olivier Bruyère, Médéa Locquet, Jean-Yves Reginster and Charlotte Beaudart
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3485; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113485 - 13 Nov 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2830
Abstract
Muscle weakness and physical performance impairment are common geriatric conditions that raise morbidity and mortality. They are known to be affected by nutrition, but only a few longitudinal studies exist. This study aims to fill this gap by exploring the association, over 3 [...] Read more.
Muscle weakness and physical performance impairment are common geriatric conditions that raise morbidity and mortality. They are known to be affected by nutrition, but only a few longitudinal studies exist. This study aims to fill this gap by exploring the association, over 3 years, between variations of nutrient intakes, as well as, on one side, the variations of handgrip strength, as a surrogate of muscle strength, and on the other side, the physical performance, assessed by gait speed. Participants from the SarcoPhAge study, a Belgian cohort of people aged 65 years and older, were asked to complete a self-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at the second (T2) and the fifth (T5) year of follow-up. Daily macro- and micronutrient intakes were measured and their changes in consumption over the three years of follow-up were then calculated. The association between changes in nutrients consumption and the variations in muscle parameters were investigated through multiple linear regressions. Out of the 534 participants included in the cohort, 238 had complete data at T2 and T5 (median age of 72.0 years (70.0–78.0 years), 60.9% women). In the cross-sectional analysis, calories, omega-3 fatty acids, potassium, and vitamins D, A, and K intakes were positively correlated with muscle strength. In the longitudinal analysis, neither the gait speed nor the muscle strength changes were significantly impacted by the variations. Other longitudinal investigations with longer follow-up are required to improve knowledge about these interrelations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium and Microelements in Older Persons)
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11 pages, 352 KiB  
Article
Low Serum Magnesium is Associated with Incident Dementia in the ARIC-NCS Cohort
by Aniqa B. Alam, Pamela L. Lutsey, Rebecca F. Gottesman, Adrienne Tin and Alvaro Alonso
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3074; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103074 - 9 Oct 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3474
Abstract
Higher serum magnesium is associated with lower risk of multiple morbidities, including diabetes, stroke, and atrial fibrillation, but its potential neuroprotective properties have also been gaining traction in cognitive function and decline research. We studied 12,040 participants presumed free of dementia in the [...] Read more.
Higher serum magnesium is associated with lower risk of multiple morbidities, including diabetes, stroke, and atrial fibrillation, but its potential neuroprotective properties have also been gaining traction in cognitive function and decline research. We studied 12,040 participants presumed free of dementia in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Serum magnesium was measured in fasting blood samples collected in 1990–1992. Dementia status was ascertained through cognitive examinations in 2011–2013, 2016–2017, and 2018–2019, along with informant interviews and indicators of dementia-related hospitalization events and death. Participants’ cognitive functioning capabilities were assessed up to five times between 1990–1992 and 2018–2019. The cognitive function of participants who did not attend follow-up study visits was imputed to account for attrition. We identified 2519 cases of dementia over a median follow-up period of 24.2 years. The lowest quintile of serum magnesium was associated with a 24% higher rate of incident dementia compared to those in the highest quintile of magnesium (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.07, 1.44). No relationship was found between serum magnesium and cognitive decline in any cognitive domain. Low midlife serum magnesium is associated with increased risk of incident dementia, but does not appear to impact rates of cognitive decline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium and Microelements in Older Persons)
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14 pages, 1204 KiB  
Article
Response of Vitamin D after Magnesium Intervention in a Postmenopausal Population from the Province of Granada, Spain
by Héctor Vázquez-Lorente, Lourdes Herrera-Quintana, Jorge Molina-López, Yenifer Gamarra-Morales, Beatriz López-González, Claudia Miralles-Adell and Elena Planells
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2283; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082283 - 30 Jul 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5973
Abstract
Menopause is a stage of hormonal imbalance in women which, in addition to other physiopathological consequences, poses a risk of deficiency of key micronutrients such as magnesium and vitamin D. A study was made of the influence of a magnesium intervention upon vitamin [...] Read more.
Menopause is a stage of hormonal imbalance in women which, in addition to other physiopathological consequences, poses a risk of deficiency of key micronutrients such as magnesium and vitamin D. A study was made of the influence of a magnesium intervention upon vitamin D status in a postmenopausal population from the province of Granada (Spain). Fifty-two healthy postmenopausal women between 44–76 years of age were included. Two randomized groups—placebo and magnesium (500 mg/day)—were treated during eight weeks. Nutrient intake was assessed using questionnaires based on 72-h recall. Vitamin D was analyzed by liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry. Baseline vitamin D proved deficient in over 80% of the subjects. The administration of magnesium resulted in significantly increased vitamin D levels in the intervention group versus the controls (p < 0.05). Magnesium supplementation improved vitamin D status in the studied postmenopausal women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium and Microelements in Older Persons)
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10 pages, 1363 KiB  
Article
Effect of Magnesium Supplementation on Circulating Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease
by Alvaro Alonso, Lin Y. Chen, Kyle D. Rudser, Faye L. Norby, Mary R. Rooney and Pamela L. Lutsey
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1697; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061697 - 6 Jun 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4141
Abstract
(1) Background: Magnesium supplementation may be effective for the prevention of cardiometabolic diseases, but the mechanisms are unclear. Proteomic approaches can assist in identifying the underlying mechanisms. (2) Methods: We collected repeated blood samples from 52 individuals enrolled in a double-blind trial which [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Magnesium supplementation may be effective for the prevention of cardiometabolic diseases, but the mechanisms are unclear. Proteomic approaches can assist in identifying the underlying mechanisms. (2) Methods: We collected repeated blood samples from 52 individuals enrolled in a double-blind trial which randomized participants 1:1 to oral magnesium supplementation (400 mg magnesium/day in the form of magnesium oxide) or a matching placebo for 10 weeks. Plasma levels of 91 proteins were measured at baseline with follow-up samples using the Olink Cardiovascular Disease III proximity extension assay panel and were modeled as arbitrary units in a log2 scale. We evaluated the effect of oral magnesium supplementation for changes in protein levels and the baseline association between serum magnesium and protein levels. The Holm procedure was used to adjust for multiple comparisons. (3) Results: Participants were 73% women, 94% white, and had a mean age of 62. Changes in proteins did not significantly differ between the two intervention groups after correction for multiple comparisons. The most statistically significant effects were on myoglobin [difference −0.319 log2 units, 95% confidence interval (CI) (−0.550, −0.088), p = 0.008], tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase type 5 (−0.187, (−0.328, −0.045), p = 0.011), tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 13B (−0.181, (−0.332, −0.031), p = 0.019), ST2 protein (−0.198, (−0.363, −0.032), p = 0.020), and interleukin-1 receptor type 1 (−0.144, (−0.273, −0.015), p = 0.029). Similarly, none of the associations of baseline serum magnesium with protein levels were significant after correction for multiple comparisons. (4) Conclusions: Although we did not identify statistically significant effects of oral magnesium supplementation in this relatively small study, this study demonstrates the value of proteomic approaches for the investigation of mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of magnesium supplementation. Clinical Trials Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02837328. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium and Microelements in Older Persons)
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Review

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23 pages, 4409 KiB  
Review
Magnesium in Infectious Diseases in Older People
by Ligia J. Dominguez, Nicola Veronese, Fernando Guerrero-Romero and Mario Barbagallo
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010180 - 8 Jan 2021
Cited by 49 | Viewed by 13921
Abstract
Reduced magnesium (Mg) intake is a frequent cause of deficiency with age together with reduced absorption, renal wasting, and polypharmacotherapy. Chronic Mg deficiency may result in increased oxidative stress and low-grade inflammation, which may be linked to several age-related diseases, including higher predisposition [...] Read more.
Reduced magnesium (Mg) intake is a frequent cause of deficiency with age together with reduced absorption, renal wasting, and polypharmacotherapy. Chronic Mg deficiency may result in increased oxidative stress and low-grade inflammation, which may be linked to several age-related diseases, including higher predisposition to infectious diseases. Mg might play a role in the immune response being a cofactor for immunoglobulin synthesis and other processes strictly associated with the function of T and B cells. Mg is necessary for the biosynthesis, transport, and activation of vitamin D, another key factor in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. The regulation of cytosolic free Mg in immune cells involves Mg transport systems, such as the melastatin-like transient receptor potential 7 channel, the solute carrier family, and the magnesium transporter 1 (MAGT1). The functional importance of Mg transport in immunity was unknown until the description of the primary immunodeficiency XMEN (X-linked immunodeficiency with Mg defect, Epstein–Barr virus infection, and neoplasia) due to a genetic deficiency of MAGT1 characterized by chronic Epstein–Barr virus infection. This and other research reporting associations of Mg deficit with viral and bacterial infections indicate a possible role of Mg deficit in the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its complications. In this review, we will discuss the importance of Mg for the immune system and for infectious diseases, including the recent pandemic of COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium and Microelements in Older Persons)
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32 pages, 1001 KiB  
Review
Magnesium and Hypertension in Old Age
by Ligia J. Dominguez, Nicola Veronese and Mario Barbagallo
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010139 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 53 | Viewed by 14187
Abstract
Hypertension is a complex condition in which various actors and mechanisms combine, resulting in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications that today represent the most frequent causes of mortality, morbidity, disability, and health expenses worldwide. In the last decades, there has been an exceptional amount [...] Read more.
Hypertension is a complex condition in which various actors and mechanisms combine, resulting in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications that today represent the most frequent causes of mortality, morbidity, disability, and health expenses worldwide. In the last decades, there has been an exceptional amount of experimental, epidemiological, and clinical studies confirming a close relationship between magnesium deficit and high blood pressure. Multiple mechanisms may help to explain the bulk of evidence supporting a protective effect of magnesium against hypertension and its complications. Hypertension increases sharply with advancing age, hence older persons are those most affected by its negative consequences. They are also more frequently at risk of magnesium deficiency by multiple mechanisms, which may, at least in part, explain the higher frequency of hypertension and its long-term complications. The evidence for a favorable effect of magnesium on hypertension risk emphasizes the importance of broadly encouraging the intake of foods such as vegetables, nuts, whole cereals and legumes, optimal dietary sources of magnesium, avoiding processed food, which are very poor in magnesium and other fundamental nutrients, in order to prevent hypertension. In some cases, when diet is not enough to maintain an adequate magnesium status, magnesium supplementation may be of benefit and has been shown to be well tolerated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium and Microelements in Older Persons)
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16 pages, 827 KiB  
Review
Sodium and Potassium Intake and Cardiovascular Disease in Older People: A Systematic Review
by Carla Gonçalves and Sandra Abreu
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3447; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113447 - 10 Nov 2020
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 5674
Abstract
This review aims to examine the relationship of sodium and potassium intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) among older people. Methods: We performed a literature search using PubMed and Web of Science (January 2015 to July 2020) without language restriction. Observational and experimental studies [...] Read more.
This review aims to examine the relationship of sodium and potassium intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) among older people. Methods: We performed a literature search using PubMed and Web of Science (January 2015 to July 2020) without language restriction. Observational and experimental studies that reported the relationship between sodium, potassium, or sodium-to-potassium ratio with CVD among older adults aged higher than 60 years were included. The authors independently screened all identified studies, extracted information, and assessed the quality of included studies. Risk of bias was assessed using the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Nonrandomized Studies (RoBANS) for observational studies and the revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool (RoB 2 tool) for randomized trials. Results: We included 12 studies (6 prospective cohort studies, 5 cross-sectional studies, and 1 experimental study). Five of the studies reported on sodium-to-potassium ratio (n = 5), and the others on potassium and/or sodium intake. Cardiovascular events (e.g., stroke and heart failure) were the most reported outcome (n = 9). Of the 12 studies included, five observational studies had low bias risk and the randomized controlled trial was judged as uncertain risk of bias. We found inconsistent results for the effect of the reduction of sodium intake in this population for lower risk of CVD. We found that both the increase of potassium intake and the decrease of sodium-to-potassium ratio were associated with lower risk of hypertension and CVD, particularly stroke. Conclusion: The present review suggests that both higher potassium and lower sodium-to-potassium ratio are associated with lower risk of CVD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium and Microelements in Older Persons)
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29 pages, 3911 KiB  
Review
Age-Related Changes and Sex-Related Differences in Brain Iron Metabolism
by Tanja Grubić Kezele and Božena Ćurko-Cofek
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2601; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092601 - 27 Aug 2020
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 7543
Abstract
Iron is an essential element that participates in numerous cellular processes. Any disruption of iron homeostasis leads to either iron deficiency or iron overload, which can be detrimental for humans’ health, especially in elderly. Each of these changes contributes to the faster development [...] Read more.
Iron is an essential element that participates in numerous cellular processes. Any disruption of iron homeostasis leads to either iron deficiency or iron overload, which can be detrimental for humans’ health, especially in elderly. Each of these changes contributes to the faster development of many neurological disorders or stimulates progression of already present diseases. Age-related cellular and molecular alterations in iron metabolism can also lead to iron dyshomeostasis and deposition. Iron deposits can contribute to the development of inflammation, abnormal protein aggregation, and degeneration in the central nervous system (CNS), leading to the progressive decline in cognitive processes, contributing to pathophysiology of stroke and dysfunctions of body metabolism. Besides, since iron plays an important role in both neuroprotection and neurodegeneration, dietary iron homeostasis should be considered with caution. Recently, there has been increased interest in sex-related differences in iron metabolism and iron homeostasis. These differences have not yet been fully elucidated. In this review we will discuss the latest discoveries in iron metabolism, age-related changes, along with the sex differences in iron content in serum and brain, within the healthy aging population and in neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and stroke. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium and Microelements in Older Persons)
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