Special Issue "Diets, Foods and Food Components Effect on Dyslipidemia"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Federica Fogacci
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Atherosclerosis and Metabolic Disease Study Center, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Interests: cholesterol; cardiovascular risk factors; nutrition; nutraceuticals
Prof. Dr. Arrigo Cicero
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Hypertension and Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Medical and Surgical Sciences Department, Sant'Orsola‐Malpighi University Hospital, Bologna, Italy;
2. Italian Nutraceutical Society (SINut), Bologna, Italy
Interests: nutrition; nutraceuticals; serum uric acid; hypertension; cholesterol; cardiovascular risk factors
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Claudio Borghi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Internal Medicine, University of Bologna, S. Orsola Malpighi University Hospital, Bologna, Italy
Interests: serum uric acid; hypertension; cholesterol; nutrition; cardiovascular risk factors
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Hypercholesterolemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and a recognized target of pharmacological therapeutic agents in both primary and secondary prevention. However, there is increasing interest for the use of natural lipid-lowering compounds that may delay or circumvent drug therapy.

To date, there is a strong evidence showing that dietary factors are able to influence atherogenesis. In particular, the Mediterranean diet is particularly rich in vegetable active compounds contributing to its positive effect on human health.

In this Special Issue, we invite investigators to contribute original research articles reporting data from both experimental and clinical studies as well as review articles that provide evidence of the effect of food, diet, and dietary components on dyslipidemia.

Dr. Federica Fogacci
Prof. Arrigo Cicero
Prof. Claudio Borghi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Dyslipidemia
  • Lipidomics
  • Reverse cholesterol transport
  • Nutrition
  • Macronutrients
  • Micronutrients
  • Nuts
  • Polyphenols
  • Bioactive peptides
  • Fibers
  • Beta-glucans
  • Plant sterols and stanols
  • Vegetable oils
  • Soy and lupin

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Diets, Foods and Food Components’ Effect on Dyslipidemia
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 741; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030741 - 26 Feb 2021
Viewed by 546
Abstract
Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and a recognized target of pharmacological therapeutic agents in both primary and secondary prevention [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diets, Foods and Food Components Effect on Dyslipidemia)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Efficacy and Safety of Armolipid Plus®: An Updated PRISMA Compliant Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 638; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020638 - 16 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 903
Abstract
Armolipid Plus® is a multi-constituent nutraceutical that claims to improve lipid profiles. The aim of this PRISMA compliant systematic review and meta-analysis was to globally evaluate the efficacy and safety of Armolipid Plus® on the basis of the available randomized, blinded, [...] Read more.
Armolipid Plus® is a multi-constituent nutraceutical that claims to improve lipid profiles. The aim of this PRISMA compliant systematic review and meta-analysis was to globally evaluate the efficacy and safety of Armolipid Plus® on the basis of the available randomized, blinded, controlled clinical trials (RCTs). A systematic literature search in several databases was conducted in order to identify RCTs assessing the efficacy and safety of dietary supplementation with Armolipid Plus®. Two review authors independently identified 12 eligible studies (1050 included subjects overall) and extracted data on study characteristics, methods, and outcomes. Meta-analysis of the data suggested that dietary supplementation with Armolipid Plus® exerted a significant effect on body mass index (mean difference (MD) = −0.25 kg/m2, p = 0.008) and serum levels of total cholesterol (MD = −25.07 mg/dL, p < 0.001), triglycerides (MD = −11.47 mg/dL, p < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (MD = 1.84 mg/dL, p < 0.001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (MD = −26.67 mg/dL, p < 0.001), high sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP, MD = −0.61 mg/L, p = 0.022), and fasting glucose (MD = −3.52 mg/dL, p < 0.001). Armolipid Plus® was well tolerated. This meta-analysis demonstrates that dietary supplementation with Armolipid Plus® is associated with clinically meaningful improvements in serum lipids, glucose, and hs-CRP. These changes are consistent with improved cardiometabolic health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diets, Foods and Food Components Effect on Dyslipidemia)
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Open AccessArticle
Synergistic Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Oral-Hypoglycemic Drug on Lipid Normalization through Modulation of Hepatic Gene Expression in High Fat Diet with Low Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3652; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123652 - 27 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 681
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes mellitus, which an outcome of impaired insulin action and its secretion, is concomitantly associated with lipid abnormalities. The study was designed to evaluate the combinational effect of omega-3 fatty acids (flax and fish oil) and glibenclamide on abnormal lipid profiles, [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus, which an outcome of impaired insulin action and its secretion, is concomitantly associated with lipid abnormalities. The study was designed to evaluate the combinational effect of omega-3 fatty acids (flax and fish oil) and glibenclamide on abnormal lipid profiles, increased blood glucose, and impaired liver and kidney functions in a high fat diet with low streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, including its probable mechanism of action. The male Wistar rats (n = 48) were distributed into eight groups. All animal groups except the healthy received a high fat diet (HFD) for 90 days. Further, diabetes was developed by low dose STZ (35 mg/kg). Diabetic animals received, omega-3 fatty acids (500 mg/kg), along with glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg). Both flax and fish oil intervention decreased (p ≤ 0.001) serum triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein and elevated (p ≤ 0.001) high density lipoprotein levels in diabetic rats. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein level was decreased (p ≤ 0.001) in fish oil-treated rats. However, it remained unaffected in the flax oil treatment group. Both flax and fish oil intervention downregulate the expression of fatty acid metabolism genes, transcription factors (sterol regulatory element-binding proteins-1c and nuclear factor-κβ), and their regulatory genes i.e., acetyl-coA carboxylase alpha, fatty acid synthase, and tumor necrosis factors-α. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma gene expression was upregulated (p ≤ 0.001) in the fish oil treatment group. Whereas, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 and fatty acid binding protein gene expression were upregulated (p ≤ 0.001) in both flax and fish oil intervention group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diets, Foods and Food Components Effect on Dyslipidemia)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Clinical Study of the Effects of a Nutraceutical Combination (LEVELIP DUO®) on LDL Cholesterol Levels and Lipid Pattern in Subjects with Sub-Optimal Blood Cholesterol Levels (NATCOL Study)
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3127; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103127 - 14 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1274
Abstract
Phytosterols and red yeast rice are largely studied cholesterol-lowering nutraceuticals, respectively inhibiting the bowel absorption and liver synthesis of cholesterol. Our aim was to test the effect of combined nutraceutical-containing phytosterols and red yeast rice vs. a placebo on the lipid profile. We [...] Read more.
Phytosterols and red yeast rice are largely studied cholesterol-lowering nutraceuticals, respectively inhibiting the bowel absorption and liver synthesis of cholesterol. Our aim was to test the effect of combined nutraceutical-containing phytosterols and red yeast rice vs. a placebo on the lipid profile. We performed a parallel arms, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, randomizing 88 moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects to treatment with a combined nutraceutical containing phytosterols (800 mg) and red yeast rice, standardized to contain 5 mg of monacolins from Monascus purpureus, with added niacin (27 mg) and policosanols (10 mg) (LEVELIP DUO®), or placebo. The mean LDL-Cholesterol (LDL-C) change at Week 8 was −32.5 ± 30.2 mg/dL (−19.8%) in the combined nutraceutical group and 2.5 ± 19.4 mg/dL (2.3%) in the placebo group. The estimated between-group difference of −39.2 mg/dL (95% CI: −48.6; −29.8) indicates a statistically significant difference between treatments in favor of the combined nutraceutical (p < 0.0001). Total Cholesterol (TC), non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C), Apolipoprotein B, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C improved in a similar way in the combined nutraceutical group only. No significant changes in other clinical and laboratory parameters were observed. In conclusion, the tested combined nutraceutical was well tolerated, while significantly reducing the plasma levels of LDL-C, TC, non-HDL-C, ApoB, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios in mildly hypercholesterolemic patients. Trial registration (ClinicalTrials.gov): NCT03739242. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diets, Foods and Food Components Effect on Dyslipidemia)
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Open AccessArticle
Plasma Lipidomics Reveals Insights into Anti-Obesity Effect of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat Leaves and Its Constituent Luteolin in High-Fat Diet-Induced Dyslipidemic Mice
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 2973; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12102973 - 29 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 813
Abstract
The Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat (CM) is widely used as a traditional medicine and herbal tea by the Asian population for its health benefits related to obesity. However, compared to the flowers of CM, detailed mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of its leaves on [...] Read more.
The Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat (CM) is widely used as a traditional medicine and herbal tea by the Asian population for its health benefits related to obesity. However, compared to the flowers of CM, detailed mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of its leaves on obesity and dyslipidemia have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, to investigate the lipidomic biomarkers responsible for the pharmacological effects of CM leaf extract (CLE) in plasma of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), the plasma of mice fed a normal diet (ND), HFD, HFD plus CLE 1.5% diet, and HFD plus luteolin 0.003% diet (LU) for 16 weeks were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) combined with multivariate analysis. In our analysis, the ND, HFD, CLE, and LU groups were clearly differentiated by partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) score plots. The major metabolites contributing to this differentiation were cholesteryl esters (CEs), lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs), phosphatidylcholines (PCs), ceramides (CERs), and sphingomyelins (SMs). The levels of plasma CEs, LPCs, PCs, SMs, and CERs were significantly increased in the HFD group compared to those in the ND group, and levels of these lipids recovered to normal after administration of CLE or LU. Furthermore, changes in hepatic mRNA expression levels involved in the Kennedy pathway and sphingolipid biosynthesis were also suppressed by treatment with CLE or LU. In conclusion, this study examined the beneficial effects of CLE and LU on obesity and dyslipidemia, which were demonstrated as reduced synthesis of lipotoxic intermediates. These results may provide valuable insights towards evaluating the therapeutic effects of CLE and LU and understanding obesity-related diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diets, Foods and Food Components Effect on Dyslipidemia)
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Open AccessArticle
Red Propolis and Its Dyslipidemic Regulator Formononetin: Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity and Gastroprotective Effects in Rat Model of Gastric Ulcer
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 2951; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12102951 - 26 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 861
Abstract
Propolis has various pharmacological properties of clinical interest, and is also considered a functional food. In particular, hydroalcoholic extracts of red propolis (HERP), together with its isoflavonoid formononetin, have recognized antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, with known added value against dyslipidemia. In this study, [...] Read more.
Propolis has various pharmacological properties of clinical interest, and is also considered a functional food. In particular, hydroalcoholic extracts of red propolis (HERP), together with its isoflavonoid formononetin, have recognized antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, with known added value against dyslipidemia. In this study, we report the gastroprotective effects of HERP (50–500 mg/kg, p.o.) and formononetin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) in ethanol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced models of rat ulcer. The volume, pH, and total acidity were the evaluated gastric secretion parameters using the pylorus ligature model, together with the assessment of gastric mucus contents. The anti-Helicobacter pylori activities of HERP were evaluated using the agar-well diffusion method. In our experiments, HERP (250 and 500 mg/kg) and formononetin (10 mg/kg) reduced (p < 0.001) total lesion areas in the ethanol-induced rat ulcer model, and reduced (p < 0.05) ulcer indices in the indomethacin-induced rat ulcer model. Administration of HERP and formononetin to pylorus ligature models significantly decreased (p < 0.01) gastric secretion volumes and increased (p < 0.05) mucus production. We have also shown the antioxidant and anti-Helicobacter pylori activities of HERP. The obtained results indicate that HERP and formononetin are gastroprotective in acute ulcer models, suggesting a prominent role of formononetin in the effects of HERP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diets, Foods and Food Components Effect on Dyslipidemia)
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Open AccessArticle
Protective Effects of Black Raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) Extract against Hypercholesterolemia and Hepatic Inflammation in Rats Fed High-Fat and High-Choline Diets
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2448; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082448 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 996
Abstract
Choline is converted to trimethylamine by gut microbiota and further oxidized to trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) by hepatic flavin monooxygenases. Positive correlation between TMAO and chronic diseases has been reported. Polyphenols in black raspberry (BR), especially anthocyanins, possess various biological activities. The objective [...] Read more.
Choline is converted to trimethylamine by gut microbiota and further oxidized to trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) by hepatic flavin monooxygenases. Positive correlation between TMAO and chronic diseases has been reported. Polyphenols in black raspberry (BR), especially anthocyanins, possess various biological activities. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of BR extract on the level of choline-derived metabolites, serum lipid profile, and inflammation markers in rats fed high-fat and high-choline diets. Forty female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups and fed for 8 weeks as follows: CON (AIN-93G diet), HF (high-fat diet), HFC (HF + 1.5% choline water), and HFCB (HFC + 0.6% BR extract). Serum levels of TMAO, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and cecal trimethylamine (TMA) level were significantly higher in the HFC than in the HFCB. BR extract decreased mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory genes including nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and protein expression of NF-κB and COX-2 in liver tissue. These results suggest that consistent intake of BR extract might alleviate hypercholesterolemia and hepatic inflammation induced by excessive choline with a high-fat diet via lowering elevated levels of cecal TMA and serum TMAO in rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diets, Foods and Food Components Effect on Dyslipidemia)
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Open AccessArticle
The Association between Dyslipidemia, Dietary Habits and Other Lifestyle Indicators among Non-Diabetic Attendees of Primary Health Care Centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2441; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082441 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1091
Abstract
Diet and other lifestyle habits have been reported to contribute to the development of dyslipidemia in various populations. Therefore, this study investigated the association between dyslipidemia and dietary and other lifestyle practices among Saudi adults. Data were collected from adults (≥20 years) not [...] Read more.
Diet and other lifestyle habits have been reported to contribute to the development of dyslipidemia in various populations. Therefore, this study investigated the association between dyslipidemia and dietary and other lifestyle practices among Saudi adults. Data were collected from adults (≥20 years) not previously diagnosed with diabetes in a cross-sectional design. Demographic, anthropometric, and clinical characteristics, as well as lifestyle and dietary habits were recorded using a predesigned questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were drawn to estimate the serum lipid profile. Out of 1385 people, 858 (62%) (491 men, 367 women) had dyslipidemia. After regression analysis to adjust for age, body mass index, and waist circumference, an intake of ≥5 cups/week of Turkish coffee, or carbonated drinks was associated with increased risk of dyslipidemia in men (OR (95% CI), 2.74 (1.53, 4.89) p = 0.001, and 1.53 (1.04, 2.26) p = 0.03 respectively), while the same intake of American coffee had a protective effect (0.53 (0.30, 0.92) p = 0.025). Sleep duration <6 h, and smoking were also associated with increased risk in men (1.573 (1.14, 2.18) p = 0.006, and 1.41 (1.00, 1.99) p = 0.043 respectively). In women, an increased intake of fresh vegetables was associated with increased risk (2.07 (1.09, 3.94) p = 0.026), which could be attributed to added salad dressing. Thus, there are sex differences in response to dietary and lifestyle practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diets, Foods and Food Components Effect on Dyslipidemia)
Open AccessArticle
Low Serum Vitamin B12 Levels Are Associated with Adverse Lipid Profiles in Apparently Healthy Young Saudi Women
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2395; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082395 - 10 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1140
Abstract
An abnormal lipid profile is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The relationship between vitamin B12 deficiency and lipid profile is inconclusive, with most studies conducted in unhealthy populations. In this study, we aimed to assess the relationship between serum vitamin B12 [...] Read more.
An abnormal lipid profile is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The relationship between vitamin B12 deficiency and lipid profile is inconclusive, with most studies conducted in unhealthy populations. In this study, we aimed to assess the relationship between serum vitamin B12 levels and lipid profiles in a cross-sectional study that included 341 apparently healthy Saudi women, aged 19–30 years, from different colleges at King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, biochemical, and lifestyle data were collected, including diet and physical activity. Serum vitamin B12 deficiency was defined as serum B12 level of <148 pmol/L. The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency was approximately 0.6%. Using multivariable linear regression models, serum vitamin B12 levels were found to be inversely associated with total cholesterol (B = −0.26; p < 0.001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (B = −0.30; p < 0.001), and triglyceride (B = −0.16; p < 0.01) after adjusting for potential confounders, while obesity indices of body mass index, central obesity, and fat percentage showed no association. Therefore, we conclude that low serum vitamin B12 levels are independently associated with abnormal lipid profiles in healthy young Saudi women. Further interventional studies are needed to determine whether improving serum vitamin B12 levels in a healthy population can improve lipid profiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diets, Foods and Food Components Effect on Dyslipidemia)
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Open AccessArticle
Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) Extract Prevents Dyslipidemia and Hepatic Steatosis in Ovariectomized Rats
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1541; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051541 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1312
Abstract
Estrogen is involved in lipid metabolism. Menopausal women with low estrogen secretion usually gain weight and develop steatosis associated with abnormal lipid metabolism. A previous study showed that blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) extract (BCE) had phytoestrogen activity. In this study, we examined [...] Read more.
Estrogen is involved in lipid metabolism. Menopausal women with low estrogen secretion usually gain weight and develop steatosis associated with abnormal lipid metabolism. A previous study showed that blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) extract (BCE) had phytoestrogen activity. In this study, we examined whether BCE improved lipid metabolism abnormalities and reduced liver steatosis in ovariectomized rats, as a menopausal animal model. Twelve-week-old ovariectomized (OVX) rats were fed a regular diet (Ctrl) or a 3% BCE supplemented diet while sham rats were fed a regular diet for three months. Body weight, visceral fat weight, levels of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol decreased in the BCE-treated OVX and sham rats, but not in OVX Ctrl rats. The results of hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed that BCE decreased the diameters of adipocytes and the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score. Furthermore, quantitative RT-PCR indicated a decreased expression of hepatitis-related genes, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in OVX rats after BCE treatment. This is the first study that reported improvement of lipid metabolism abnormalities in OVX rats by BCE administration. These results suggest that the intake of BCE alleviated dyslipidemia and prevented nonalcoholic steatohepatitis during menopause in this animal model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diets, Foods and Food Components Effect on Dyslipidemia)
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Open AccessArticle
Association between Three Low-Carbohydrate Diet Scores and Lipid Metabolism among Chinese Adults
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1307; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051307 - 03 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1150
Abstract
This study investigated the blood lipid levels of 5921 Chinese adults aged >18 years using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2009. Diet information was collected through 3 day, 24 h recalls by trained professionals. The low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) score was [...] Read more.
This study investigated the blood lipid levels of 5921 Chinese adults aged >18 years using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2009. Diet information was collected through 3 day, 24 h recalls by trained professionals. The low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) score was determined according to the percentage of energy obtained from carbohydrate, protein, and fat consumption. Dyslipidemia was defined when one or more of the following abnormal lipid levels were observed: high cholesterol levels, high triglyceride levels, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Multivariate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using logistic regression models. After adjusting the confounding variables, in males, the OR of hypercholesterolemia was 1.87 (95% CI, 1.23–2.85; p for trend = 0.0017) and the OR of hypertriglyceridemia was 1.47 (95% CI, 1.04–2.06; p for trend = 0.0336), on comparing the highest and lowest quartiles of the LCD score. The animal-based LCD score showed a similar trend. The OR of hypercholesterolemia was 2.15 (95% CI, 1.41–3.29; p for trend = 0.0006) and the OR of hypertriglyceridemia was 1.51 (95% CI, 1.09–2.10; p for trend = 0.0156). However, there was no significant difference between plant-based LCD scores and dyslipidemia. In females, lipid profiles did not differ much among the quartiles of LCD scores—only the animal-based LCD score was statistically significant with hypercholesterolemia. The OR of hypercholesterolemia was 1.64 (95% CI, 1.06–2.55), on comparing the highest and lowest quartiles of the LCD score. In conclusion, a higher LCD score, indicating lower carbohydrate intake and higher fat intake, especially animal-based fat, was significantly associated with higher odds of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in Chinese males. Future studies investigating the potential mechanisms by which macronutrient types and sex hormones affect lipid metabolism are required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diets, Foods and Food Components Effect on Dyslipidemia)
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Characterization, Modelling, and Antioxidant Properties of Polyphenon-60 from Green Tea in Eudragit S100-2 Chitosan Microspheres
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 967; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12040967 - 31 Mar 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1341
Abstract
Eudragit S100-coated chitosan microspheres (S100Ch) are proposed as a new oral delivery system for green tea polyphenon-60 (PP60). PP60 is a mixture of polyphenolic compounds, known for its active role in decreasing oxidative stress and metabolic risk factors involved in diabetes and in [...] Read more.
Eudragit S100-coated chitosan microspheres (S100Ch) are proposed as a new oral delivery system for green tea polyphenon-60 (PP60). PP60 is a mixture of polyphenolic compounds, known for its active role in decreasing oxidative stress and metabolic risk factors involved in diabetes and in other chronic diseases. Chitosan-PP60 microspheres prepared by an emulsion cross-linking method were coated with Eudragit S100 to ensure the release of PP60 in the terminal ileum. Different core–coat ratios of Eudragit and chitosan were tested. Optimized chitosan microspheres were obtained with a chitosan:PP60 ratio of 8:1 (Ch-PP608:1), rotation speed of 1500 rpm, and surfactant concentration of 1.0% (m/v) achieving a mean size of 7.16 µm. Their coating with the enteric polymer (S100Ch-PP60) increased the mean size significantly (51.4 µm). The in vitro modified-release of PP60 from S100Ch-PP60 was confirmed in simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Mathematical fitting models were used to characterize the release mechanism showing that both Ch-PP608:1 and S100Ch-PP60 fitted the Korsmeyers–Peppas model. The antioxidant activity of PP60 was kept in glutaraldehyde-crosslinked chitosan microspheres before and after their coating, showing an IC50 of 212.3 µg/mL and 154.4 µg/mL, respectively. The potential of chitosan microspheres for the delivery of catechins was illustrated, with limited risk of cytotoxicity as shown in Caco-2 cell lines using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The beneficial effects of green tea and its derivatives in the management of metabolic disorders can be exploited using mucoadhesive chitosan microspheres coated with enteric polymers for colonic delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diets, Foods and Food Components Effect on Dyslipidemia)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Medium-Term Effects of Oat Fibers on Human Health: The Beta-Glucan Effects on Lipid Profile, Glycemia and inTestinal Health (BELT) Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030686 - 03 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4025
Abstract
The Beta-glucan Effects on Lipid profile, glycemia and inTestinal health (BELT) Study investigated the effect of 3 g/day oat beta-glucans on plasma lipids, fasting glucose and self-perceived intestinal well-being. The Study was an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over randomized clinical trial, enrolling a sample [...] Read more.
The Beta-glucan Effects on Lipid profile, glycemia and inTestinal health (BELT) Study investigated the effect of 3 g/day oat beta-glucans on plasma lipids, fasting glucose and self-perceived intestinal well-being. The Study was an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over randomized clinical trial, enrolling a sample of 83 Italian free-living subjects, adherent to Mediterranean diet, with a moderate hypercholesterolemia and a low cardiovascular risk profile. Beta-glucans reduced mean LDL-Cholesterol (LDL-C) levels from baseline by 12.2% (95%CI: −15.4 to −3.8) after 4 weeks of supplementation and by 15.1% (95%CI: −17.8 to −5.9) after 8 weeks of supplementation (p < 0.01 for both comparison and versus placebo). Between baseline and 4 weeks Total Cholesterol (TC) levels showed an average reduction of 6.5% (95%CI: −10.9 to −1.9) in the beta-glucan sequence; while non-HDL-C plasma concentrations decreased by 11.8% (95%CI: −14.6 to −4.5). Moreover, after 8 weeks of beta-glucan supplementation TC was reduced by 8.9% (95%CI: −12.6 to −2.3) and non-HDL-C levels by 12.1% (95%CI: −15.6 to −5.3). Decreses in TC and non HDL-C were significant also versus placebo (respectively p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 to both follow-up visits). Fasting plasma glucose and self-perceived intestinal well-being were not affected by both beta-glucan and placebo supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diets, Foods and Food Components Effect on Dyslipidemia)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Beyond Fish Oil Supplementation: The Effects of Alternative Plant Sources of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids upon Lipid Indexes and Cardiometabolic Biomarkers—An Overview
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3159; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103159 - 16 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1661
Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases remain a global challenge, and lipid-associated biomarkers can predict cardiovascular events. Extensive research on cardiovascular benefits of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3-PUFAs) is geared towards fish oil supplementation and fish-rich diets. Nevertheless, vegetarianism and veganism are becoming more popular across all [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular diseases remain a global challenge, and lipid-associated biomarkers can predict cardiovascular events. Extensive research on cardiovascular benefits of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3-PUFAs) is geared towards fish oil supplementation and fish-rich diets. Nevertheless, vegetarianism and veganism are becoming more popular across all segments of society, due to reasons as varied as personal, ethical and religious values, individual preferences and environment-related principles, amongst others. Due to the essentiality of PUFAs, plant sources of n3-PUFAs warrant further consideration. In this review, we have critically appraised the efficacy of plant-derived n3-PUFAs from foodstuffs and supplements upon lipid profile and selected cardiometabolic markers. Walnuts and flaxseed are the most common plant sources of n3-PUFAs, mainly alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), and feature the strongest scientific rationale for applicability into clinical practice. Furthermore, walnuts and flaxseed are sources of fibre, potassium, magnesium, and non-essential substances, including polyphenols and sterols, which in conjunction are known to ameliorate cardiovascular metabolism. ALA levels in rapeseed and soybean oils are only slight when compared to flaxseed oil. Spirulina and Chlorella, biomasses of cyanobacteria and green algae, are important sources of n3-PUFAs; however, their benefits upon cardiometabolic markers are plausibly driven by their antioxidant potential combined with their n3-PUFA content. In humans, ALA is not sufficiently bioconverted into eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. However, evidence suggests that plant sources of ALA are associated with favourable cardiometabolic status. ALA supplementation, or increased consumption of ALA-rich foodstuffs, combined with reduced omega-6 (n6) PUFAs intake, could improve the n3/n6 ratio and improve cardiometabolic and lipid profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diets, Foods and Food Components Effect on Dyslipidemia)
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Open AccessReview
The Role of Specific Components of a Plant-Based Diet in Management of Dyslipidemia and the Impact on Cardiovascular Risk
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2671; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092671 - 01 Sep 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2909
Abstract
Convincing evidence supports the intake of specific food components, food groups, or whole dietary patterns to positively influence dyslipidemia and to lower risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Specific macro- and micro-components of a predominantly plant-based dietary pattern are vegetable fats, dietary fibers, and [...] Read more.
Convincing evidence supports the intake of specific food components, food groups, or whole dietary patterns to positively influence dyslipidemia and to lower risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Specific macro- and micro-components of a predominantly plant-based dietary pattern are vegetable fats, dietary fibers, and phytonutrients such as phytosterols. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding effects of these components on lowering blood lipids, i.e., low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and on reducing CVD risk. The beneficial role of a plant-based diet on cardiovascular (CV) health has increasingly been recognized. Plant-based dietary patterns include a Mediterranean and Nordic diet pattern, the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH), and Portfolio diet, as well as vegetarian- or vegan-type diet patterns. These diets have all been found to lower CVD-related risk factors like blood LDL-C, and observational study evidence supports their role in lowering CVD risk. These diet patterns are not only beneficial for dyslipidemia management and prevention of CVD but further contribute to reducing the impact of food choices on environmental degradation. Hence, the CV health benefits of a predominantly plant-based diet as a healthy and environmentally sustainable eating pattern are today recommended by many food-based dietary as well as clinical practice guidelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diets, Foods and Food Components Effect on Dyslipidemia)
Open AccessReview
The Effect of Natural Antioxidants in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome: Focus on Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1504; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051504 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1875
Abstract
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a set of clinical findings that include visceral adiposity, insulin-resistance, high triglycerides (TG), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and hypertension, which is linked to an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease [...] Read more.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a set of clinical findings that include visceral adiposity, insulin-resistance, high triglycerides (TG), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and hypertension, which is linked to an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). The pathogenesis of MetS involves both genetic and acquired factors triggering oxidative stress, cellular dysfunction and systemic inflammation process mainly responsible for the pathophysiological mechanism. In recent years, MetS has gained importance due to the exponential increase in obesity worldwide. However, at present, it remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. The present review will summarize the pathogenesis of MetS and the existing pharmacological therapies currently used and focus attention on the beneficial effects of natural compounds to reduce the risk and progression of MetS. In this regard, emerging evidence suggests a potential protective role of bergamot extracts, in particular bergamot flavonoids, in the management of different features of MetS, due to their pleiotropic anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and lipid-lowering effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diets, Foods and Food Components Effect on Dyslipidemia)
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Open AccessReview
Naturally Occurring PCSK9 Inhibitors
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1440; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051440 - 16 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1966
Abstract
Genetic, epidemiological and pharmacological data have led to the conclusion that antagonizing or inhibiting Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) reduces cardiovascular events. This clinical outcome is mainly related to the pivotal role of PCSK9 in controlling low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. The [...] Read more.
Genetic, epidemiological and pharmacological data have led to the conclusion that antagonizing or inhibiting Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) reduces cardiovascular events. This clinical outcome is mainly related to the pivotal role of PCSK9 in controlling low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. The absence of oral and affordable anti-PCSK9 medications has limited the beneficial effects of this new therapeutic option. A possible breakthrough in this field may come from the discovery of new naturally occurring PCSK9 inhibitors as a starting point for the development of oral, small molecules, to be used in combination with statins in order to increase the percentage of patients reaching their LDL-cholesterol target levels. In the present review, we have summarized the current knowledge on natural compounds or extracts that have shown an inhibitory effect on PCSK9, either in experimental or clinical settings. When available, the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles of the listed compounds are described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diets, Foods and Food Components Effect on Dyslipidemia)
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