Dietary Strategies for Prevention of Geriatric Diseases and Exploring the Mechanism of Aging

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Geriatric Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 5 December 2024 | Viewed by 9826

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
Interests: minerals; digestion and absorption; functional foods; nutritional supplements
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Departamento Fisiologia Humana, Histologia Humana, Anatomia Patologica y Educacion Fisica y Deportiva, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga, Spain
Interests: Alzheimer’s disease; transgenic models; neuroinflammation; tauopathy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Population aging is one of the biggest challenges to sustainable development. Aging is a gradual and irreversible pathophysiological process characterised by the decline of tissue and cell function and the significantly increased risk of various diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, immune system diseases, and so on. More and more studies have shown that diet plays an important role in regulating aging and the development of age-related diseases. This Special Issue is interested in research articles and literature reviews that discuss how to alleviate aging and age-related degenerative diseases through diet or nutrients such as trace elements, probiotics, phytochemicals, etc. These discussions also include underlying mechanisms related to aging and age-related pathology.

Dr. Xiaoyu Wang
Dr. Raquel Sanchez-Varo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • aging
  • geriatric diseases
  • nutrition
  • dietary pattern
  • geriatric diseases

Published Papers (5 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Other

12 pages, 1174 KiB  
Article
Associations of Dietary Diversity Trajectories with Frailty among Chinese Older Adults: A Latent Class Trajectory Analysis Based on a CLHLS Cohort
by Chenyu Zhao, Yuping Wang, Xiaocan Jia, Jingwen Fan, Nana Wang, Yongli Yang and Xuezhong Shi
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1445; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101445 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 695
Abstract
Background: High dietary diversity has been found to be associated with frailty. However, the trajectory of dietary diversity intake in relation to frailty is unclear. Methods: Using the latent class trajectory modeling approach, we identified distinctive dietary variety trajectory groups among 2017 participants [...] Read more.
Background: High dietary diversity has been found to be associated with frailty. However, the trajectory of dietary diversity intake in relation to frailty is unclear. Methods: Using the latent class trajectory modeling approach, we identified distinctive dietary variety trajectory groups among 2017 participants based on the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey acquired at four time points within a 10-year period. Frailty status was assessed using a frailty index comprising 37 health deficits. Dietary diversity was quantified using the dietary variety score (DVS), based on food category consumption frequency. Logistic regression analyses were employed to explore the association between DVS change trajectories and frailty. Results: This study identified two distinct DVS trajectories: “Moderate-Slow decline-Slow growth”, encompassing 810 (40.16%) individuals, and “Moderate-Slow growth-Accelerated decline”, including 1207 (59.84%) individuals. After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio for DVS in the “Moderate-Slow decline-Slow growth” group was 1.326 (95% confidence interval: 1.075–1.636) compared to the “Moderate-Slow growth-Accelerated decline” group. The “Moderate-Slow decline-Slow growth” trajectory continued to decrease and was maintained at a low level in the early stages of aging. Conclusion: Sustaining a high dietary diversity trajectory over time, particularly in the early stages of aging, could potentially decrease the risk of frailty among older Chinese adults. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1689 KiB  
Article
Targeting Aging and Longevity with Exogenous Nucleotides (TALENTs): Rationale, Design, and Baseline Characteristics from a Randomized Controlled Trial in Older Adults
by Shuyue Wang, Lixia Song, Rui Fan, Qianqian Chen, Mei You, Meng Cai, Yuxiao Wu, Yong Li and Meihong Xu
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1343; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091343 - 29 Apr 2024
Viewed by 795
Abstract
Nucleotides (NTs), important biomolecules involved in numerous cellular processes, have been proposed as potential candidates for anti-aging interventions. However, whether nucleotides can act as an anti-aging supplement in older adults remains unclear. TALENTs is a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial that evaluates the efficacy [...] Read more.
Nucleotides (NTs), important biomolecules involved in numerous cellular processes, have been proposed as potential candidates for anti-aging interventions. However, whether nucleotides can act as an anti-aging supplement in older adults remains unclear. TALENTs is a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial that evaluates the efficacy and safety of NTs as an anti-aging supplement in older adults by exploring the effects of NTs on multiple dimensions of aging in a rigorous scientific setting. Eligible community-dwelling adults aged 60–70 years were randomly assigned equally to two groups: nucleotides intervention group and placebo control group. Comprehensive geriatric health assessments were performed at baseline, 2-months, and 4-months of the intervention. Biological specimens were collected and stored for age-related biomarker testing and multi-omics sequencing. The primary outcome was the change from baseline to 4 months on leukocyte telomere length and DNA methylation age. The secondary aims were the changes in possible mechanisms underlying aging processes (immunity, inflammatory profile, oxidative stress, gene stability, endocrine, metabolism, and cardiovascular function). Other outcomes were changes in physical function, body composition and geriatric health assessment (including sleep quality, cognitive function, fatigue, frailty, and psychology). In the RCT, 301 participants were assessed for eligibility and 122 were enrolled. Participants averaged 65.65 years of age, and were predominately female (67.21%). All baseline characteristics were well-balanced between groups, as expected due to randomization. The majority of participants were pre-frailty and had at least one chronic condition. The mean scores for physical activity, psychological, fatigue and quality of life were within the normal range. However, nearly half of the participants still had room for improvement in cognitive level and sleep quality. This TALENTs trial will represent one of the most comprehensive experimental clinical trials in which supplements are administered to elderly participants. The findings of this study will contribute to our understanding of the anti-aging effects of NTs and provide insights into their potential applications in geriatric healthcare. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3612 KiB  
Article
Age-Related Mucus Barrier Dysfunction in Mice Is Related to the Changes in Muc2 Mucin in the Colon
by Xueqin Sang, Qingyu Wang, Yueyan Ning, Huihui Wang, Rui Zhang, Yixuan Li, Bing Fang, Cong Lv, Yan Zhang, Xiaoyu Wang and Fazheng Ren
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 1830; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15081830 - 11 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2565
Abstract
During aging, the protective function of mucus barrier is significantly reduced among which changes in colonic mucus barrier function received the most attention. Additionally, the incidence of colon-related diseases increases significantly in adulthood, posing a threat to the health of the elderly. However, [...] Read more.
During aging, the protective function of mucus barrier is significantly reduced among which changes in colonic mucus barrier function received the most attention. Additionally, the incidence of colon-related diseases increases significantly in adulthood, posing a threat to the health of the elderly. However, the specific changes in colonic mucus barrier with aging and the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. To understand the effects of aging on the colonic mucus barrier, changes in the colonic mucus layer were evaluated in mice aged 2, 12, 18, and 24 months. Microbial invasion, thickness, and structure of colonic mucus in mice at different months of age were analyzed by in situ hybridization fluorescence staining, AB/PAS staining, and cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that the aged colon exhibited intestinal mucus barrier dys-function and altered mucus properties. During aging, microorganisms invaded the mucus layer to reach epithelial cells. Compared with young mice, the thickness of mucus layer in aged mice in-creased by 11.66 μm. And the contents of the main components and glycosylation structure of colon changed. Among them, the proportion of goblet cells decreased significantly in older mice, and the expression of spdef genes that regulate goblet cell differentiation decreased. Further, the expression of key enzymes involved in mucin core structure formation and glycan modification also changed with aging. The expression of core 1 β1,3-galactosyltransferase (C1GalT1) which is the key enzyme forming the main core structure increased by one time, while core 2 β1,6 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (C2GnT) and core 3 β1,3 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (C3GnT) decreased 2 to 6- and 2-fold, respectively. Also, the expression of sialyltransferase, one of the mucin-glycan modifying enzymes, was decreased by 1-fold. Overall, our results indicate that the goblet cells/glycosyltransferase/O-glycan axis plays an important role in maintaining the physicochemical properties of colonic mucus and the stability of intestinal environment. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research

23 pages, 1110 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Role of Nutrition in the Treatment of Sarcopenia in Old Patients: From Restoration of Mitochondrial Activity to Improvement of Muscle Performance, a Systematic Review
by Camille Cochet, Giulia Belloni, Ilaria Buondonno, Francesco Chiara and Patrizia D’Amelio
Nutrients 2023, 15(17), 3703; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15173703 - 24 Aug 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2883
Abstract
Sarcopenia is an age-related disease characterized by loss of muscle strength, mass and performance. Malnutrition contributes to sarcopenia pathogenesis. The aim of this systematic review is to analyze existing evidence on the efficacy of nutritional supplementation on muscle and mitochondrial health among sarcopenic [...] Read more.
Sarcopenia is an age-related disease characterized by loss of muscle strength, mass and performance. Malnutrition contributes to sarcopenia pathogenesis. The aim of this systematic review is to analyze existing evidence on the efficacy of nutritional supplementation on muscle and mitochondrial health among sarcopenic or malnourished older adults. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA), vitamin D and/or omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) on muscle mass, strength and performance and/or on mitochondrial activity and redox state in older sarcopenic and/or malnourished adults. The literature search was on MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Central, restricted to articles published in the last 10 years (2012–2022). Twelve RCTs with a total of 1337 subjects were included. BCAA with vitamin D significantly ameliorates appendicular muscle mass (4 RCTs), hand grip strength (4 RCTs), gait speed (3 RCTs), short physical performance battery (3 RCTs) or chair stand test (3 RCTs) among six out of nine RCTs. BCAA alone (2 RCTs) or PUFA (1 RCT) were not effective in improving muscle health. Mitochondrial function was significantly improved by the administration of BCAA alone (1 RCT) or in association with vitamin D (1 RCT). In conclusion, BCAA in association with vitamin D may be useful in the treatment of sarcopenia and boost mitochondrial bioenergetic and redox activity. PROSPERO CRD42022332288. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 300 KiB  
Brief Report
Associations between Vitality/Nutrition and the Other Domains of Intrinsic Capacity Based on Data from the INSPIRE ICOPE-Care Program
by Luc Gaussens, Emmanuel González-Bautista, Marc Bonnefoy, Marguerite Briand, Neda Tavassoli, Philipe De Souto Barreto, Yves Rolland and on behalf of the GEGN Group
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1567; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071567 - 24 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2057
Abstract
Background: The vitality domain of intrinsic capacity (IC) represents the synthesis of biological interactions and metabolism. As part of the Integrated Care for Older People (ICOPE) program developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), vitality focuses on the nutritional status of older adults. [...] Read more.
Background: The vitality domain of intrinsic capacity (IC) represents the synthesis of biological interactions and metabolism. As part of the Integrated Care for Older People (ICOPE) program developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), vitality focuses on the nutritional status of older adults. The objective of this work was to describe the vitality domain of IC in community-dwelling older people and to examine the associations of the vitality components (appetite loss and weight loss) with the other IC domains assessed within the framework of ICOPE. Methods: Cross-sectional data were obtained between January 2020 and February 2022 through the INSPIRE-ICOPE-Care program, a real-life ICOPE implementation initiative developed in the Occitania region of France. Participants were men and women aged 60 and older, looking for primary care services within the French healthcare system. Results: Appetite loss was reported by 14.0% (2013) of the participants, and weight loss by 12.4% (1788). A total of 863 participants (6.01%) declaring weight loss also suffered from appetite loss. In total, 2910 participants (20.27%) screened positive for the domain of vitality. Appetite loss was significantly associated with positive screenings for the domains of cognition (OR = 2.14 [1.84;2.48]), vision (OR = 1.51 [1.28;1.79]), hearing (OR = 1.18 [1.01;1.37]), psychology (OR = 3.95 [3.46;4.52]), and locomotion ‘OR = 2.19 [1.91;2.51]). We found significant associations of weight loss with the IC domains of cognition (OR = 1.65 [1.42;1.93]), psychology (OR = 1.80 [1.56;2.07]), locomotion (OR = 1.64 [1.41;1.91]), vision (OR = 1.24 [1.04;1.47]), and hearing (OR = 1.32 [1.12;1.55]). People reporting simultaneous appetite and weight loss showed higher odds of screening positive for psychological (OR = 5.33 [4.53;6.27]) and locomotion impairments (OR = 3.38 [2.88;3.98]). Conclusions: Appetite and weight loss are common among older people and are related to other potential IC impairments, especially psychological and locomotion. Further studies are needed to explore the longitudinal associations of vitality with the incidence of clinically meaningful declines in the other IC domains. Full article
Back to TopTop