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Advances in Food Chemistry

A topical collection in Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This collection belongs to the section "Food Chemistry".

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Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, Rende, Italy
Interests: food chemistry; antioxidants; bioactive lipids; cancer; inflammation; phenolipids
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The scope of this Topic Collection is to cover the advances in the chemistry and biochemistry of food, including novel approaches and techniques applied to food analysis. The topics will include: (a) major and minor constituents of food, with respect to their (bio)chemical, microbiological, nutritional, (patho)physiological, toxicological, and sensorial aspects; (b) bioactive compounds in foods, including antioxidants and phytochemicals; (c) modification of food with respect to chemical composition, quality and safety, during processing, storage, and usage; (d) methods for the valorization of byproducts and wastes; (e) functional food and ingredients, with respect to their chemical, biological, physical, and organoleptic aspects.

Dr. Pierluigi Plastina
Collection Editor

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Keywords

  • nutrients
  • lipids
  • sugars
  • proteins
  • vitamins
  • antioxidants
  • dietary fiber
  • byproducts
  • modification of food components
  • fermented foods

Published Papers (21 papers)

2024

Jump to: 2023, 2022, 2021, 2020

15 pages, 2842 KiB  
Article
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Grilled Marshmallows
by Maciej Maciejczyk, Beata Janoszka, Magdalena Szumska, Beata Pastuszka, Sławomir Waligóra, Aleksandra Damasiewicz-Bodzek, Agnieszka Nowak and Krystyna Tyrpień-Golder
Molecules 2024, 29(13), 3119; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules29133119 - 30 Jun 2024
Viewed by 390
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess potential health risks among children and adolescents consuming various grilled marshmallows using a survey and to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in these food products. PAH analysis in grilled marshmallows included a dilution stage with [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess potential health risks among children and adolescents consuming various grilled marshmallows using a survey and to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in these food products. PAH analysis in grilled marshmallows included a dilution stage with deionized water and liquid–liquid extraction with cyclohexane and solid-phase extraction (SPE). PAH fractions were initially analyzed via high-performance thin-layer chromatography, and PAH concentrations were determined via gas chromatography with a tandem mass detector using the selective reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. This study on the consumption of grilled marshmallows was conducted among approximately 300 children and adolescents. The preliminary results indicated that “raw” marshmallows did not contain PAHs. However, the obtained data suggested the exposure of young people to carcinogenic PAHs from grilled marshmallows (63.5% of them consumed marshmallows). Carcinogenic benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) was determined in all samples. The profile of PAH concentrations in the extracts isolated from various grilled types of marshmallows was similar (r2 > 0.8000), regardless of the grilling method. Compared to the white sugar confection, higher concentrations of PAHs were determined in multicolored marshmallows. The lack of social awareness about exposure to carcinogenic substances is alarming. Full article
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2023

Jump to: 2024, 2022, 2021, 2020

13 pages, 2174 KiB  
Article
Proteomic Study of Broiler Plasma Supplemented with Different Levels of Copper and Manganese from Different Sources
by Renata Aparecida Martins, Andrey Sávio de Almeida Assunção, José Cavalcante Souza Vieira, Leone Campos Rocha, Priscila Michelin Groff Urayama, Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf, José Roberto Sartori and Pedro de Magalhães Padilha
Molecules 2023, 28(24), 8155; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28248155 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 896
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the differential expression of plasma proteins in broiler chickens supplemented with different sources (sulfates and hydroxychlorides) and levels of copper (15 and 150 mg kg−1) and manganese (80 and 120 mg kg [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the differential expression of plasma proteins in broiler chickens supplemented with different sources (sulfates and hydroxychlorides) and levels of copper (15 and 150 mg kg−1) and manganese (80 and 120 mg kg−1). For this, plasma samples from 40 broiler chickens were used, divided into four experimental groups: S15-80 (15 ppm CuSO4 and 80 ppm MnSO4), S150-120 (150 ppm CuSO4 and 120 ppm MnSO4), H15-80 (15 ppm Cu(OH)Cl and 80 ppm Mn(OH)Cl), and H150-120 (150 ppm Cu(OH)Cl and 120 ppm Mn(OH)Cl). From plasma samples obtained from each bird from the same treatment, four pools were made considering 10 birds per group. Plasma proteome fractionation was performed by 2D-PAGE. Concentrations of the studied minerals were also evaluated in both plasma and protein pellet samples. A higher concentration of Cu and Mn was observed in the plasma and protein pellets of groups that received higher mineral supplementation levels compared to those receiving lower levels. Mn concentrations were higher in plasma and protein pellets of the hydroxychloride-supplemented groups than the sulfate-supplemented groups. Analysis of the gels revealed a total of 40 differentially expressed spots among the four treatments. Supplementation with different sources of minerals, particularly at higher levels, resulted in changes in protein regulation, suggesting a potential imbalance in homeostasis. Full article
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21 pages, 1413 KiB  
Review
Research Advances in the High-Value Utilization of Peanut Meal Resources and Its Hydrolysates: A Review
by Tong Zhao, Peifei Ying, Yahan Zhang, Hanyu Chen and Xingbin Yang
Molecules 2023, 28(19), 6862; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28196862 - 28 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2715
Abstract
Peanut meal (PM) is a by-product of extracting oil from peanut kernels. Although peanut meal contains protein, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, and small amounts of polyphenols and fiber, it has long been used as a feed in the poultry and livestock industries due to [...] Read more.
Peanut meal (PM) is a by-product of extracting oil from peanut kernels. Although peanut meal contains protein, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, and small amounts of polyphenols and fiber, it has long been used as a feed in the poultry and livestock industries due to its coarse texture and unpleasant taste. It is less commonly utilized in the food processing industry. In recent years, there has been an increasing amount of research conducted on the deep processing of by-products from oil crops, resulting in the high-value processing and utilization of by-products from various oil crops. These include peanut meal, which undergoes treatments such as enzymatic hydrolysis in industries like food, chemical, and aquaculture. The proteins, lipids, polyphenols, fibers, and other components present in these by-products and hydrolysates can be incorporated into products for further utilization. This review focuses on the research progress in various fields, such as the food processing, breeding, and industrial fields, regarding the high-value utilization of peanut meal and its hydrolysates. The aim is to provide valuable insights and strategies for maximizing the utilization of peanut meal resources. Full article
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11 pages, 2855 KiB  
Article
Effects of 2,2′-Azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) Dihydrochloride Stress on the Gel Properties of Duck Myofibrillar Protein Isolate
by Xueshen Zhu, Jin Zhang, Xinyu Zhang, Qun Dai and Qingquan Fu
Molecules 2023, 28(18), 6721; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28186721 - 20 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 849
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the biochemical properties and gel-forming capacity of duck myofibrillar proteins under the effects of 2,2′-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-mediated oxidation. Duck myofibrillar proteins were extracted and treated with different concentrations of AAPH solutions (0, 1, 3, 5, [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the biochemical properties and gel-forming capacity of duck myofibrillar proteins under the effects of 2,2′-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-mediated oxidation. Duck myofibrillar proteins were extracted and treated with different concentrations of AAPH solutions (0, 1, 3, 5, 10 mmol/L) and then analysed for carbonyl content, dynamic rheology, protein profiles and gel-forming properties (colour, water holding capacity, gel strength and microstructure). The results showed that with increasing AAPH concentration, the carbonyl content of the proteins exhibited an increasing trend (p < 0.05); SDS-PAGE pattern changes indicated that moderate oxidation (3 mmol/L AAPH) induced myosin aggregation via covalent bonds including disulfide, enhanced protein–protein interactions, and thus affected the gel strength of the DMPs’ heat-induced gels. However, high oxidation (5 and 10 mmol/L AAPH) led to the partial degradation of the myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms, as evidenced by lower storage modulus and irregular microstructures, which significantly reduced gelation ability. These results suggest that the internal relationship between alkylperoxyl radical-induced oxidation should be taken into account in the processing of duck meat, as mild protein oxidation is conducive to improving gel quality. Full article
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15 pages, 5656 KiB  
Article
Development and Characterization of Pickering Emulsion Stabilized by Walnut Protein Isolate Nanoparticles
by Jiongna Liu, Hengxuan Zhang, Xue Sun and Fangyu Fan
Molecules 2023, 28(14), 5434; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28145434 - 15 Jul 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1936
Abstract
This study was conducted to prepare walnut protein isolate nanoparticles (nano-WalPI) by pH-cycling, combined with the ultrasound method, to investigate the impact of various nano-WalPI concentrations (0.5~2.5%) and oil volume fractions (20~70%) on the stability of Pickering emulsion, and to improve the comprehensive [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to prepare walnut protein isolate nanoparticles (nano-WalPI) by pH-cycling, combined with the ultrasound method, to investigate the impact of various nano-WalPI concentrations (0.5~2.5%) and oil volume fractions (20~70%) on the stability of Pickering emulsion, and to improve the comprehensive utilization of walnut residue. The nano-WalPI was uniform in size (average size of 108 nm) with good emulsification properties (emulsifying activity index and stability index of 32.79 m2/g and 1423.94 min, respectively), and it could form a stable O/W-type Pickering emulsion. When the nano-WalPI concentration was 2.0% and the oil volume fraction was 60%, the best stability of Pickering emulsions was achieved with an average size of 3.33 μm, and an elastic weak gel network structure with good thermal stability and storage stability was formed. In addition, the emulsion creaming index value of the Pickering emulsion was 4.67% after 15 days of storage. This study provides unique ideas and a practical framework for the development and application of stabilizers for food-grade Pickering emulsions. Full article
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13 pages, 3895 KiB  
Article
Oxidases as Oxygen Scavengers in Hypoxic Conditions: A Kinetic Model
by Paolo Bazzoli, Stefania Iametti, Dimitrios Fessas, Francesco Bonomi and Alberto Schiraldi
Molecules 2023, 28(13), 5216; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28135216 - 5 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1070
Abstract
A simple kinetic model allowed for the description of the observed decay of the oxygen content in hypoxic aqueous samples with and without headspace, in the presence of glucose oxidase (Glucox) or laccase and their substrates (glucose for Glucox and ABTS for Laccase). [...] Read more.
A simple kinetic model allowed for the description of the observed decay of the oxygen content in hypoxic aqueous samples with and without headspace, in the presence of glucose oxidase (Glucox) or laccase and their substrates (glucose for Glucox and ABTS for Laccase). The experimental tests involved both the direct measurement of the oxygen content with a fluorescence-based probe and the indirect stopped-flow spectroscopic detection of colored compounds generated from suitable chromogenic reagents. The complete depletion of dissolved oxygen occurred in the no-headspace samples, whereas some residual oxygen remained in a steady state in the samples with headspace. Simple pseudo-first-order kinetics was adequate to describe the behavior of the system, as long as oxygen was the rate-limiting compound, i.e., in the presence of excess substrates. The values of the kinetic constants drawn from best-fit routines of the data from both experimental approaches were quite comparable. The oxygen residues in the samples with headspace seemed related to the low solubility of O2 in the aqueous phase, especially if compared with the large amount of oxygen in the headspace. The extent of such residue decreased by increasing the concentration of the enzyme. The kinetic model proposed in this paper can be of help in assembling suitable sensors to be used for food safety and quality control. Full article
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11 pages, 2088 KiB  
Article
HPAEC-PAD Analytical Evaluation of Carbohydrates Pattern for the Study of Technological Parameters Effects in Low-FODMAP Food Production
by Olimpia Pitirollo, Maria Grimaldi, Claudio Corradini, Serena Pironi and Antonella Cavazza
Molecules 2023, 28(8), 3564; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28083564 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1553
Abstract
Background: “FODMAPs” (fermentable-oligo-, di-, monosaccharides, and polyols) are a group of fermentable carbohydrates and polyols largely diffused in food products. Despite their beneficial effects as prebiotics, people affected by irritable bowel syndrome manifest symptoms when eating these carbohydrates. A low-FODMAP diet seems to [...] Read more.
Background: “FODMAPs” (fermentable-oligo-, di-, monosaccharides, and polyols) are a group of fermentable carbohydrates and polyols largely diffused in food products. Despite their beneficial effects as prebiotics, people affected by irritable bowel syndrome manifest symptoms when eating these carbohydrates. A low-FODMAP diet seems to be the only possible therapy proposed for symptom management. Bakery products are a common source of FODMAPs, whose pattern and total amount can be affected by their processing. This work aims at studying some of the technological parameters that can influence the FODMAPs pattern in bakery products during the production process. Methods: high-performance anion exchange chromatography coupled to a pulsed amperometric detector (HPAEC-PAD) was used as a highly selective system for carbohydrates evaluation analyses on flours, doughs, and crackers. These analyses were performed using two different columns, the CarboPac PA200 and CarboPac PA1, which are selective for oligosaccharide and simple sugar separation, respectively. Results: emmer and hemp flours were selected to prepare doughs as they contained low oligosaccharide content. Two different mixes of ferments were used at different times of fermentation to evaluate the best conditions to achieve low-FODMAP crackers. Conclusion: the proposed approach allows carbohydrate evaluation during crackers processing and permits the selection of opportune conditions to obtain low-FODMAP products. Full article
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18 pages, 350 KiB  
Article
Mineral, Nutritional, and Phytochemical Composition and Baking Properties of Teff and Watermelon Seed Flours
by Anna Jaroszewska, Dariusz Jedrejek, Magdalena Sobolewska, Iwona Kowalska and Małgorzata Dzięcioł
Molecules 2023, 28(7), 3255; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28073255 - 5 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3299
Abstract
Demonstrated limitations in the mineral and nutritional composition of refined flours have led to calls for the possibility of enriching them with health-promoting supplements, such as high-value non-cereal seeds. Teff and watermelon seeds have been found suitable for the production of gluten-free flour, [...] Read more.
Demonstrated limitations in the mineral and nutritional composition of refined flours have led to calls for the possibility of enriching them with health-promoting supplements, such as high-value non-cereal seeds. Teff and watermelon seeds have been found suitable for the production of gluten-free flour, but so far, their potential to enrich conventional baking flours has not been comprehensively studied. Hence, the present study aimed at farinographic evaluation of dough based on refined wheat flour with additions of whole white teff (TF) and watermelon seed (WSF) and pomace (DWSF) flours (tested levels 10%, 20%, and 30%), as well as possibly extensive chemical characterization of the plant material tested, including LC-MS/MS, GC-MS, total phenolics, flavonoids, melatonin, and antioxidant potential. Most of the rheological traits were improved in the flour mixtures compared to the base white flour: development time and quality number (above 1.6-fold increase), softening and stability time (up to 1.3-fold change), and water absorption (up to 6%). Overall, the best results were achieved after the addition of watermelon seed pomace. The DWSF material was characterized by the highest levels of P, Mg, Na (7.5, 1.7, 0.4 g/kg, respectively), and Fe and Zn (124 and 27 mg/kg), while TF was the richest in Ca (0.9 g/kg) and Mn (43 mg/kg). Protein and fat levels were significantly higher in watermelon seeds compared to teff (about double and up to 10-fold, respectively). Phytochemical analyses highlighted the abundance of phenolics, especially flavones, in TF, WSF and DWSF flours (244, 93, and 721 mg/kg, respectively). However, the value of total polyphenols was low in all materials (<2 mg GAE/g), which also correlates with the low antioxidant potential of the samples. Watermelon seed pomace was characterized by significantly higher melatonin concentration (60 µg/kg) than teff (3.5 µg/kg). This study provides new information on the chemical composition and application opportunities of teff and watermelon seeds. Full article
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12 pages, 2412 KiB  
Article
Activity and Characterization of Tocopherol Oxidase in Corn Germs and Its Relationship with Oil Color Reversion
by Liyou Zheng, Miaomiao Zhu, Fei Zhang, Jun Jin, Qingzhe Jin and Hongyan Guo
Molecules 2023, 28(6), 2659; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28062659 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1371
Abstract
Color reversion has long been a major problem for the vegetable oil industry, and the enzymatic oxidation of γ-tocopherol is thought to trigger this phenomenon. In this study, first, the extraction, purification, and detailed characterization of tocopherol oxidase from fresh corn germs were [...] Read more.
Color reversion has long been a major problem for the vegetable oil industry, and the enzymatic oxidation of γ-tocopherol is thought to trigger this phenomenon. In this study, first, the extraction, purification, and detailed characterization of tocopherol oxidase from fresh corn germs were performed. Then, the relationship between the enzyme reaction of γ-tocopherol and oil color reversion was verified. The results showed that the membrane-free extracts of raw corn germ performed specific catalysis of tocopherol in the presence of lecithin. In terms of the oxidation product, tocored (the precursor of color reversion) was detected in the mixture after the catalytic reactions, indicating that this anticipated enzyme reaction was probably correlated with the color reversion. Furthermore, the optimal pH and temperature for the tocopherol oxidase enzyme were 4.6 and 20 °C, respectively. In addition, ascorbic acid at 1.0 mM completely inhibited the enzymatic reaction. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2021, 2020

15 pages, 2224 KiB  
Article
Inhibition of Aflatoxin B1 Synthesis in Aspergillus flavus by Mate (Ilex paraguariensis), Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Extracts: Relation with Extract Antioxidant Capacity and Fungal Oxidative Stress Response Modulation
by Anthony Al Khoury, André El Khoury, Ophélie Rocher, Pamela Hindieh, Olivier Puel, Richard G. Maroun, Ali Atoui and Jean-Denis Bailly
Molecules 2022, 27(23), 8550; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27238550 - 5 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2040
Abstract
Plant extracts may represent an ecofriendly alternative to chemical fungicides to limit aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination of foods and feeds. Mate (Ilex paraguariensis), rosemary (Romarinus officinalis) and green tea (Camellia sinensis) are well known for their beneficial [...] Read more.
Plant extracts may represent an ecofriendly alternative to chemical fungicides to limit aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination of foods and feeds. Mate (Ilex paraguariensis), rosemary (Romarinus officinalis) and green tea (Camellia sinensis) are well known for their beneficial properties, which are mainly related to their richness in bioactive phenolic compounds. AFB1 production is inhibited, with varying efficiency, by acetone/water extracts from these three plants. At 0.45 µg dry matter (DM)/mL of culture medium, mate and green tea extracts were able to completely inhibit AFB1 production in Aspergillus flavus, and rosemary extract completely blocked AFB1 biosynthesis at 3.6 µg DM/mL of culture medium. The anti-AFB1 capacity of the extracts correlated strongly with their phenolic content, but, surprisingly, no such correlation was evident with their antioxidative ability, which is consistent with the ineffectiveness of these extracts against fungal catalase activity. Anti-AFB1 activity correlated more strongly with the radical scavenging capacity of the extracts. This is consistent with the modulation of SOD induced by mate and green tea in Aspergillus flavus. Finally, rutin, a phenolic compound present in the three plants tested in this work, was shown to inhibit AFB1 synthesis and may be responsible for the anti-mycotoxin effect reported herein. Full article
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10 pages, 552 KiB  
Article
Modification of the Nutritional Quality and Oxidative Stability of Lupin (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) and Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) Oil Blends
by Gilbert Rodríguez, Elza Aguirre, Any Córdova-Chang, Jenny C. Muñoz-Saenz, Mery Baquerizo, Andrea Brandolini, Eudes Villanueva and Alyssa Hidalgo
Molecules 2022, 27(21), 7315; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27217315 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2147
Abstract
Andean lupin (Lupinus mutabilis) oil is rich in monounsaturated (54.2%) and polyunsaturated (28.5%) fatty acids but has a ω-3:ω-6 ratio (1:9.2) above the recommended values for human health. Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis) oil presents a high polyunsaturated fatty acid [...] Read more.
Andean lupin (Lupinus mutabilis) oil is rich in monounsaturated (54.2%) and polyunsaturated (28.5%) fatty acids but has a ω-3:ω-6 ratio (1:9.2) above the recommended values for human health. Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis) oil presents a high polyunsaturated fatty acid content (linolenic 47.2% and linoleic 34.7%), along a ω-3:ω-6 ratio (1:0.74) good for human consumption. The objective of this research was to study the physico-chemical properties and oxidative stability of tarwi and sacha inchi oil blends (1:4, 1:3, 1:1, 3:1 and 4:1 w:w) with suitable ω-3:ω-6 ratios. All blends showed ω-3:ω-6 ratios between 1:0.8 and 1:1.9, acceptable from a nutritional point of view, and high total tocopherols’ content (1834–688 mg/kg), thanks to sacha inchi. The oxidative stability index (OSI) of the mixtures by the Rancimat method at 120 °C ranged from 0.46 to 8.80 h. The shelf-life of 1:1 tarwi/sacha inchi oil blend was 1.26 years; its entropy (−17.43 J/mol), enthalpy (107.04 kJ/mol), activation energy (110.24 kJ/mol) and Gibbs energy (113.76 kJ/mol) suggest low oxidation reaction rates and good stability. Hence, balanced blends of tarwi/sacha inchi oils can achieve optimal nutritional properties and enhanced shelf-life. Full article
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23 pages, 1960 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Organic Iodine Compounds in Sweetcorn under the Influence of Exogenous Foliar Application of Iodine and Vanadium
by Marlena Grzanka, Sylwester Smoleń, Łukasz Skoczylas and Dominik Grzanka
Molecules 2022, 27(6), 1822; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27061822 - 11 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3039
Abstract
A human’s diet should be diverse and rich in vitamins, macro- and microelements essential for the proper functioning of the human body. Globally, a high percentage of the human population suffers from malnutrition, deficiencies of nutrients and vitamins also known as the problem [...] Read more.
A human’s diet should be diverse and rich in vitamins, macro- and microelements essential for the proper functioning of the human body. Globally, a high percentage of the human population suffers from malnutrition, deficiencies of nutrients and vitamins also known as the problem of hidden hunger. This problem it is not only common in poor countries, but also occurs in developed countries. Iodine is a nutrient crucial for the proper functioning of the human and animal body. For plants, it is referred to as a beneficial element or even a microelement. The design of the biofortification experiment was determined on the basis of the interaction of iodine and vanadium (synergistic interaction in marine algae), where vanadium-dependent iodoperoxidase catalyzes apoplastic oxidation of iodine, resulting in high efficiency of iodine uptake and accumulation in brown algae (Laminaria digitate). Three independent experiments (Exp.) were carried out with the foliar application of vanadium (V) and iodine (I) compounds. The main differences between the experiments with the adapted proper corn biofortification method were the different application stage between the individual experiments, the application intervals and the dose of the iodine–vanadium compound. In each experiment, the accumulation of iodine and vanadium in the grain was several times lower than in the leaves. The combination iodine and vanadium significantly increased the accumulation of iodine in the grain in the case of applying V with inorganic iodine compounds, and a decrease in the accumulation of I after applying V with organic iodine compound —especially in Exp. No. 3. In grain, the highest content of I, IO3 was in combination with the application of 2-iodobenzoic acid (products of its metabolism). In most of the tested combinations, vanadium stimulated the accumulation/synthesis of exogenous/endogenous 5-iodosalicylic acid (5ISA) and 2-iodobenzoic acid (2IBeA), respectively, and decreased the content of 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (2,3,5-triIBeA) in leaves and grains. The tested compounds I and V and the combinations of their application had a diversified effect on the vitamin C content in the grains. Vanadium in the lower dose of 0.1 µM significantly increased the sugar content in the grain. Full article
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37 pages, 2750 KiB  
Review
Prevention of Enzymatic Browning by Natural Extracts and Genome-Editing: A Review on Recent Progress
by Norfadilah Hamdan, Chia Hau Lee, Syie Luing Wong, Che Ellysa Nurshafika Che Ahmad Fauzi, Nur Mirza Aqilah Zamri and Ting Hun Lee
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 1101; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27031101 - 7 Feb 2022
Cited by 49 | Viewed by 14763
Abstract
Fresh fruits and vegetable products are easily perishable during postharvest handling due to enzymatic browning reactions. This phenomenon has contributed to a significant loss of food quality and appearance. Thus, a safe and effective alternative method from natural sources is needed to tackle [...] Read more.
Fresh fruits and vegetable products are easily perishable during postharvest handling due to enzymatic browning reactions. This phenomenon has contributed to a significant loss of food quality and appearance. Thus, a safe and effective alternative method from natural sources is needed to tackle enzymatic browning prevention. The capabilities of natural anti-browning agents derived from plant- and animal-based resources in inhibiting enzymatic activity have been demonstrated in the literature. Some also possess strong antioxidants properties. This review aims to summarize a recent investigation regarding the use of natural anti-browning extracts from different sources for controlling the browning. The potential applications of genome-editing in preventing browning activity and improving postharvest quality is also discussed. Moreover, the patents on the anti-browning extract from natural sources is also presented in this review. The information reviewed here could provide new insights, contributing to the development of natural anti-browning extracts and genome-editing techniques for the prevention of food browning. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2022, 2020

13 pages, 1196 KiB  
Article
Concentration of Bioactive Phenolic Compounds in Olive Mill Wastewater by Direct Contact Membrane Distillation
by Rosa Tundis, Carmela Conidi, Monica R. Loizzo, Vincenzo Sicari, Rosa Romeo and Alfredo Cassano
Molecules 2021, 26(6), 1808; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26061808 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 2629
Abstract
Olive mill wastewater (OMW), generated as a by-product of olive oil production, is considered one of the most polluting effluents produced by the agro-food industry, due to its high concentration of organic matter and nutrients. However, OMW is rich in several polyphenols, representing [...] Read more.
Olive mill wastewater (OMW), generated as a by-product of olive oil production, is considered one of the most polluting effluents produced by the agro-food industry, due to its high concentration of organic matter and nutrients. However, OMW is rich in several polyphenols, representing compounds with remarkable biological properties. This study aimed to analyze the chemical profile as well as the antioxidant and anti-obesity properties of concentrated fractions obtained from microfiltered OMW treated by direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD). Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) analyses were applied to quantify some phenols selected as phytochemical markers. Moreover, α-Amylase, α-glucosidase, and lipase inhibitory activity were investigated together with the antioxidant activity by means of assays, namely β-carotene bleaching, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic) acid (ABTS) diammonium salts, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, and Ferric Reducing Activity Power (FRAP) tests. MD retentate—which has content of about five times greater of hydroxytyrosol and verbascoside and about 7 times greater of oleuropein than the feed—was more active as an antioxidant in all applied assays. Of interest is the result obtained in the DPPH test (an inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) of 9.8 μg/mL in comparison to the feed (IC50 of 97.2 μg/mL)) and in the ABTS assay (an IC50 of 0.4 μg/mL in comparison to the feed (IC50 of 1.2 μg/mL)). Full article
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2020

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2022, 2021

14 pages, 2346 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Phenolic Compounds, Vitamin E and Fatty Acids from Monovarietal Virgin Olive Oils of “Picholine marocaine” Cultivar
by Aziz Bouymajane, Yassine Oulad El Majdoub, Francesco Cacciola, Marina Russo, Fabio Salafia, Alessandra Trozzi, Fouzia Rhazi Filali, Paola Dugo and Luigi Mondello
Molecules 2020, 25(22), 5428; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25225428 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2962
Abstract
Olive oil is an important product in the Mediterranean diet, due to its health benefits and sensorial characteristics. Picholine marocaine is the most cultivated variety in Morocco. The present research aims to evaluate the phenolic compounds, vitamin E and fatty acids of commercial [...] Read more.
Olive oil is an important product in the Mediterranean diet, due to its health benefits and sensorial characteristics. Picholine marocaine is the most cultivated variety in Morocco. The present research aims to evaluate the phenolic compounds, vitamin E and fatty acids of commercial Picholine marocaine virgin olive oils (VOOs) from five different North Moroccan provinces (Chefchaouen, Taounate, Errachidia, Beni Mellal and Taza), using HPLC-photodiode array (PDA)/electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS, normal phase (NP)-HPLC/ fluorescence detector (FLD) and GC-flame ionization detector (FID)/MS, respectively. The obtained results showed an average content of 130.0 mg kg−1 of secoiridoids (oleuropein aglycone, 10-hydroxy-oleuropein aglycone and ligstroside aglycone, oleocanthal and oleacein), 108.1 mg kg−1 of phenolic alcohols (tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol), 34.7 mg kg−1 of phenolic acids (caffeic acid, ferulic acid and elenolic acid), and 8.24 mg kg−1 of flavonoids (luteolin, luteolin glucoside, apigenin). With regard to vitamin E, α-tocopherol was the most abundant vitamin E (57.9 mg kg−1), followed by α-tocotrienol (2.5 mg kg−1), γ-tocopherol (4.5 mg kg−1) and β-tocopherol (1.9 mg kg−1), while δ-tocopherol was not detected. Moreover, 14 fatty acids were found and, among them, oleic acid (76.1%), linoleic acid (8.1%) palmitic acid (8.7%) and stearic acid (2.5%) were the major fatty acids detected. Finally, heat map and principal component analysis allowed us to classify the studied provinces in terms of VOO chemical composition: Chefchaouen (tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol), Taounate (oleuropein aglycone), Errachidia (ferulic acid, w-3 and w-6), Beni Mellal (oleocanthal) and Taza (luteolin and oleic acid). Full article
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13 pages, 262 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Activities and Volatile Flavor Components of Selected Single-Origin and Blend Chocolates
by Lucia Godočiková, Eva Ivanišová, Grzegorz Zaguła, Luis Noguera-Artiaga, Ángel A. Carbonell-Barrachina, Przemysław Łukasz Kowalczewski and Miroslava Kačániová
Molecules 2020, 25(16), 3648; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163648 - 11 Aug 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3641
Abstract
The biological activity of chocolates gains more and more attention of consumers. Its antioxidant properties depend, among other factors, mainly on the origin of cocoa and the characteristics that this origin gives to the final product. Therefore, the aim of the study was [...] Read more.
The biological activity of chocolates gains more and more attention of consumers. Its antioxidant properties depend, among other factors, mainly on the origin of cocoa and the characteristics that this origin gives to the final product. Therefore, the aim of the study was to measure and compare the total content of polyphenols, antioxidant activity, and key odorants of commercial chocolates made from blend cocoa with single-origin ones. The highest content of polyphenols was found in 90% blend cocoa chocolate and single-origin samples, while the lowest content was exhibited by 100% chocolate from blend cocoa mass. The highest antioxidant activity measured by 2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays was observed in the sample of chocolate with 90% cocoa solids from blend mass, followed by single-origin chocolates. A high positive correlation between ABTS assay and the total polyphenol and phenolic acids’ content, as well as among the total content of polyphenols, flavonoids, and phenolic acids was found. Mineral composition analysis showed that dark chocolate is a valuable source of some elements, especially Mg, Fe, and Zn. Potentially toxic elements were not detected or below permitted limits. Moreover, it was noticed that the main volatile compound in all tested samples was acetic acid, but pyrazines were considered the most important group of chocolate odorants. Full article
17 pages, 1367 KiB  
Article
A Study on the Biodiversity of Pigmented Andean Potatoes: Nutritional Profile and Phenolic Composition
by Maria Bellumori, Nancy A. Chasquibol Silva, Laida Vilca, Luisa Andrenelli, Lorenzo Cecchi, Marzia Innocenti, Diletta Balli and Nadia Mulinacci
Molecules 2020, 25(14), 3169; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25143169 - 10 Jul 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3118
Abstract
The characterization of six varieties of native Andean potatoes with a wide biodiversity in tuber shape, flesh, and skin color was performed, through the determination of their proximate composition, mineral content, and phenolic profile. Minerals concentration revealed significant genotypic variation. Potassium was the [...] Read more.
The characterization of six varieties of native Andean potatoes with a wide biodiversity in tuber shape, flesh, and skin color was performed, through the determination of their proximate composition, mineral content, and phenolic profile. Minerals concentration revealed significant genotypic variation. Potassium was the most abundant element in all varieties, ranging from 7272.9 to 13,059.9 µg/g and from 12,418 to 17,388.6 µg/g dried weight for the flesh and skin samples, respectively. Iron content was relevant, ranging from 20.5 to 39.9 µg/g and from 112.2 to 288.8 µg/g dried weight in flesh and skin samples, respectively. Phenolic compounds were consistently higher in the skin than in the flesh. The total content varied greatly from 19.5 to 2015.3 µg/g and from 1592.3 to 14807.3 µg/g dried weight for flesh and skin tissues, respectively. 5-caffeoylquinic acid was 74% of the total phenolic acids. Different pattern of anthocyanins was found, depending on the color of the variety; the red genotypes contained predominantly pelargonidin derivatives, while the purple samples had petunidin as a major anthocyanidin. This study increases the knowledge of the composition of the local Andean varieties (which are only scarcely studied so far), helping to enhance these genotypes and the conservation of biodiversity. Full article
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12 pages, 593 KiB  
Review
Review on the Biological Detoxification of Mycotoxins Using Lactic Acid Bacteria to Enhance the Sustainability of Foods Supply
by Belal J. Muhialdin, Nazamid Saari and Anis Shobirin Meor Hussin
Molecules 2020, 25(11), 2655; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25112655 - 7 Jun 2020
Cited by 86 | Viewed by 7574
Abstract
The challenges to fulfill the demand for a safe food supply are dramatically increasing. Mycotoxins produced by certain fungi cause great economic loss and negative impact on the sustainability of food supplies. Moreover, the occurrence of mycotoxins at high levels in foods poses [...] Read more.
The challenges to fulfill the demand for a safe food supply are dramatically increasing. Mycotoxins produced by certain fungi cause great economic loss and negative impact on the sustainability of food supplies. Moreover, the occurrence of mycotoxins at high levels in foods poses a high health threat for the consumers. Biological detoxification has exhibited a high potential to detoxify foodstuffs on a cost-effective and large scale. Lactic acid bacteria showed a good potential as an alternative strategy for the elimination of mycotoxins. The current review describes the health and economic impacts associated with mycotoxin contamination in foodstuffs. Moreover, this review highlights the biological detoxification of common food mycotoxins by lactic acid bacteria. Full article
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17 pages, 2653 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of Milk Fat Globular Membrane (MFGM) Proteome between Saudi Arabia Camelus dromedary Safra and Wadha Breeds
by Bassam H. Sabha, Afshan Masood, Ibrahim O. Alanazi, Assim A. Alfadda, Hussein A. Almehdar, Hicham Benabdelkamel and Elrashdy M. Redwan
Molecules 2020, 25(9), 2146; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25092146 - 4 May 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3199
Abstract
Camel milk is traditionally known to have medicinal properties and many potential health benefits. Natural milk contains many soluble proteins and nanoparticles, such as a milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), a three-layered membrane covering of milk fat globule mainly composed of proteins and [...] Read more.
Camel milk is traditionally known to have medicinal properties and many potential health benefits. Natural milk contains many soluble proteins and nanoparticles, such as a milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), a three-layered membrane covering of milk fat globule mainly composed of proteins and lipids, which plays an important role in human health. MFGM proteins account for 1%–4% of total milk proteins, and their nutritive value and distribution depends on the different breeds. The differential composition of these membrane proteins among different camel breeds has not been explored. The current study, therefore, aimed to quantitatively analyze and compare the MFGM proteome between the milk produced by the two most common Saudi camel breeds, Camelus dromedarius: Safra and Wadha. Two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry analysis revealed a total of 44 MFGM proteins that were identified with a significant difference in abundance (p ≤ 0.05; fold change ≥ 1.5) between the two breeds. Thirty-one proteins were up-regulated and 13 proteins were down-regulated in the Safra breed compared to the Wadha breed. The proteins identified with an increased abundance included α-lactalbumin, lactadherin, and annexin a8, whereas the down-regulated proteins included butyrophilin subfamily 1 member a1, lactotransferrin, and vinculin. The differentially abundant proteins were analyzed by the UNIPROT system and gene ontology (GO) to reveal their associations with known biological functions and pathways. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirmed the 2D-DIGE findings of butyrophilin (BTN) and α-lactalbumin (α-LA) levels obtained from Safra and Wadha breeds. Full article
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14 pages, 313 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Bioaccessibility and Antioxidant Activity of Coffee Silverskin Polyphenolic Extract and Characterization of Bioactive Compounds Using UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS
by Luigi Castaldo, Alfonso Narváez, Luana Izzo, Giulia Graziani and Alberto Ritieni
Molecules 2020, 25(9), 2132; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25092132 - 2 May 2020
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 3927
Abstract
Coffee silverskin (CS), the main by-product in the coffee industry, contains a vast number of human health-related compounds, which may justify its exploitation as a functional food ingredient. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive analysis of the polyphenolic and alkaloid profile through [...] Read more.
Coffee silverskin (CS), the main by-product in the coffee industry, contains a vast number of human health-related compounds, which may justify its exploitation as a functional food ingredient. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive analysis of the polyphenolic and alkaloid profile through UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS analysis. The bioaccessibility of total phenolic compounds and changes in the antioxidant activity during an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion were also evaluated through spectrophotometric tests (TPC by Folin-Ciocalteu, ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP), to elucidate their efficacy for future applications in the nutraceutical industry. Caffeoylquinic and feruloylquinic acids were the most representative polyphenols, with a mean concentration of 5.93 and 4.25 mg/g, respectively. Results showed a high content of caffeine in the analyzed CS extracts, with a mean value of 31.2 mg/g, meaning a two-fold increase when compared to coffee brews. Our findings highlighted that both the bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of CS polyphenols significantly increased in each in vitro gastrointestinal digestion stage. In addition, the colon stage might constitute the main biological site of action of these antioxidant compounds. These results suggest that in vivo, the dietary polyphenols from CS might be metabolized by human colonic microflora, generating metabolites with a greater antioxidant activity, increasing their well-known beneficial effects. Full article
21 pages, 1370 KiB  
Article
Cannabis sativa L. Inflorescences from Monoecious Cultivars Grown in Central Italy: An Untargeted Chemical Characterization from Early Flowering to Ripening
by Cinzia Ingallina, Anatoly P. Sobolev, Simone Circi, Mattia Spano, Caterina Fraschetti, Antonello Filippi, Antonella Di Sotto, Silvia Di Giacomo, Giulia Mazzoccanti, Francesco Gasparrini, Deborah Quaglio, Enio Campiglia, Simone Carradori, Marcello Locatelli, Giuliana Vinci, Mattia Rapa, Salvatore Ciano, Anna Maria Giusti, Bruno Botta, Francesca Ghirga, Donatella Capitani and Luisa Manninaadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Molecules 2020, 25(8), 1908; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25081908 - 20 Apr 2020
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 8030
Abstract
The chemical composition of the inflorescences from four Cannabis sativa L. monoecious cultivars (Ferimon, Uso-31, Felina 32 and Fedora 17), recently introduced in the Lazio Region, was monitored over the season from June to September giving indications on their sensorial, pharmaceutical/nutraceutical proprieties. Both [...] Read more.
The chemical composition of the inflorescences from four Cannabis sativa L. monoecious cultivars (Ferimon, Uso-31, Felina 32 and Fedora 17), recently introduced in the Lazio Region, was monitored over the season from June to September giving indications on their sensorial, pharmaceutical/nutraceutical proprieties. Both untargeted (NMR) and targeted (GC/MS, UHPLC, HPLC-PDA/FD and spectrophotometry) analyses were carried out to identify and quantify compounds of different classes (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, cannabinoids, terpenoids, phenols, tannins, flavonoids and biogenic amines). All cultivars in each harvesting period showed a THC content below the Italian legal limit, although in general THC content increased over the season. Citric acid, malic acid and glucose showed the highest content in the late flowering period, whereas the content of proline drastically decreased after June in all cultivars. Neophytadiene, nerolidol and chlorogenic acid were quantified only in Felina 32 cultivar, characterized also by a very high content of flavonoids, whereas alloaromadendrene and trans-cinnamic acid were detected only in Uso-31 cultivar. Naringenin and naringin were present only in Fedora 17 and Ferimon cultivars, respectively. Moreover, Ferimon had the highest concentration of biogenic amines, especially in July and August. Cadaverine was present in all cultivars but only in September. These results suggest that the chemical composition of Cannabis sativa L. inflorescences depends on the cultivar and on the harvesting period. Producers can use this information as a guide to obtain inflorescences with peculiar chemical characteristics according to the specific use. Full article
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