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Open AccessArticle

Cannabis sativa L. Inflorescences from Monoecious Cultivars Grown in Central Italy: An Untargeted Chemical Characterization from Early Flowering to Ripening

1
Department of Chemistry and Technology of Drugs, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
2
Institute for Biological Systems, Magnetic Resonance Laboratory “Segre-Capitani”, CNR, Via Salaria Km 29.300, 00015 Monterotondo, Italy
3
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology “V. Ersparmer”, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
4
Department of Agriculture and Forest Sciences, University of Tuscia, Via San Camillo de Lellis snc, 01100 Viterbo, Italy
5
Department of Pharmacy, University “G. d’Annunzio” of Chieti-Pescara, Via dei Vestini 31, 66100 Chieti, Italy
6
Department of Management, Sapienza University of Rome, via del Castro Laurenziano 9, 00161 Rome, Italy
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Department of Experimental Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
8
Center for Life Nano [email protected], Italian Institute of Technology, Viale Regina Elena 291, 00161 Rome, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
To whom this paper is dedicated, passed away on 20 September 2019.
Academic Editor: Pierluigi Plastina
Molecules 2020, 25(8), 1908; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25081908
Received: 28 March 2020 / Revised: 14 April 2020 / Accepted: 15 April 2020 / Published: 20 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Food Chemistry )
The chemical composition of the inflorescences from four Cannabis sativa L. monoecious cultivars (Ferimon, Uso-31, Felina 32 and Fedora 17), recently introduced in the Lazio Region, was monitored over the season from June to September giving indications on their sensorial, pharmaceutical/nutraceutical proprieties. Both untargeted (NMR) and targeted (GC/MS, UHPLC, HPLC-PDA/FD and spectrophotometry) analyses were carried out to identify and quantify compounds of different classes (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, cannabinoids, terpenoids, phenols, tannins, flavonoids and biogenic amines). All cultivars in each harvesting period showed a THC content below the Italian legal limit, although in general THC content increased over the season. Citric acid, malic acid and glucose showed the highest content in the late flowering period, whereas the content of proline drastically decreased after June in all cultivars. Neophytadiene, nerolidol and chlorogenic acid were quantified only in Felina 32 cultivar, characterized also by a very high content of flavonoids, whereas alloaromadendrene and trans-cinnamic acid were detected only in Uso-31 cultivar. Naringenin and naringin were present only in Fedora 17 and Ferimon cultivars, respectively. Moreover, Ferimon had the highest concentration of biogenic amines, especially in July and August. Cadaverine was present in all cultivars but only in September. These results suggest that the chemical composition of Cannabis sativa L. inflorescences depends on the cultivar and on the harvesting period. Producers can use this information as a guide to obtain inflorescences with peculiar chemical characteristics according to the specific use. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cannabis sativa L.; monoecious cultivars; inflorescences; cannabinoids; metabolic profile; multimethodological analysis Cannabis sativa L.; monoecious cultivars; inflorescences; cannabinoids; metabolic profile; multimethodological analysis
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Ingallina, C.; Sobolev, A.P.; Circi, S.; Spano, M.; Fraschetti, C.; Filippi, A.; Di Sotto, A.; Di Giacomo, S.; Mazzoccanti, G.; Gasparrini, F.; Quaglio, D.; Campiglia, E.; Carradori, S.; Locatelli, M.; Vinci, G.; Rapa, M.; Ciano, S.; Giusti, A.M.; Botta, B.; Ghirga, F.; Capitani, D.; Mannina, L. Cannabis sativa L. Inflorescences from Monoecious Cultivars Grown in Central Italy: An Untargeted Chemical Characterization from Early Flowering to Ripening. Molecules 2020, 25, 1908.

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