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Special Issue "Feature Papers to Celebrate Molecules Reaches 20,000 Articles Milestone"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Diego Muñoz-Torrero
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, Institute of Biomedicine (IBUB), University of Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII, 27-31, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain
Interests: multitarget anti-Alzheimer agents; hybrid compounds; cholinesterase inhibitors; amyloid anti-aggregating compounds; BACE-1 inhibitors; antiprotozoan compounds
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Joselito P. Quirino
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Australian Centre of Research on Separation Science, School of Physical Science, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
Interests: capillary electrophoresis; liquid chromatography; mass spectrometry; sample concentration; green sample preparation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. James Gauld
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada
Interests: computational chemistry; quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics; molecular dynamics; docking; catalysis; enzymology; thermochemistry; reaction mechanisms; sulfur biochemistry
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Vadim A. Soloshonok
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Organic Chemistry I, University of Basque Country, San Sebastian, Spain
Interests: organic chemistry, synthesis, mechanisms; fluoro-organic chemistry, fluorine-containing pharmaceuticals and medicinal formulations; amino acids and peptides; neuro-chemistry; self-disproportionation of enantiomers; astrochemistry and origin of prebiotic homo-chirality
Prof. Dr. Roman Dembinski
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, Oakland University, 146 Library Drive, Rochester, MI 48309-4479, USA
Interests: organic, organometallic, and medicinal chemistry; organic synthesis; nucleosides; heterocycles; alkynes; fluorine and fluorous; cycloisomerizations; cyclizations
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Derek J. McPhee
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Guest Editor
Senior Director, Technology Strategy, Amyris, Inc., 5885 Hollis St, Suite 100, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
Interests: organic synthesis; medicinal chemistry; biotechnology
Prof. Dr. Thomas J. Schmidt
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Guest Editor
Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology and Phytochemistry, University of Münster, Corrensstrasse 48, D-48149 Münster, Germany
Interests: natural products; anti-parasitic activity; anti-cancer activity; structure elucidation; spectroscopy; computer-aided structure-activity relationship studies
Prof. Dr. Mark von Itzstein
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Glycomics, Gold Coast Campus, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 4222, Australia
Interests: drug discovery; glycobiology; chemoenzymatic transformations; chemical virology; infectious diseases; cancer
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

To celebrate the recent publication of Molecules’ 20,000th paper, the journal’s Editor in Chief and Guest Editors have teamed up to invite researchers in all the areas of interest covered by Molecules to submit their original research or review articles of the highest quality to celebrate with our readers on this special occasion.

Prof. Dr. Farid Chemat
Prof. Dr. Diego Muñoz-Torrero
Dr. Joselito P. Quirino
Dr. James W. Gauld
Prof. Dr. Vadim A. Soloshonok
Prof. Roman Dembinski
Dr. Derek J. McPhee
Dr. Thomas J. Schmidt
Prof. Mark von Itzstein
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
We’ve Come a Long Way, Baby: Announcing a Special Issue to Commemorate the Publication of Molecule’s 20,000th Paper
Molecules 2020, 25(1), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25010173 - 31 Dec 2019
Viewed by 810
Abstract
On behalf of my Section Editor-in-Chief co-author colleagues I am pleased to announce a Special Issue to commemorate the recent publication of Molecules’ 20,000th paper [...] Full article
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Research

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Article
Industrial, CBD, and Wild Hemp: How Different Are Their Essential Oil Profile and Antimicrobial Activity?
Molecules 2020, 25(20), 4631; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204631 - 12 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1541
Abstract
Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is currently one of the most controversial and promising crops. This study compared nine wild hemp (C. sativa spp. spontanea V.) accessions with 13 registered cultivars, eight breeding lines, and one cannabidiol (CBD) hemp strain belonging to [...] Read more.
Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is currently one of the most controversial and promising crops. This study compared nine wild hemp (C. sativa spp. spontanea V.) accessions with 13 registered cultivars, eight breeding lines, and one cannabidiol (CBD) hemp strain belonging to C. sativa L. The first three groups had similar main essential oil (EO) constituents, but in different concentrations; the CBD hemp had a different EO profile. The concentration of the four major constituents in the industrial hemp lines and wild hemp accessions varied as follows: β-caryophyllene 11–22% and 15.4–29.6%; α-humulene 4.4–7.6% and 5.3–11.9%; caryophyllene oxide 8.6–13.7% and 0.2–31.2%; and humulene epoxide 2, 2.3–5.6% and 1.2–9.5%, respectively. The concentration of CBD in the EO of wild hemp varied from 6.9 to 52.4% of the total oil while CBD in the EO of the registered cultivars varied from 7.1 to 25%; CBD in the EO of the breeding lines and in the CBD strain varied from 6.4 to 25% and 7.4 to 8.8%, respectively. The concentrations of δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in the EO of the three groups of hemp were significantly different, with the highest concentration being 3.5%. The EO of wild hemp had greater antimicrobial activity compared with the EO of registered cultivars. This is the first report to show that significant amounts of CBD could be accumulated in the EO of wild and registered cultivars of hemp following hydro-distillation. The amount of CBD in the EO can be greater than that in the EO of the USA strain used for commercial production of CBD. Furthermore, this is among the first reports that show greater antimicrobial activity of the EO of wild hemp vs. the EO of registered cultivars. The results suggest that wild hemp may offer an excellent opportunity for future breeding and the selection of cultivars with a desirable composition of the EO and possibly CBD-rich EO production. Full article
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Article
Design and Synthesis of a Chiral Halogen-Bond Donor with a Sp3-Hybridized Carbon–Iodine Moiety in a Chiral Fluorobissulfonyl Scaffold
Molecules 2020, 25(19), 4539; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25194539 - 03 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 747
Abstract
The first example of a chiral halogen-bond donor with a sp3-hybridized carbon–iodine moiety in a fluorobissulfonyl scaffold is described. The binaphthyl backbone was designed as a chiral source and the chiral halogen-bond donor (R)-1 was synthesized from ( [...] Read more.
The first example of a chiral halogen-bond donor with a sp3-hybridized carbon–iodine moiety in a fluorobissulfonyl scaffold is described. The binaphthyl backbone was designed as a chiral source and the chiral halogen-bond donor (R)-1 was synthesized from (R)-1,1′-binaphthol in 11 steps. An NMR titration experiment demonstrated that (R)-1 worked as a halogen-bond donor. The Mukaiyama aldol reaction and quinoline reduction were examined using (R)-1 as a catalyst to evaluate the asymmetric induction. Full article
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Article
Is It Conjugated or Not? The Theoretical and Experimental Electron Density Map of Bonding in p-CH3CH2COC6H4-C≡C-C≡C-p-C6H4COCH3CH2
Molecules 2020, 25(19), 4388; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25194388 - 24 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 563
Abstract
The electron density of p-CH3CH2COC6H4-C≡CC≡C-p-C6H4COCH3CH2 has been investigated on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected to high resolution at 100 K and from [...] Read more.
The electron density of p-CH3CH2COC6H4-C≡CC≡C-p-C6H4COCH3CH2 has been investigated on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected to high resolution at 100 K and from theoretical calculations. An analysis of the X-ray data of the diyne showed interesting “liquidity” of electron distribution along the carbon chain compared to 1,2-diphenylacetylene. These findings are compatible with the results of topological analysis of Electron Localization Function (ELF), which has also revealed a larger (than expected) concentration of the electron density at the single bonds. Both methods indicate a clear π-type or “banana” character of a single bond and a significant distortion from the typical conjugated structure of the bonding in the diyne with a small contribution of cumulenic structures. Full article
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Communication
Asymmetric Synthesis of Tertiary α -Hydroxyketones by Enantioselective Decarboxylative Chlorination and Subsequent Nucleophilic Substitution
Molecules 2020, 25(17), 3902; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25173902 - 27 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 692
Abstract
Chiral tertiary α-hydroxyketones were synthesized with high enantiopurity by asymmetric decarboxylative chlorination and subsequent nucleophilic substitution. We recently reported the asymmetric decarboxylative chlorination of β-ketocarboxylic acids in the presence of a chiral primary amine catalyst to obtain α-chloroketones with high enantiopurity. Here, we [...] Read more.
Chiral tertiary α-hydroxyketones were synthesized with high enantiopurity by asymmetric decarboxylative chlorination and subsequent nucleophilic substitution. We recently reported the asymmetric decarboxylative chlorination of β-ketocarboxylic acids in the presence of a chiral primary amine catalyst to obtain α-chloroketones with high enantiopurity. Here, we found that nucleophilic substitution of the resulting α-chloroketones with tetrabutylammonium hydroxide yielded the corresponding α-hydroxyketones without loss of enantiopurity. The reaction proceeded smoothly even at a tertiary carbon. The proposed method would be useful for the preparation of chiral tertiary alcohols. Full article
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Article
The Potential of High Voltage Discharges for Green Solvent Extraction of Bioactive Compounds and Aromas from Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.)—Computational Simulation and Experimental Methods
Molecules 2020, 25(16), 3711; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163711 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1105
Abstract
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a Mediterranean medicinal and aromatic plant widely used due to valuable bioactive compounds (BACs) and aromas. The aim of the study was to evaluate the extraction of intracellular compounds from rosemary combining experimental procedure by means of [...] Read more.
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a Mediterranean medicinal and aromatic plant widely used due to valuable bioactive compounds (BACs) and aromas. The aim of the study was to evaluate the extraction of intracellular compounds from rosemary combining experimental procedure by means of high voltage electrical discharge (HVED), with a theoretical approach using two computational simulation methods: conductor-like screening model for real solvents and Hansen solubility parameters. The optimal HVED parameters were as follows: frequency 100 Hz, pulse width 400 ns, gap between electrodes 15 mm, liquid to solid ratio 50 mL/g, voltage 15 and 20 kV for argon, and 20 and 25 kV for nitrogen gas. Green solvents were used, water and ethanol (25% and 50%). The comparison was done with modified conventional extraction (CE) extracted by magnetic stirring and physicochemical analyses of obtained extracts were done. Results showed that HVED extracts in average 2.13-times higher total phenol content compared to CE. Furthermore, nitrogen, longer treatment time and higher voltage enhanced higher yields in HVED extraction. HVED was confirmed to have a high potential for extraction of BACs from rosemary. The computational stimulation methods were confirmed by experimental study, ethanol had higher potential of solubility of BACs and aromas from rosemary compared to water. Full article
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Article
Bioengineering of Cytochrome P450 OleTJE: How Does Substrate Positioning Affect the Product Distributions?
Molecules 2020, 25(11), 2675; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25112675 - 09 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 926
Abstract
The cytochromes P450 are versatile enzymes found in all forms of life. Most P450s use dioxygen on a heme center to activate substrates, but one class of P450s utilizes hydrogen peroxide instead. Within the class of P450 peroxygenases, the P450 OleTJE isozyme [...] Read more.
The cytochromes P450 are versatile enzymes found in all forms of life. Most P450s use dioxygen on a heme center to activate substrates, but one class of P450s utilizes hydrogen peroxide instead. Within the class of P450 peroxygenases, the P450 OleTJE isozyme binds fatty acid substrates and converts them into a range of products through the α-hydroxylation, β-hydroxylation and decarboxylation of the substrate. The latter produces hydrocarbon products and hence can be used as biofuels. The origin of these product distributions is unclear, and, as such, we decided to investigate substrate positioning in the active site and find out what the effect is on the chemoselectivity of the reaction. In this work we present a detailed computational study on the wild-type and engineered structures of P450 OleTJE using a combination of density functional theory and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics methods. We initially explore the wild-type structure with a variety of methods and models and show that various substrate activation transition states are close in energy and hence small perturbations as through the protein may affect product distributions. We then engineered the protein by generating an in silico model of the double mutant Asn242Arg/Arg245Asn that moves the position of an active site Arg residue in the substrate-binding pocket that is known to form a salt-bridge with the substrate. The substrate activation by the iron(IV)-oxo heme cation radical species (Compound I) was again studied using quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods. Dramatic differences in reactivity patterns, barrier heights and structure are seen, which shows the importance of correct substrate positioning in the protein and the effect of the second-coordination sphere on the selectivity and activity of enzymes. Full article
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Article
Virtual Screening and the In Vitro Assessment of the Antileishmanial Activity of Lignans
Molecules 2020, 25(10), 2281; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25102281 - 12 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1096
Abstract
Leishmaniasis is endemic in at least 98 countries. Due to the high toxicity and resistance associated with the drugs, we chose lignans as an alternative, due to their favorable properties of absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET). To investigate their leishmanicidal potential, [...] Read more.
Leishmaniasis is endemic in at least 98 countries. Due to the high toxicity and resistance associated with the drugs, we chose lignans as an alternative, due to their favorable properties of absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET). To investigate their leishmanicidal potential, the biological activities of a set of 160 lignans were predicted using predictive models that were built using data for Leishmania major and L. (Viannia) braziliensis. A combined analysis, based on ligand and structure, and several other computational approaches were used. The results showed that the combined analysis was able to select 11 lignans with potential activity against L. major and 21 lignans against L. braziliensis, with multitargeting effects and low or no toxicity. Of these compounds, four were isolated from the species Justicia aequilabris (Nees) Lindau. All of the identified compounds were able to inhibit the growth of L. braziliensis promastigotes, with the most active compound, (159) epipinoresinol-4-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, presenting an IC50 value of 5.39 µM and IC50 value of 36.51 µM for L. major. Our findings indicated the potential of computer-aided drug design and development and demonstrated that lignans represent promising prototype compounds for the development of multitarget drugs against leishmaniasis. Full article
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Article
Search for ABCB1 Modulators Among 2-Amine-5-Arylideneimidazolones as a New Perspective to Overcome Cancer Multidrug Resistance
Molecules 2020, 25(9), 2258; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25092258 - 11 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 987
Abstract
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a severe problem in the treatment of cancer with overexpression of glycoprotein P (Pgp, ABCB1) as a reason for chemotherapy failure. A series of 14 novel 5-arylideneimidazolone derivatives containing the morpholine moiety, with respect to two different topologies (groups [...] Read more.
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a severe problem in the treatment of cancer with overexpression of glycoprotein P (Pgp, ABCB1) as a reason for chemotherapy failure. A series of 14 novel 5-arylideneimidazolone derivatives containing the morpholine moiety, with respect to two different topologies (groups A and B), were designed and obtained in a three- or four-step synthesis, involving the Dimroth rearrangement. The new compounds were tested for their inhibition of the ABCB1 efflux pump in both sensitive (parental (PAR)) and ABCB1-overexpressing (MDR) T-lymphoma cancer cells in a rhodamine 123 accumulation assay. Their cytotoxic and antiproliferative effects were investigated by a thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. For active compounds, an insight into the mechanisms of action using either the luminescent Pgp-Glo™ Assay in vitro or docking studies to human Pgp was performed. The safety profile in vitro was examined. Structure–activity relationship (SAR) analysis was discussed. The most active compounds, representing both 2-substituted- (11) and Dimroth-rearranged 3-substituted (18) imidazolone topologies, displayed 1.38–1.46 fold stronger efflux pump inhibiting effects than reference verapamil and were significantly safer than doxorubicin in cell-based toxicity assays in the HEK-293 cell line. Results of mechanistic studies indicate that active imidazolones are substrates with increasing Pgp ATPase activity, and their dye-efflux inhibition via competitive action on the Pgp verapamil binding site was predicted in silico. Full article
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Review

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Review
Exploitation of Ultrasound Technique for Enhancement of Microbial Metabolites Production
Molecules 2020, 25(22), 5473; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25225473 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 669
Abstract
Microbial metabolites have significant impacts on our lives from providing valuable compounds for nutrition to agriculture and healthcare. Ever-growing demand for these natural compounds has led to the need for smart and efficient production techniques. Ultrasound is a multi-applicable technology widely exploited in [...] Read more.
Microbial metabolites have significant impacts on our lives from providing valuable compounds for nutrition to agriculture and healthcare. Ever-growing demand for these natural compounds has led to the need for smart and efficient production techniques. Ultrasound is a multi-applicable technology widely exploited in a range of industries such as chemical, medical, biotechnological, pharmaceutical, and food processes. Depending on the type of ultrasound employed, it can be used to either monitor or drive fermentation processes. Ultrasonication can improve bioproduct productivity via intensifying the performance of living organisms. Controlled ultrasonication can influence the metabolites’ biosynthesis efficiency and growth rates by improvement of cell permeability as well as mass transfer and nutrient uptake rates through cell membranes. This review contains a summarized description about suitable microbial metabolites and the applications of ultrasound technique for enhancement of the production of these metabolites as well as the associated downstream processing. Full article
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Review
Design and Evaluation of Anti-SARS-Coronavirus Agents Based on Molecular Interactions with the Viral Protease
Molecules 2020, 25(17), 3920; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25173920 - 27 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1571
Abstract
Three types of new coronaviruses (CoVs) have been identified recently as the causative viruses for the severe pneumonia-like respiratory illnesses, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and corona-virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Neither therapeutic agents nor vaccines have been developed [...] Read more.
Three types of new coronaviruses (CoVs) have been identified recently as the causative viruses for the severe pneumonia-like respiratory illnesses, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and corona-virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Neither therapeutic agents nor vaccines have been developed to date, which is a major drawback in controlling the present global pandemic of COVID-19 caused by SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has resulted in more than 20,439,814 cases and 744,385 deaths. Each of the 3C-like (3CL) proteases of the three CoVs is essential for the proliferation of the CoVs, and an inhibitor of the 3CL protease (3CLpro) is thought to be an ideal therapeutic agent against SARS, MERS, or COVID-19. Among these, SARS-CoV is the first corona-virus isolated and has been studied in detail since the first pandemic in 2003. This article briefly reviews a series of studies on SARS-CoV, focusing on the development of inhibitors for the SARS-CoV 3CLpro based on molecular interactions with the 3CL protease. Our recent approach, based on the structure-based rational design of a novel scaffold for SARS-CoV 3CLpro inhibitor, is also included. The achievements summarized in this short review would be useful for the design of a variety of novel inhibitors for corona-viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. Full article
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Review
Novel Methodologies for Chemical Activation in Organic Synthesis under Solvent-Free Reaction Conditions
Molecules 2020, 25(16), 3579; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163579 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1589
Abstract
One central challenge for XXI century chemists is the development of sustainable processes that do not represent a risk either to humanity or to the environment. In this regard, the search for more efficient and clean alternatives to achieve the chemical activation of [...] Read more.
One central challenge for XXI century chemists is the development of sustainable processes that do not represent a risk either to humanity or to the environment. In this regard, the search for more efficient and clean alternatives to achieve the chemical activation of molecules involved in chemical transformations has played a prominent role in recent years. The use of microwave or UV-Vis light irradiation, and mechanochemical activation is already widespread in many laboratories. Nevertheless, an additional condition to achieve “green” processes comes from the point of view of so-called atom economy. The removal of solvents from chemical reactions generally leads to cleaner, more efficient and more economical processes. This review presents several illustrative applications of the use of sustainable protocols in the synthesis of organic compounds under solvent-free reaction conditions. Full article
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Review
Plant Natural Products for the Control of Aedes aegypti: The Main Vector of Important Arboviruses
Molecules 2020, 25(15), 3484; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25153484 - 31 Jul 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1847
Abstract
The mosquito species Aedes aegypti is one of the main vectors of arboviruses, including dengue, Zika and chikungunya. Considering the deficiency or absence of vaccines to prevent these diseases, vector control remains an important strategy. The use of plant natural product-based insecticides constitutes [...] Read more.
The mosquito species Aedes aegypti is one of the main vectors of arboviruses, including dengue, Zika and chikungunya. Considering the deficiency or absence of vaccines to prevent these diseases, vector control remains an important strategy. The use of plant natural product-based insecticides constitutes an alternative to chemical insecticides as they are degraded more easily and are less harmful to the environment, not to mention their lower toxicity to non-target insects. This review details plant species and their secondary metabolites that have demonstrated insecticidal properties (ovicidal, larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, repellent and ovipositional effects) against the mosquito, together with their mechanisms of action. In particular, essential oils and some of their chemical constituents such as terpenoids and phenylpropanoids offer distinct advantages. Thiophenes, amides and alkaloids also possess high larvicidal and adulticidal activities, adding to the wealth of plant natural products with potential in vector control applications. Full article
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Review
2-Methyloxolane (2-MeOx) as Sustainable Lipophilic Solvent to Substitute Hexane for Green Extraction of Natural Products. Properties, Applications, and Perspectives
Molecules 2020, 25(15), 3417; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25153417 - 28 Jul 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1383
Abstract
This review presents a complete picture of current knowledge on 2-methyloxolane (2-MeOx), a bio-based solvent for the extraction of natural products and food ingredients. It provides the necessary background about the properties of 2-MeOx, not only its solvent power and extraction efficiency, but [...] Read more.
This review presents a complete picture of current knowledge on 2-methyloxolane (2-MeOx), a bio-based solvent for the extraction of natural products and food ingredients. It provides the necessary background about the properties of 2-MeOx, not only its solvent power and extraction efficiency, but its detailed toxicological profile and environmental impacts are discussed. We compared 2-MeOx with hexane which is the most used petroleum-based solvent for extraction of lipophilic natural products. The final part focuses on successful industrial transfer, including technologic, economic, and safety impacts. The replacement of petroleum-based solvents is a hot research topic, which affects several fields of modern plant-based chemistry. All the reported applications have shown that 2-MeOx is an environmentally and economically viable alternative to conventional petroleum-based solvents for extraction of lipophilic foodstuff and natural products. Full article
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Review
Asymmetric Synthesis of Tailor-Made Amino Acids Using Chiral Ni(II) Complexes of Schiff Bases. An Update of the Recent Literature
Molecules 2020, 25(12), 2739; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122739 - 12 Jun 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 1383
Abstract
Tailor-made amino acids are indispensable structural components of modern medicinal chemistry and drug design. Consequently, stereo-controlled preparation of amino acids is the area of high research activity. Over last decade, application of Ni(II) complexes of Schiff bases derived from glycine and chiral tridentate [...] Read more.
Tailor-made amino acids are indispensable structural components of modern medicinal chemistry and drug design. Consequently, stereo-controlled preparation of amino acids is the area of high research activity. Over last decade, application of Ni(II) complexes of Schiff bases derived from glycine and chiral tridentate ligands has emerged as a leading methodology for the synthesis of various structural types of amino acids. This review article summarizes examples of asymmetric synthesis of tailor-made α-amino acids via the corresponding Ni(II) complexes, reported in the literature over the last four years. A general overview of this methodology is provided, with the emphasis given to practicality, scalability, cost-structure and recyclability of the chiral tridentate ligands. Full article
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