Special Issue "Ultrasound in Extraction Processing"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Acoustics and Vibrations".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 29 February 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Ultrasound-assisted extraction is a hot research topic which affects several fields of modern plant-based chemistry. Ultrasound is a key-technology in achieving the objective of the "sustainable" and "green extraction" of natural products. Using ultrasound, full extractions can now be completed in minutes with high reproducibility, reducing the consumption of solvent, simplifying manipulation and work-up, giving higher purity of the final product, eliminating post-treatment of waste water, and consuming only a fraction of the fossil energy normally needed for conventional extraction methods. This special issue will present a complete picture of the current knowledge on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) in food ingredients and products, nutraceutics, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and bioenergy applications.

The present Special Issue, "Ultrasound in Extraction Processing", aims to collect and publish recent advances in this interdisciplinary area in the form of reviews and research articles dealing with extraction by ultrasound, the techniques and their combinations, the mechanisms, applications from laboratory to industry, security, and environmental impacts. Experts are welcome to give their opinion about how Ultrasound Extraction contributed/contributes/will contribute to the natural products area, possible trends, and perspectives.

Prof. Dr. Farid Chemat

Prof. Dr. Muthupandian Ashokkumar


Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Green extraction, separation, and purification

  • Intensification

  • Mechanisms

  • Combination with green and biobased solvents

  • Combination with innovative and hybrid techniques

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant Capacity and Antigenotoxic Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Extracts Obtained with Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Process
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 560; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10020560 - 12 Jan 2020
Abstract
Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle) is in high demand worldwide due to its beneficial health properties owing to the polyphenols content, mainly in the flower calyx. The objective of this study was to find the best conditions (time and liquid: solid ratio) to extract polyphenols [...] Read more.
Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle) is in high demand worldwide due to its beneficial health properties owing to the polyphenols content, mainly in the flower calyx. The objective of this study was to find the best conditions (time and liquid: solid ratio) to extract polyphenols from Roselle using Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) (40 kHz, 180 W), with ethanol how solvent; as well as determine the yield of phenols, anthocyanin, flavonoids, tannins, antioxidant activity (DPPH) and antigenotoxic effect (comet assay). A traditional solid-liquid extraction was applied as a reference. Extraction times of 40 and 60 min resulted in the highest polyphenols (13.019 mg GAE/g dry weight (dw)), flavonoids (4.981 CE/g dw), anthocyanins (1.804 mg Cya3GE/g dw), and tannins (0.745 CE/g dw) recoveries and an antioxidant activity (DPPH) of 74.58%. Extracts from white calyces contained similar amounts of phenols and flavonoids, but very little condensed tannins (0.049 CE/g dw) and practically no anthocyanins. Extracts from red and white calyces, showed antigenotoxic activity and repaired capacity of damage caused by mutagens in human lymphocytes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrasound in Extraction Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhancement of the Neuroprotective Effect of Fermented Spirulina maxima Associated with Antioxidant Activities by Ultrasonic Extraction
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2469; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122469 - 03 Dec 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
This study is the first demonstration of the neuroprotective activity of the marine alga, Spirulina maxima, fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum HY-08, which was freshly isolated from fermented vegetables. The combined process of the fermentation with ultrasonic extraction at 40 kHz for 4 [...] Read more.
This study is the first demonstration of the neuroprotective activity of the marine alga, Spirulina maxima, fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum HY-08, which was freshly isolated from fermented vegetables. The combined process of the fermentation with ultrasonic extraction at 40 kHz for 4 hr greatly increased the amounts of β-carotene in the extract up to 1.62 mg/g, along with a high extraction yield of 18.26%, compared to 1.03 mg/g and 12.8% from ultrasonic extraction itself, and even much higher than 0.81 mg/g and 10.6% from conventional water extraction. It was also proved that the neuroprotective activities of the extract were enhanced possibly by higher contents of β-carotene in the extract, compared to those from water extraction or ultrasonic extraction itself. This extract was found to have strong antioxidant properties, with 49.01% 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, which resulted in 90.30% neuroprotective activity. Specifically, the fermented extract markedly enhanced the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/p-CREB signaling pathways, which can effectively prevent memory impairment in mice caused by oxidative stress. β-Carotene also increased the expression of p-CREB and BDNF, and a mechanism of their upregulation by β-carotene is first proposed in this study. It can be concluded that the strong neuroprotective effect of the extract was markedly influenced by the antioxidant activities, due to the synergistic effects of high amounts of β-carotene and other biologically active substances in the extract that can be obtained by lactic acid fermentation, combined with ultrasonic processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrasound in Extraction Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Harnessing of the Graviola Bioactive Components Using a Neoteric Sonication Cum Microwave Coadjuvant Extraction Protocol
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8020232 - 02 Feb 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Graviola is one of the most accomplished natural anticancer therapists gaining popularity in recent times. Harnessing the full benefit from tapping all of its rich bioactive reservoirs is absolutely worthy and mandatory. It is in this regard that a well optimized extraction methodology [...] Read more.
Graviola is one of the most accomplished natural anticancer therapists gaining popularity in recent times. Harnessing the full benefit from tapping all of its rich bioactive reservoirs is absolutely worthy and mandatory. It is in this regard that a well optimized extraction methodology gains paramount importance. In case of Graviola, no sophistication in terms of extraction methods is reported. A neoteric sonication cum microwave combined extraction technology was introduced that maximized the extraction process and minimized (7 min) the extraction time. The extraction efficiency was validated based on the significant enrichment of bioactive ingredients in Graviola extracts following the sonication cum microwave combined protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrasound in Extraction Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhancement of Chlorophyll a Production from Marine Spirulina maxima by an Optimized Ultrasonic Extraction Process
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010026 - 25 Dec 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
Under the optimal ultrasonification extraction conditions of 20.52 kHz for the frequency, 32.59 °C for the temperature, and 4.91 h for the process time, 17.98 mg/g of chlorophyll a was obtained. It was much higher than 13.81 mg/g from conventional 70% ethanol extraction [...] Read more.
Under the optimal ultrasonification extraction conditions of 20.52 kHz for the frequency, 32.59 °C for the temperature, and 4.91 h for the process time, 17.98 mg/g of chlorophyll a was obtained. It was much higher than 13.81 mg/g from conventional 70% ethanol extraction and even higher than other data from Spirulina. This yield was close to the predicted value of 18.21 mg/g from the second-order polynomial model with a regression coefficient of 0.969. This model showed the greatest significance with the ultrasonic frequency and process time and the least significance with the temperature. The extracts also showed high α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities as 69.38%, compared to 58.25% for the extracts from the 70% ethanol extraction. It was first shown that the optimal extraction was effective at enhancing the neuroprotective activities possibly due to the synergistic effects of higher amounts of chlorophyll a and other bioactive substances in the extract, revealing a 90% protection of the growth of mouse neuronal cells and a great reduction in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrasound in Extraction Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhancement of Skin Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Eclipta prostrata L. from the Ultrasonic Extraction Process
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(12), 1227; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7121227 - 28 Nov 2017
Abstract
This work first showed that the skin anti-inflammatory activities of Eclipta prostrata L. (E. prostrata L.)n be increased through an ultrasonic extraction process at a frequency of 120 kHz with 70% ethanol at 40 °C for 6 h. The extract from the [...] Read more.
This work first showed that the skin anti-inflammatory activities of Eclipta prostrata L. (E. prostrata L.)n be increased through an ultrasonic extraction process at a frequency of 120 kHz with 70% ethanol at 40 °C for 6 h. The extract from the ultrasound extraction (UE) contained 378.6 mg/100 g of wedelolactone (a major bioactive substance in E. prostrata L.), compared with the 172.9 mg/100 g from a conventional extraction process with 70% ethanol at 80 °C for 12 h (EE). The UE showed less than 10% of low cytotoxicity against normal fibroblast cells, and also exhibited much higher antioxidant activities than that from the EE when treating with 0.3 mg/mL of the extracts. It was proved that the high antioxidant activities of the UE were closely correlated with the enhancement of skin anti-inflammatory activities by effectively suppressing the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 from macrophages. The production of prostaglandin E2 from human skin cells was also greatly reduced, compared with the EE for all ranges of the treatments. These results strongly indicate that the various biological activities of E. prostrata L. can be improved by a simple ultrasound extraction process because of the high elution of bioactive substances even at a low temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrasound in Extraction Processing)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Cavitation Technology—The Future of Greener Extraction Method: A Review on the Extraction of Natural Products and Process Intensification Mechanism and Perspectives
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 766; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9040766 - 22 Feb 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
With growing consumer demand for natural products, greener extraction techniques are found to be potential alternatives especially for pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and cosmetic manufacturing industries. Cavitation-based technology has drawn immense attention as a greener extraction method, following its rapid and effective extraction of numerous [...] Read more.
With growing consumer demand for natural products, greener extraction techniques are found to be potential alternatives especially for pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and cosmetic manufacturing industries. Cavitation-based technology has drawn immense attention as a greener extraction method, following its rapid and effective extraction of numerous natural products compared to conventional techniques. The advantages of cavitation-based extraction (CE) are to eliminate the application of toxic solvents, reduction of extraction time and to achieve better extraction yield, as well as purity. The cavitational phenomena enhance the extraction efficiency via increased mass transfer rate between the substrate and solvent, following the cell wall rupture, due to the intense implosion of bubbles. This review includes a detailed overview of the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), negative pressure cavitation (NPC) extraction, hydrodynamic cavitation extraction (HCE) and combined extractions techniques which have been implemented for the extraction of high-value-added compounds. A list of essential parameters necessary for the maximum possible extraction yield has been discussed. The optimization of parameters, such as ultrasonic power density, frequency, inlet pressure of HC, extraction temperature and the reactor configuration denote their significance for better efficiency. Furthermore, the advantages and drawbacks associated with extraction and future research directions have also been pointed out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrasound in Extraction Processing)
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