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Special Issue "Plant Based Chemistry – Towards “Green Chemistry 2.0”"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Green Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2022) | Viewed by 15856

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Farid Chemat
grade E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Université d´Avignon et des Pays du Vaucluse, 84029 Avignon, France
Interests: green extraction; alternative solvents; innovative technologies; original procedures; microwave; ultrasound; intensification
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Elena Ibáñez
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Foodomics, CIAL, CSIC, Nicolas Cabrera 9, 28049 Madrid, Spain
Interests: foodomics; metabolomics; food science; food bioactivity; food safety; natural compounds; hyphenated techniques; mass spectrometry; advanced analytical techniques; Alzheimer
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Sylvain Antoniotti
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institut de Chimie de Nice, UMR 7272 CNRS - Université Cote d'Azur, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice, France
Interests: catalysis; natural feedstocks; synthetic methods; step-economy; flow chemistry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Probably since the discovery of fire, plant-based chemistry has been used as a source of reagents for cosmetics, perfumery, medicine, food, colors and dyes, and building materials. The challenges launched by the urge towards environmental protection and the competitiveness of the globalized market strongly require innovations that break away from the past rather than contribute to a simple continuity. Plant-based chemistry could be one of the solutions from the past for the future of humanity as an ecologic and an economic chemistry, and it could help us turn, in the 21th century, to “Green Chemistry 2.0.”
The present Special Issue aims to collect and to publish recent advances in this interdisciplinary area. Reviews and research articles dealing with innovative techniques, alternative solvents, original procedures, comprehension of intensification mechanisms, by- product valorization, and green impacts and sustainable footprints, starting from production and harvesting of the plant, the transformation processes, solid–liquid extraction and also separation and purification together with formulation and hemi-synthesis are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Farid Chemat
Prof. Dr. Elena Ibáñez
Dr. Sylvain Antoniotti
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Plant-based chemistry
  • Green Chemistry
  • Extraction solid-liquid and liquid-liquid
  • separation
  • purification
  • intensification
  • integration
  • enabling technologies
  • natural products
  • compressed fluids (sub- and supercritical)
  • microwave
  • ultrasound
  • hemi-synthesis
  • biorefinery
  • valorization
  • industrial by-products
  • life cycle assessment

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Article
Isolation and Identification of Bioactive Compounds from Bidens spp. Using HPLC-DAD and GC-MS Analysis and Their Biological Activity as Anticancer Molecules
Molecules 2022, 27(6), 1927; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27061927 - 16 Mar 2022
Viewed by 792
Abstract
The genus Bidens a member of family Compositae, is widely documented as an ethno-medicinally important genus of plants. In the present study, anticancer potential of three ethno-medicinally important species i.e., B. bipinnata, B. biternata and B. pilosa were tested. For in-vitro evaluation, [...] Read more.
The genus Bidens a member of family Compositae, is widely documented as an ethno-medicinally important genus of plants. In the present study, anticancer potential of three ethno-medicinally important species i.e., B. bipinnata, B. biternata and B. pilosa were tested. For in-vitro evaluation, an MTT (Thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide) assay was performed against cervical cancer cells (HeLa), hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG), and adenocarcinoma human alveolar basal epithelial cells (A549). For in vivo evaluation, Artemia salina, Danio rerio, and Caenorhabditis elegans were used. Among all the tested extracts, the ethanol extract of B. biternata appeared to have highest anticancer activity, and the compounds responsible for this activity were identified to be Tris (2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl), 4-hydroxy-2,4′-dimethoxychalcone, and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. This is the first report of the isolation of Tris (2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl) phosphate from the genus Bidens and the first report of 4-hydroxy-2,4′-dimethoxychalcone and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol from B. biternata. Among the isolated compounds, 4-hydroxy-2,4′-dimethoxychalcone showed the highest anticancer activity with an LD50 value of 236.7 µg/mL. Therefore, this compound carries promising potential for being established as a pharmaceutical for chemoprevention and chemotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Based Chemistry – Towards “Green Chemistry 2.0”)
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Article
The Influence of Hop Phenolic Compounds on Dry Hopping Beer Quality
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 740; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27030740 - 24 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1096
Abstract
Background: The article considers the phenolic hop compounds’ effect on the quality indicators of finished beer. The topic under consideration is relevant since it touches on the beer matrix colloidal stability when compounds with potential destabilizing activity are introduced into it from the [...] Read more.
Background: The article considers the phenolic hop compounds’ effect on the quality indicators of finished beer. The topic under consideration is relevant since it touches on the beer matrix colloidal stability when compounds with potential destabilizing activity are introduced into it from the outside. Methods: The industrial beer samples’ quality was assessed by industry-accepted methods and using instrumental analysis methods (high-performance liquid chromatography methods—HPLC). The obtained statistical data were processed by the Statistics program (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA, USA, 2006). Results: The study made it possible to make assumptions about the functional dependence of the iso-α-bitter resins and isoxanthohumol content in beer samples. Mathematical analysis indicate interactions between protein molecules and different malted grain and hop compounds are involved in beer structure, in contrast to dry hopped beer, where iso-a-bitter resins, protein, and coloring compounds were significant, with a lower coefficient of determination. The main role of rutin in the descriptor hop bitterness has been established in kettle beer hopping technology, and catechin in dry beer hopping technology, respectively. The important role of soluble nitrogen and β-glucan dextrins in the perception of sensory descriptors of various technologies’ beers, as well as phenolic compounds in relation to the formation of bitterness and astringency of beer of classical technology and cold hopping, has been shown. Conclusions: The obtained mathematical relationships allow predicting the resulting beer quality and also make it possible to create the desired flavor profiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Based Chemistry – Towards “Green Chemistry 2.0”)
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Article
Chemical Profile of Lipophilic Fractions of Different Parts of Zizyphus lotus L. by GC-MS and Evaluation of Their Antiproliferative and Antibacterial Activities
Molecules 2022, 27(2), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27020483 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 561
Abstract
Zizyphus lotus L. is a perennial shrub particularly used in Algerian folk medicine, but little is known concerning the lipophilic compounds in the most frequently used parts, namely, root bark, pulp, leaves and seeds, which are associated with health benefits. In this vein, [...] Read more.
Zizyphus lotus L. is a perennial shrub particularly used in Algerian folk medicine, but little is known concerning the lipophilic compounds in the most frequently used parts, namely, root bark, pulp, leaves and seeds, which are associated with health benefits. In this vein, the lipophilic fractions of these morphological parts of Z. lotus from Morocco were studied by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), and their antiproliferative and antimicrobial activities were evaluated. GC–MS analysis allowed the identification and quantification of 99 lipophilic compounds, including fatty acids, long-chain aliphatic alcohols, pentacyclic triterpenic compounds, sterols, monoglycerides, aromatic compounds and other minor components. Lipophilic extracts of pulp, leaves and seeds were revealed to be mainly composed of fatty acids, representing 54.3–88.6% of the total compounds detected. The leaves and seeds were particularly rich in unsaturated fatty acids, namely, (9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid (2431 mg kg−1 of dry weight) and (9Z)-octadec-9-enoic acid (6255 mg kg−1 of dry weight). In contrast, root bark contained a high content of pentacyclic triterpenic compounds, particularly betulinic acid, accounting for 9838 mg kg−1 of dry weight. Root bark extract showed promising antiproliferative activity against a triple-negative breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) = 4.23 ± 0.18 µg mL−1 of extract. Leaf extract displayed interesting antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis, presenting minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values from 1024 to 2048 µg mL−1 of extract. Our results demonstrate that Zizyphus lotus L. is a source of promising bioactive components, which can be exploited as natural ingredients in pharmaceutical formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Based Chemistry – Towards “Green Chemistry 2.0”)
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Article
Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Seed Kernels and Their Application as an Antioxidant in an Edible Oil
Molecules 2021, 26(24), 7516; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26247516 - 11 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1224
Abstract
Phenolic compounds from mango (M. indica) seed kernels (MSK) var. Sugar were obtained using supercritical CO2 and EtOH as an extraction solvent. For this purpose, a central composite design was carried out to evaluate the effect of extraction pressure [...] Read more.
Phenolic compounds from mango (M. indica) seed kernels (MSK) var. Sugar were obtained using supercritical CO2 and EtOH as an extraction solvent. For this purpose, a central composite design was carried out to evaluate the effect of extraction pressure (11–21 MPa), temperature (40–60 °C), and co-solvent contribution (5–15% w/w EtOH) on (i) extraction yield, (ii) oxidative stability (OS) of sunflower edible oil (SEO) with added extract using the Rancimat method, (iii) total phenolics content, (iv) total flavonoids content, and (v) DPPH radical assay. The most influential variable of the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) process was the concentration of the co-solvent. The best OS of SEO was reached with the extract obtained at 21.0 MPa, 60 °C and 15% EtOH. Under these conditions, the extract increased the OS of SEO by up to 6.1 ± 0.2 h (OS of SEO without antioxidant, Control, was 3.5 h). The composition of the extract influenced the oxidative stability of the sunflower edible oil. By SFE it was possible to obtain extracts from mango seed kernels (MSK) var. Sugar that transfer OS to the SEO. These promissory extracts could be applied to foods and other products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Based Chemistry – Towards “Green Chemistry 2.0”)
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Article
Metabolite Profiling of Helichrysum italicum Derived Food Supplements by 1H-NMR-Based Metabolomics
Molecules 2021, 26(21), 6619; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26216619 - 31 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 810
Abstract
Helichrysum italicum is a medicinal plant from the Mediterranean area, widely used in traditional medicine for its anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antioxidant properties and for its preventive effects on microcirculation diseases. Due to these properties, it finds large applications in cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical [...] Read more.
Helichrysum italicum is a medicinal plant from the Mediterranean area, widely used in traditional medicine for its anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antioxidant properties and for its preventive effects on microcirculation diseases. Due to these properties, it finds large applications in cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical fields. Additionally, hydroalcoholic extracts and mother tinctures based on H. italicum represent products with a high commercial value, widely distributed not only in drug stores but also on on-line markets. The different extraction procedures used can greatly affect the fingerprints of the extracts, resulting in a different qualitative or quantitative profile of the chemical constituents responsible for biological activity. The aim of the present study was to characterize the composition of bioactive compounds present in water-ethanol and glycerol extracts of H. italicum derived food supplements. Metabolite profiles of the extracts were obtained by 1H NMR experiments and data were processed by multivariate statistical analysis to highlight differences in the extracts and to evidence the extracts with the highest concentrations of bioactive metabolites. In detail, this work highlights how derived food supplements of H. italicum obtained using ethanol-water mixtures ranging from 45% to 20% of ethanol represent the products with the highest amount of both primary (amino acids) and secondary metabolites including 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid (9), chlorogenic acid (10), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (11), and kaempferol 3-O-glucopyranoside (12). Moreover, it is evident that the use of an ethanol-water mixture 20:80 is the most suitable method to afford the highest number of phenolic compounds, while food-derived supplements obtained by glycerol extraction are characterized by a high amount of β-glucose and α-glucose and a low content of phenolic compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Based Chemistry – Towards “Green Chemistry 2.0”)
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Article
Pressurized Hot Water Extraction and Bio-Hydrogels Formulation with Aristotelia chilensis [Mol.] Stuntz Leaves
Molecules 2021, 26(21), 6402; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26216402 - 23 Oct 2021
Viewed by 587
Abstract
Aristotelia chilensis is a plant rich in phenolics and other bioactive compounds. Their leaves are discarded as waste in the maqui berry industry. A new application of these wastes is intended by the recovery of bioactive compounds using pressurized hot water extraction with [...] Read more.
Aristotelia chilensis is a plant rich in phenolics and other bioactive compounds. Their leaves are discarded as waste in the maqui berry industry. A new application of these wastes is intended by the recovery of bioactive compounds using pressurized hot water extraction with conventional or microwave heating. Both technologies have been selected for their green character regarding the type of solvent and the high efficiency in shorter operation times. Extractions were performed in the temperature range 140–200 °C with a solid/liquid ratio of 1:15 (w:w). The extracts’ total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, and saccharides content obtained with both heating methods were measured. Additionally, the thermo-rheological properties of the gelling matrix enriched with these extracts were analyzed. Optimum conditions for lyophilized extracts were found with conventional heating, at 140 °C and 20 min extraction; 250.0 mg GAE/g dry extract and 1321.5 mg Trolox/g dry extract. Close to optimum performance was achieved with microwave heating in a fraction of the time (5 min) at 160 °C (extraction), yielding extracts with 231.9 mg GAE/g dry extract of total phenolics and antiradical capacity equivalent to 1176.3 mg Trolox/g dry extract. Slightly higher antioxidant values were identified for spray-dried extracts (between 5% for phenolic content and 2.5% for antioxidant capacity). The extracts obtained with both heating methods at 200 °C contained more than 20% oligosaccharides, primarily glucose. All the formulated gelling matrices enriched with the obtained extracts displayed intermediate gel strength properties. The tested technologies efficiently recovered highly active antioxidant extracts, rich in polyphenolics, and valuable for formulating gelling matrices with potential applicability in foods and other products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Based Chemistry – Towards “Green Chemistry 2.0”)
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Article
Influence of the Use of an Ionic Liquid as Pre-Hydrodistillation Maceration Medium on the Composition and Yield of Cannabis sativa L. Essential Oil
Molecules 2021, 26(18), 5654; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26185654 - 17 Sep 2021
Viewed by 766
Abstract
Cannabis sativa L. is a multi-purpose crop, whose resilience, adaptability and soil-enriching properties make it a low-impact production. In the last years, the cultivation of the “industrial” hemp varieties (THC < 0.2%) has been promoted by many Countries, opening a whole new market [...] Read more.
Cannabis sativa L. is a multi-purpose crop, whose resilience, adaptability and soil-enriching properties make it a low-impact production. In the last years, the cultivation of the “industrial” hemp varieties (THC < 0.2%) has been promoted by many Countries, opening a whole new market of hemp-derived products, such as its essential oil (EO). Its distillation might represent an effective method to exploit a residue of the hemp fiber production (flowers), complying with the guidelines of the circular economy. In the present work, different concentrations of an ionic liquid (IL; 1,3-dimethyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium dimethylphosphate) have been studied as a pre-hydrodistillation maceration medium. The EO yields have been evaluated, and their compositions have been analyzed by GC-EIMS. The use of 100% and 90% IL concentrations gave a hydrodistillation yield increment of 250% and 200%, respectively. The 200% yield increase was maintained when the 100% IL was recycled after the hydrodistillation. The lower IL concentrations incremented the cannabinoid and oxygenated sesquiterpene contents, while the opposite was true for sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The proposed IL-enhanced hydrodistillation medium applied to hemp, studied for the first time in the present work, might be used to both (i) noteworthy increment the hydrodistillation yield and (ii) modulate the obtained EO composition based on the desired final product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Based Chemistry – Towards “Green Chemistry 2.0”)
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Article
Synthetic Mono-Rhamnolipids Display Direct Antifungal Effects and Trigger an Innate Immune Response in Tomato against Botrytis Cinerea
Molecules 2020, 25(14), 3108; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25143108 - 08 Jul 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1584
Abstract
Natural rhamnolipids are potential biocontrol agents for plant protection against bacterial and fungal diseases. In this work, we synthetized new synthetic mono-rhamnolipids (smRLs) consisting in a rhamnose connected to a simple acyl chain and differing by the nature of the link and the [...] Read more.
Natural rhamnolipids are potential biocontrol agents for plant protection against bacterial and fungal diseases. In this work, we synthetized new synthetic mono-rhamnolipids (smRLs) consisting in a rhamnose connected to a simple acyl chain and differing by the nature of the link and the length of the lipid tail. We then investigated the effects of these ether, ester, carbamate or succinate smRL derivatives on Botrytis cinerea development, symptoms spreading on tomato leaves and immune responses in tomato plants. Our results demonstrate that synthetic smRLs are able to trigger early and late immunity-related plant defense responses in tomato and increase plant resistance against B. cinerea in controlled conditions. Structure-function analysis showed that chain length of the lipidic part and type of acyl chain were critical to smRLs immune activity and to the extent of symptoms caused by the fungus on tomato leaves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Based Chemistry – Towards “Green Chemistry 2.0”)
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Article
Preparative Separation of Procyanidins from Cocoa Polyphenolic Extract: Comparative Study of Different Fractionation Techniques
Molecules 2020, 25(12), 2842; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122842 - 19 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1270
Abstract
To provide further insight into the antioxidant potential of procyanidins (PCs) from cocoa beans, PC extract was fractionated by several methodologies, including solid phase extraction, Sephadex LH-20 gel permeation, and preparative HPLC using C18 and diol stationary phases. All the isolated fractions were [...] Read more.
To provide further insight into the antioxidant potential of procyanidins (PCs) from cocoa beans, PC extract was fractionated by several methodologies, including solid phase extraction, Sephadex LH-20 gel permeation, and preparative HPLC using C18 and diol stationary phases. All the isolated fractions were analyzed by UHPLC-QTOF-MS to determine their relative composition. According to our results, classical techniques allowed good separation of alkaloids, catechins, dimers, and trimers, but were inefficient for oligomeric PCs. Preparative C18-HPLC method allowed the attainment of high relative composition of fractions enriched with alkaloids, catechins, and PCs with degree of polymerization (DP) < 4. However, the best results were obtained by preparative diol-HPLC, providing a separation according to the increasing DP. According to the mass spectrometry fragmentation pattern, the nine isolated fractions (Fractions II–X) consisted of exclusively individual PCs and their corresponding isomers (same DP). In summary, an efficient, robust, and fast method using a preparative diol column for the isolation of PCs is proposed. Regarding DPPH and ABTS•+ scavenging activity, it increases according to the DP; therefore, the highest activity was for cocoa extract > PCs > monomers. Thereby, cocoa procyanidins might be of interest to be used as alternative antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Based Chemistry – Towards “Green Chemistry 2.0”)
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Article
Influence of Terpene Type on the Release from an O/W Nanoemulsion: Experimental and Theoretical Studies
Molecules 2020, 25(12), 2747; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122747 - 13 Jun 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1113
Abstract
The interaction between a drug molecule and its carrier’s components is an important factor which influences the drug release profile. For this purpose, molecular dynamics (MD) may be the in silico tool which can help to understand the mechanism of drug loading/release. The [...] Read more.
The interaction between a drug molecule and its carrier’s components is an important factor which influences the drug release profile. For this purpose, molecular dynamics (MD) may be the in silico tool which can help to understand the mechanism of drug loading/release. The aim of this work is to explain the effect of interactions between different types of terpenes, namely perillyl alcohol, forskolin, ursolic acid, and the nanoemulsion droplet core, on the release by means of experimental and theoretical studies. The basic nanoemulsion was composed of caprylic/capric triglyceride as the oil phase, polysorbate 80 as the emulsifier, and water. The in vitro release tests from a terpene-loaded nanoemulsion were carried out to determine the release profiles. The behavior of terpenoids in the nanoemulsion was also theoretically investigated using the molecular dynamics method. The forskolin-loaded nanoemulsion showed the highest percentage of drug release (almost 80% w/w) in contrast to ursolic acid and perillyl alcohol-loaded nanoemulsions (about 53% w/w and 19% w/w, respectively). The results confirmed that the kinetic model of release was terpene-type dependent. The zero-order model was the best to describe the ursolic acid release profile, while the forskolin and the perillyl alcohol followed a first-order and Higuchi model, respectively. Molecular dynamics simulations, especially energetical analysis, confirmed that the driving force of terpenes diffusion from nanoemulsion interior was their interaction energy with a surfactant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Based Chemistry – Towards “Green Chemistry 2.0”)
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Article
Oxone®-Mediated TEMPO-Oxidized Cellulose Nanomaterials form I and form II
Molecules 2020, 25(8), 1847; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25081847 - 17 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1570
Abstract
The 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (TEMPO) oxidation of cellulose, when mediated with Oxone® (KHSO5), can be performed simply and under mild conditions. Furthermore, the products of the reaction can be isolated into two major components: Oxone®-mediated TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanomaterials Form I [...] Read more.
The 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (TEMPO) oxidation of cellulose, when mediated with Oxone® (KHSO5), can be performed simply and under mild conditions. Furthermore, the products of the reaction can be isolated into two major components: Oxone®-mediated TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanomaterials Form I and Form II (OTO-CNM Form I and Form II). This study focuses on the characterization of the properties of OTO-CNMs. Nanoparticle-sized cellulose fibers of 5 and 16 nm, respectively, were confirmed through electron microscopy. Infrared spectroscopy showed that the most carboxylation presented in Form II. Conductometric titration showed a two-fold increase in carboxylation from Form I (800 mmol/kg) to Form II (1600 mmol/kg). OTO-CNMs showed cellulose crystallinity in the range of 64–68% and crystallite sizes of 1.4–3.3 nm, as shown through XRD. OTO-CNMs show controlled variability in hydrophilicity with contact angles ranging from 16 to 32°, within or below the 26–47° reported in the literature for TEMPO-oxidized CNMs. Newly discovered OTO-CNM Form II shows enhanced hydrophilic properties as well as unique crystallinity and chemical functionalization in the field of bio-sourced material and nanocomposites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Based Chemistry – Towards “Green Chemistry 2.0”)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Hepatoprotective Potential of Malaysian Medicinal Plants: A Review on Phytochemicals, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidant Mechanisms
Molecules 2022, 27(5), 1533; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27051533 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 883
Abstract
Hepatotoxicity is a major global public health concern. Despite advances in modern medicine, the demerits of chemically prepared drugs outweigh their merits. In addition, the treatment of liver diseases based on modern medical principles has been found to produce several undesired side effects. [...] Read more.
Hepatotoxicity is a major global public health concern. Despite advances in modern medicine, the demerits of chemically prepared drugs outweigh their merits. In addition, the treatment of liver diseases based on modern medical principles has been found to produce several undesired side effects. Therefore, the exploration of medicinal plants has gained worldwide attention for treating various diseases, including liver diseases, owing to their potential efficacy and cost effectiveness. Several plants, including Andrographis paniculata, Bauhinia purpurea, Commelina nudiflora, Dillenia suffruticosa, Elaeis guineensis, Lygodium microphyllum, and Nephrolepis biserrata, have been reported with hepatoprotection. Moreover, these plants have been shown to play a vital role in ameliorating cellular damage because they contain several phytochemicals, including alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, steroids, polyphenols, and diterpenoid lactones. The following antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and hepatoprotective compounds have been found in these plants: andrographolide, rosmarinic acid, phenol, eugenol, 9,12-octadecadienoic, n-hexadecanoic acid, dihydroxy dimethoxy flavone, sitosterol, demethoxycurcumin, quercetin, linoleic acid, stigmasterol, kojic acid, indole-2-one, α-terpinol, linalool, kaempferol, catechin, ellagic acid, and oleanolic acid. This paper aimed to provide an in-depth review of in vivo studies on Malaysian medicinal plants possessing hepatoprotective properties, phytochemical ingredients, and antioxidant mechanisms, with an emphasis on the species proven particularly useful for treating hepatic disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Based Chemistry – Towards “Green Chemistry 2.0”)
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Review
A Review on Current Status of Biochar Uses in Agriculture
Molecules 2021, 26(18), 5584; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26185584 - 14 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2317
Abstract
In a time when climate change increases desertification and drought globally, novel and effective solutions are required in order to continue food production for the world’s increasing population. Synthetic fertilizers have been long used to improve the productivity of agricultural soils, part of [...] Read more.
In a time when climate change increases desertification and drought globally, novel and effective solutions are required in order to continue food production for the world’s increasing population. Synthetic fertilizers have been long used to improve the productivity of agricultural soils, part of which leaches into the environment and emits greenhouse gasses (GHG). Some fundamental challenges within agricultural practices include the improvement of water retention and microbiota in soils, as well as boosting the efficiency of fertilizers. Biochar is a nutrient rich material produced from biomass, gaining attention for soil amendment purposes, improving crop yields as well as for carbon sequestration. This study summarizes the potential benefits of biochar applications, placing emphasis on its application in the agricultural sector. It seems biochar used for soil amendment improves nutrient density of soils, water holding capacity, reduces fertilizer requirements, enhances soil microbiota, and increases crop yields. Additionally, biochar usage has many environmental benefits, economic benefits, and a potential role to play in carbon credit systems. Biochar (also known as biocarbon) may hold the answer to these fundamental requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Based Chemistry – Towards “Green Chemistry 2.0”)
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