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Open AccessArticle

Industrial, CBD, and Wild Hemp: How Different Are Their Essential Oil Profile and Antimicrobial Activity?

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Crop and Soil Science Department, 3050 SW Campus Way, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
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Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Alternative Crops and Organic Production Department, Maksima Gorkog 30, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
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Plant Genetic Research Group, Agrobioinstitute, Agricultural Academy, 8 “Dragan Tsankov” Blvd., 1164 Sofia, Bulgaria
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Department of Fruit Science, Viticulture and Enology, Faculty of Horticulture and Landscape Engineering, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia
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Department of Bioenergetics and Food Analysis, Institution of Food Technology and Nutrition, University of Rzeszow, Cwiklinskiej 1, 35-601 Rzeszow, Poland
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Department of Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, Truro, NS B2N 5E3, Canada
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Department of Botany and Agrometeorology, Faculty of Agronomy, Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
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Department of Field and Vegetable Crops, University of Novi Sad, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Kemal Husnu Can Baser and Daniela Rigano
Molecules 2020, 25(20), 4631; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204631
Received: 7 August 2020 / Revised: 5 October 2020 / Accepted: 6 October 2020 / Published: 12 October 2020
Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is currently one of the most controversial and promising crops. This study compared nine wild hemp (C. sativa spp. spontanea V.) accessions with 13 registered cultivars, eight breeding lines, and one cannabidiol (CBD) hemp strain belonging to C. sativa L. The first three groups had similar main essential oil (EO) constituents, but in different concentrations; the CBD hemp had a different EO profile. The concentration of the four major constituents in the industrial hemp lines and wild hemp accessions varied as follows: β-caryophyllene 11–22% and 15.4–29.6%; α-humulene 4.4–7.6% and 5.3–11.9%; caryophyllene oxide 8.6–13.7% and 0.2–31.2%; and humulene epoxide 2, 2.3–5.6% and 1.2–9.5%, respectively. The concentration of CBD in the EO of wild hemp varied from 6.9 to 52.4% of the total oil while CBD in the EO of the registered cultivars varied from 7.1 to 25%; CBD in the EO of the breeding lines and in the CBD strain varied from 6.4 to 25% and 7.4 to 8.8%, respectively. The concentrations of δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in the EO of the three groups of hemp were significantly different, with the highest concentration being 3.5%. The EO of wild hemp had greater antimicrobial activity compared with the EO of registered cultivars. This is the first report to show that significant amounts of CBD could be accumulated in the EO of wild and registered cultivars of hemp following hydro-distillation. The amount of CBD in the EO can be greater than that in the EO of the USA strain used for commercial production of CBD. Furthermore, this is among the first reports that show greater antimicrobial activity of the EO of wild hemp vs. the EO of registered cultivars. The results suggest that wild hemp may offer an excellent opportunity for future breeding and the selection of cultivars with a desirable composition of the EO and possibly CBD-rich EO production. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cannabis sativa; essential oil; cannabinoids; cannabidiol; δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol; dronabinol; monoterpenes; sesquiterpenes; wild hemp; hemp cultivars Cannabis sativa; essential oil; cannabinoids; cannabidiol; δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol; dronabinol; monoterpenes; sesquiterpenes; wild hemp; hemp cultivars
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zheljazkov, V.D.; Sikora, V.; Dincheva, I.; Kačániová, M.; Astatkie, T.; Semerdjieva, I.B.; Latkovic, D. Industrial, CBD, and Wild Hemp: How Different Are Their Essential Oil Profile and Antimicrobial Activity? Molecules 2020, 25, 4631. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204631

AMA Style

Zheljazkov VD, Sikora V, Dincheva I, Kačániová M, Astatkie T, Semerdjieva IB, Latkovic D. Industrial, CBD, and Wild Hemp: How Different Are Their Essential Oil Profile and Antimicrobial Activity? Molecules. 2020; 25(20):4631. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204631

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Sikora, Vladimir; Dincheva, Ivayla; Kačániová, Miroslava; Astatkie, Tess; Semerdjieva, Ivanka B.; Latkovic, Dragana. 2020. "Industrial, CBD, and Wild Hemp: How Different Are Their Essential Oil Profile and Antimicrobial Activity?" Molecules 25, no. 20: 4631. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204631

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