Special Issue "Corrosion Resistance of Alloy and Coating Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Corrosion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 July 2022 | Viewed by 9093

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Zbigniew Brytan
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Silesian University of Technology, ul. Konarskiego, 18a, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
Interests: stainless steels; corrosion; powder metallurgy; surface engineering; welding; additive manufacturing of metal parts
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The material property of corrosion resistance is one of the most important in practical applications and determines the lifetime of each product. For years, corrosion of engineering materials has been a big problem in industrial conditions, often causing significant economic losses and catastrophic damage to technical facilities. The material degradation can be minimized and component life extended by the use of suitable alloys and corrosion-resistant coatings produced by many surface engineering methods.

The occurrence of corrosion and its practical control is an area of study covering a wide range of scientific knowledge and requires an interdisciplinary approach to resolving corrosion problems. Hence, the purpose of this Special Issue is to explore the current status of the development and performance of all aspects of alloys, coatings, and surface modification methods aimed at improving the corrosion resistance of the material.

This Special Issue will address the problem of the corrosion of alloys and coating materials. The scope of this Issue is extensive, giving the possibility to present developments and research in all aspects of this field, and includes both metallic and non-metallic corrosion. Key research topics that relate to the Special Issue include but are not limited to the following: cause and rate of corrosion of alloys and coating materials and methods of investigation, quality and mechanisms of deterioration, corrosion protection, and testing to assess corrosion resistance. Subjects of interest will also include the corrosion behavior of metals and their alloys (e.g., aluminum alloys, titanium alloys, and nickel alloys); PVD, CVD, and ALD coatings; and other materials, including nanomaterials.

I kindly invite you to submit your work to this Special Issue. Full papers, communications, and reviews are all welcome.

Prof. Zbigniew Brytan
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • corrosion
  • corrosion-resistant alloys
  • light metals and alloys
  • ferrous and non-ferrous alloys
  • corrosion-resistant coatings and their characterization
  • surface modification of advanced alloys
  • electrochemical methods for corrosion testing
  • localized corrosion
  • high-temperature corrosion

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Article
The Influence of Casein Coatings on the Corrosion Behavior of Mg-Based Alloys
Materials 2022, 15(4), 1399; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15041399 - 14 Feb 2022
Viewed by 407
Abstract
This article discusses the influence of conversion casein coatings with a thickness of about 20 µm on the structure and the corrosion behavior of two magnesium alloys: MgCa2Zn1 and MgCa2Zn1Gd3. Casein is a protein that, along with whey protein, is a part of [...] Read more.
This article discusses the influence of conversion casein coatings with a thickness of about 20 µm on the structure and the corrosion behavior of two magnesium alloys: MgCa2Zn1 and MgCa2Zn1Gd3. Casein is a protein that, along with whey protein, is a part of milk. Casein coatings are appropriate for bone growth because they contain high amounts of calcium and phosphorus. In this work, casein coatings and casein-free coatings were applied on Mg-based alloys using the conversion process. The structure and topography observations were presented. The corrosion behavior was determined by electrochemical and immersion tests, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in chloride-rich Ringer solution. The obtained results show that conversion casein coatings effectively protect Mg-based alloys against corrosion. This was confirmed by higher corrosion potentials (Ecorr), polarization resistances (Rp) derived from Tafel’s and EIS analysis, as well as low hydrogen release. The volume of hydrogen released after 216 h of immersion for casein coatings applied to MgCa2Zn1 and MgCa2Zn1Gd3 alloys was 19.25 and 12.42 mL/cm2, respectively. The improvement in corrosion resistance of casein coatings was more significant for Mg alloy dopped with gadolinium. The lower corrosion rate of casein conversion coatings is explained by the synergistic effect of the addition of Gd in the Mg-based alloy and the formation of dense, tight conversion casein coatings on the surface of this alloy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion Resistance of Alloy and Coating Materials)
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Article
Investigation of the Relationship between Degradation of the Coating of Gas Turbine Blades and Its Surface Color
Materials 2021, 14(24), 7843; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14247843 - 18 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 530
Abstract
This article presents issues concerning the relationship between the degradation of the coating of gas turbine blades and changes in the color of its surface. Conclusions were preceded by the determination of parameters characterizing changes in the technical condition of protective coatings made [...] Read more.
This article presents issues concerning the relationship between the degradation of the coating of gas turbine blades and changes in the color of its surface. Conclusions were preceded by the determination of parameters characterizing changes in the technical condition of protective coatings made based on a metallographic examination that defined the morphological modifications of the microstructure of the coating, chemical composition of oxides, and roughness parameters. It has been shown that an increased operating time causes parameters that characterize the condition of the blades to deteriorate significantly. Results of material tests were compared with those of blade surface color analyses performed using a videoscope. Image data were represented in two color models, i.e., RGB and L*a*b* with significant differences being observed between parameters in both representations. The study results demonstrated a relationship between the coating degradation degree and changes in the color of the blade’s surface. Among others, this approach may be used as a tool to assess the condition of turbine blades as well as entire gas turbines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion Resistance of Alloy and Coating Materials)
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Article
Salt Heat Treatment and Passivation to Improve the Corrosion Resistance of Nitinol (Ni-Ti)
Materials 2021, 14(24), 7789; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14247789 - 16 Dec 2021
Viewed by 559
Abstract
Corrosion of nitinol (NiTi) is a major factor in the failure of implantable materials. Recently, as the importance of corrosion of metals has increased, testing according to international guidelines is essential. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the corrosion resistance of [...] Read more.
Corrosion of nitinol (NiTi) is a major factor in the failure of implantable materials. Recently, as the importance of corrosion of metals has increased, testing according to international guidelines is essential. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the corrosion resistance of NiTi wire through heat treatment and passivation process. In this study, NiTi wire used two commercially available products and a self-manufactured stent. Experimental consideration was carried out according to ASTM standards. Heat treatment was carried out in an air or a salt furnace, and the corrosion was measured after additional process, such as passivation and scratch tests. As a result, the metal potential was rapidly decreased in the air furnace group. On the other hand, the potential of wires was dramatically increased in the salt furnace group compared to the air furnace group. The dislocation decreased below the acceptance criteria (>600 mV) within 60 s of heat treatment time in the air furnace. Moreover, the potential was dramatically improved, even after only 20 min of passivation treatment (1076 mV, 442% compared to the non-passivated group), and it continued to rise until 180 min. This phenomenon was similarly observed in the group of self-manufactured stents. The potential slightly decreased by the scratch process (93.1%) was significantly reduced by the air furnace process (315 mV, 24.4% of the nontreated group). In the passivated group of the air furnace sample with reduced potential, the potential was restored to the level before the air furnace (scratch stage) (1032 mV). In conclusion, the heat treatment is preferably carried out in a salt furnace rather than an air furnace, and the passivation process can be an advantageous tool to improve corrosion resistance by suppressing the oxidation process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion Resistance of Alloy and Coating Materials)
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Article
Effect of TiO2 Concentration on Microstructure and Properties of Composite Cu–Sn–TiO2 Coatings Obtained by Electrodeposition
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6179; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14206179 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 634
Abstract
In this work, Cu–Sn–TiO2 composite coatings were electrochemically obtained from a sulfate bath containing 0–10 g/L of TiO2 nanoparticles. The effect of TiO2 particles on kinetics of cathodic electrodeposition has been studied by linear sweep voltammetry and chronopotentiometry. As compared [...] Read more.
In this work, Cu–Sn–TiO2 composite coatings were electrochemically obtained from a sulfate bath containing 0–10 g/L of TiO2 nanoparticles. The effect of TiO2 particles on kinetics of cathodic electrodeposition has been studied by linear sweep voltammetry and chronopotentiometry. As compared to the Cu–Sn alloy, the Cu–Sn–TiO2 composite coatings show rougher surfaces with TiO2 agglomerates embedded in the metal matrix. The highest average amount of included TiO2 is 1.7 wt.%, in the case of the bath containing 5 g/L thereof. Composite coatings showed significantly improved antibacterial properties towards E. coli ATCC 8739 bacteria as compared to the Cu–Sn coatings of the same composition. Such improvement has been connected with the corrosion resistance of the composites studied by linear polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In the bacterial media and 3% NaCl solutions, Cu–Sn–TiO2 composite coatings have lower corrosion resistance as compared to Cu–Sn alloys, which is caused by the nonuniformity of the surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion Resistance of Alloy and Coating Materials)
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Article
High-Temperature Corrosion of APS- and HVOF-Coated Nickel-Based Super Alloy under Air Oxidation and Melted Salt Domains
Materials 2021, 14(18), 5119; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14185119 - 07 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 671
Abstract
Various thermal spraying approaches, such as air/atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) and high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spraying, are widely employed by plants owing to their flexibility, low costs and the high surface quality of the manufactured product. This study focuses on the corrosion behavior of [...] Read more.
Various thermal spraying approaches, such as air/atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) and high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spraying, are widely employed by plants owing to their flexibility, low costs and the high surface quality of the manufactured product. This study focuses on the corrosion behavior of a Ni superalloy coated with powder Cr3C2-25NiCr through APS and HVOF at 950 °C under air oxidation and Na2SO4 + 0.6V2O5 molten salt environments (MSE). The results show that HVOF-deposited Ni superalloys have higher hardness and bond strength than the respective APS coating. The thermo-gravimetric probe reveals that the Ni superalloys exposed to an oxidizing air environment has a minor mass gain compared to those under the MSE domain for both non-coated and coated samples, in line with the parabola curvature rate oxidizing law. The Ni superalloys show good corrosion resistance but poor oxidation resistance in APS-deposited Ni superalloys under the MSE. HVOF-coated Ni superalloys in both environments exhibit better corrosion resistance and lower mass gain than APS-coated superalloys. The excellent coating characteristics of HVOF-coated Ni superalloys lead to their better high-temperature corrosion performance than APS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion Resistance of Alloy and Coating Materials)
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Article
Structure and Properties of TiO2/nanoTiO2 Bimodal Coatings Obtained by a Hybrid PVD/ALD Method on 316L Steel Substrate
Materials 2021, 14(16), 4369; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14164369 - 04 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 592
Abstract
This paper presents the synergy of the effect of two surface engineering technologies—magnetron sputtering (MS-PVD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD) on the structure and properties of 316L steel. Recent studies indicate that PVD coatings, despite their thickness of a few micrometers, have many [...] Read more.
This paper presents the synergy of the effect of two surface engineering technologies—magnetron sputtering (MS-PVD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD) on the structure and properties of 316L steel. Recent studies indicate that PVD coatings, despite their thickness of a few micrometers, have many discontinuities and structural defects, which may lead to pitting corrosion after time. Applying an ALD layer to a PVD coating seals its structure and contributes to extending the service life of the coating. Investigations of the structure and morphology of the produced layers were carried out using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). In addition, the structure of the coatings was investigated on the cross-section using a scanning-transmission electron microscope S/TEM. The tribological properties of the materials studied were determined by the ball-on-disc method. The corrosion resistance of the tested materials was determined by the electrochemical potentiodynamic method by recording the polarization curves of the anodes. Additional information about the electrochemical properties of the tested samples, including the quality, their tightness, and their resistivity, was obtained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). In addition, the main mechanisms of corrosion and tribological wear were determined by SEM observations after corrosion tests and after tribological tests. The study showed that the fabrication of hybrid layers by MS-PVD and ALD techniques allows obtaining coatings with electrochemical properties superior to those of layers fabricated by only one method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion Resistance of Alloy and Coating Materials)
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Article
Influence of Laser Treatment on the Corrosion Resistance of Cr3C2-25(Ni20Cr) Cermet Coating
Materials 2021, 14(15), 4078; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14154078 - 22 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 562
Abstract
The influence of the laser treatment on the corrosion resistance of the Cr3C2-25(Ni20Cr) cermet coating on the Al7075 (EN, AW-7075) substrate (Cr3C2-25(Ni20Cr)/Al7075) was investigated. The coating was produced by the cold sprayed (CS) method. The [...] Read more.
The influence of the laser treatment on the corrosion resistance of the Cr3C2-25(Ni20Cr) cermet coating on the Al7075 (EN, AW-7075) substrate (Cr3C2-25(Ni20Cr)/Al7075) was investigated. The coating was produced by the cold sprayed (CS) method. The tested coatings were irradiated with a laser spot speed of 600 mm/min, 800 mm/min, and 1000 mm/min. The mechanical properties of the Cr3C2-25(Ni20Cr)/Al7075 were characterized by microhardness (HV) measurements. The surface and microstructure of the specimens were observed by ascanning electron microscope (SEM) and other assistive techniques. The corrosion test of materials wascarried out by using the electrochemical method in the acidic chloride solution. Cermet coatings perfectly protect the Al7075 substrate against contact with an aggressive corrosion environment. The laser remelting process of the Cr3C2-25(Ni20Cr) layer caused the homogenization of the structure cermet coatings. The irradiation with the laser beam eliminates microcracks and pores on the Cr3C2-25(Ni20Cr) surface. However, the best effect of improving the anti-corrosion properties of cermet coating was obtained for the lowest laser spot speed (i.e., 600 mm/min). It was found that the corrosion rate of the Cr3C2-25(Ni20Cr) cermet coating was reduced by more than two times compared to the highest speed of the laser spot. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion Resistance of Alloy and Coating Materials)
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Article
Effect of Heat Treatment Conditions on Corrosion Resistance of 0.28C–1.4Mn–0.3Si–0.26Cr Steel with Nb, Ti, and V Microadditions
Materials 2021, 14(12), 3254; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14123254 - 12 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 743
Abstract
The article presents the results of the research on the influence of heat treatment conditions on corrosion resistance of newly developed HSLA-type (High Strength Low Alloy) steel in selected corrosive environments. Laboratory tests were carried out with using a salt spray chamber, enabling [...] Read more.
The article presents the results of the research on the influence of heat treatment conditions on corrosion resistance of newly developed HSLA-type (High Strength Low Alloy) steel in selected corrosive environments. Laboratory tests were carried out with using a salt spray chamber, enabling the continuous spraying of brine mist (5% NaCl) during 96 h under high humidity conditions. Additionally, as part of corrosion experiments, tests were carried out using the gravimetric method, in which the intensity of corrosive processes was measured by the linear corrosion rate. The research conducted revealed that the best corrosion resistance was noted for steel with a high-temperature tempered martensite microstructure. Investigated 0.28C–1.4Mn–0.3Si–0.26Cr steel with Nb, Ti, and V microadditions can be used in offshore drilling constructions and production platforms exposed to salts present in sea water, chlorides, sulfates, carbonates, and bromides, among others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion Resistance of Alloy and Coating Materials)
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Article
The Effect of Zn and Zn–WO3 Composites Nano-Coatings Deposition on Hardness and Corrosion Resistance in Steel Substrate
Materials 2021, 14(9), 2253; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14092253 - 27 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 924
Abstract
Pure Zn (Zinc) and its Zn–WO3 (Zinc–Tungsten trioxide) composite coatings were deposited on mild steel specimens by applying the electrodeposition technique. Zn–WO3 composites were prepared for the concentration of 0.5 and 1.0 g/L of particles. The influence of WO3 particles [...] Read more.
Pure Zn (Zinc) and its Zn–WO3 (Zinc–Tungsten trioxide) composite coatings were deposited on mild steel specimens by applying the electrodeposition technique. Zn–WO3 composites were prepared for the concentration of 0.5 and 1.0 g/L of particles. The influence of WO3 particles on Zn deposition, the surface morphology of composite, and texture co-efficient were analyzed using a variety of techniques, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Higher corrosion resistance and microhardness were observed on the Zn–WO3 composite (concentration of 1.0 g/L). The higher corrosion resistance and microhardness of 1.0 g/L Zn–WO3 nanocomposite coatings effectively protect the steel used for the manufacture of products, parts, or systems from chemical or electrochemical deterioration in industrial and marine ambient environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion Resistance of Alloy and Coating Materials)
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Article
Corrosion Protective Film Formation on Mg Alloy AZ31 by Exposure to Dilute Selenite Solutions
Materials 2021, 14(2), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14020286 - 08 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 740
Abstract
The study of protective film formation on Mg alloys by exposure to sodium selenite solutions was conducted. Anodic polarization studies, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies, morphological analysis, and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were performed on AZ31 Mg alloy after coating treatment in different concentrations of [...] Read more.
The study of protective film formation on Mg alloys by exposure to sodium selenite solutions was conducted. Anodic polarization studies, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies, morphological analysis, and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were performed on AZ31 Mg alloy after coating treatment in different concentrations of sodium selenite. The corrosion resistance was improved by around 5 times compared with control. Improved resistance to localized corrosion was observed in the coatings treated by 5 mM or 10 mM sodium selenite. The protection mechanism was ascribed to the transformation of selenite to insoluble selenium, the formation of insoluble MgSeO3 hydrate, and polymerization of amorphous selenium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion Resistance of Alloy and Coating Materials)
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Article
The Influence of ZnO Oxide Layer on the Physicochemical Behavior of Ti6Al4V Titanium Alloy
Materials 2021, 14(1), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14010230 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1204
Abstract
Titanium and its alloys are characterized by high biocompatibility and good corrosion resistance as a result of the ability to form a TiO2 oxide layer. However, based on literature data it can be concluded that titanium degradation products, in the form of [...] Read more.
Titanium and its alloys are characterized by high biocompatibility and good corrosion resistance as a result of the ability to form a TiO2 oxide layer. However, based on literature data it can be concluded that titanium degradation products, in the form of titanium particles, metal-protein groups, oxides and ions, may cause allergic, inflammatory reactions and bone resorption. The corrosion process of Ti6Al4V in the human body environment may be intensified by a decreased pH and concentration of chloride compounds. The purpose of this article was to analyze the corrosion resistance of the Ti6Al4V alloy, obtained by the selective laser melting method in a corrosion solution of neutral pH and in a solution simulating peri-implant inflammatory conditions. Additionally, the influence of zinc oxide deposited by the atomic layer deposition method on the improvement of the physicochemical behavior of the Ti6Al4V alloy was analyzed. In order to characterize the ZnO layer, tests of chemical and phase composition as well as surface morphology investigation were performed. As part of the assessment of the physicochemical properties of the uncoated samples and those with the ZnO layer, tests of wetting angle, pitting corrosion and impedance corrosion were carried out. The number of ions released after the potentiodynamic test were measured using the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP–AES) method. It can be concluded that samples after surface modification (with the ZnO layer) were characterized by favorable physicochemical properties and had higher corrosion resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion Resistance of Alloy and Coating Materials)
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Article
Effects of Different Surface Native Pre-Oxides on the Hot Corrosion Properties of Nickel-Based Single Crystal Superalloys
Materials 2020, 13(24), 5774; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13245774 - 17 Dec 2020
Viewed by 569
Abstract
A study is carried out on the effect of different surface native pre-oxides on hot corrosion of single crystal nickel-based superalloy at 900 °C. The effect of different oxides formed by different superalloys through pre-oxidation on hot corrosion is verified by normal hot [...] Read more.
A study is carried out on the effect of different surface native pre-oxides on hot corrosion of single crystal nickel-based superalloy at 900 °C. The effect of different oxides formed by different superalloys through pre-oxidation on hot corrosion is verified by normal hot corrosion and tube sealing experiments. The relationship between different surface oxides and the effect of different surface oxides layer on the hot corrosion properties of alloys are studied. In summary, the stable and dense surface pre-Al2O3 layer which can be obtained by pre-oxidation has an obvious positive effect on the improvement of superalloy hot corrosion resistance in reaction. In addition, the internal sulfides are analyzed in depth, and the relationship between Cr, Mo, O and S is discussed in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion Resistance of Alloy and Coating Materials)
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