Bacterial Infections, Treatment and Antibiotic Resistance

A topical collection in Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This collection belongs to the section "Microbiology".

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Editor

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bacterial infections and resistance to antibiotics currently represent very serious and complex problems transcending the borders of healthcare. According to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, an alarming occurrence of some resistance patterns is evident throughout European countries. The multiresistance of pathogenic bacteria increasingly limits antibiotic effectiveness, significantly increasing the likelihood of antibiotic therapy failure and the related morbidity and mortality of patients with bacterial infections. This problem is multifactorial, resulting in the need for an interdisciplinary approach to its solution. The Special Issue of Life is open to worldwide articles on the following topics:

(1) bacterial pathogens and infections;
(2) antimicrobial resistance;
(3) antibiotic treatment.

Dr. Milan Kolář
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • infections
  • bacteria
  • resistance
  • antibiotics
  • therapy
  • prevention
  • AST (antimicrobial susceptibility testing)

Published Papers (27 papers)

2023

Jump to: 2022, 2021

16 pages, 1490 KiB  
Article
An Ethnobotanical, Phytochemical Analysis, Antimicrobial and Biological Studies of Pulicaria crispa as a Graze Promising Shrub
by Mashail N. AlZain, Fawziah M. Albarakaty and Rehab M. A. El-Desoukey
Life 2023, 13(11), 2197; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13112197 - 11 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 903
Abstract
Due to the global issue of antimicrobial resistance, one of the most significant challenges in microbiological research is to develop a replacement antibiotic with minimal adverse effects. The wild shrub Pulicaria crispa (gethgath) has been traditionally used for camel and ruminant grazing. While [...] Read more.
Due to the global issue of antimicrobial resistance, one of the most significant challenges in microbiological research is to develop a replacement antibiotic with minimal adverse effects. The wild shrub Pulicaria crispa (gethgath) has been traditionally used for camel and ruminant grazing. While prior research has demonstrated its antimicrobial properties against human diseases, no investigations have been conducted on its efficacy against animal pathogens. The objective of this study is to explore the ethnobotanical, phytochemical, antioxidant, anticancer, and antimicrobial activity of Pulicaria crispa aqueous and solvent extracts against a range of standard and animal pathogens. All of the extracts demonstrated antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer properties, containing bioactive compounds. Notably, the ethyl acetate extract of P. crispa exhibited the strongest antimicrobial activity against tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. The chloroform fraction displayed the highest antioxidant activity. Additionally, the ethyl acetate fraction showed promising anticancer activity against breast (MCF-7) and lung (A549) cancer cells. These findings confirm that Pulicaria crispa is a valuable shrub with potential applications as a natural alternative for antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer treatments in both human and veterinary medicine. Full article
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43 pages, 1636 KiB  
Review
The Cytotoxic Properties of Extreme Fungi’s Bioactive Components—An Updated Metabolic and Omics Overview
by Attila Kiss, Farhad Hariri Akbari, Andrey Marchev, Viktor Papp and Iman Mirmazloum
Life 2023, 13(8), 1623; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13081623 - 25 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1679
Abstract
Fungi are the most diverse living organisms on planet Earth, where their ubiquitous presence in various ecosystems offers vast potential for the research and discovery of new, naturally occurring medicinal products. Concerning human health, cancer remains one of the leading causes of mortality. [...] Read more.
Fungi are the most diverse living organisms on planet Earth, where their ubiquitous presence in various ecosystems offers vast potential for the research and discovery of new, naturally occurring medicinal products. Concerning human health, cancer remains one of the leading causes of mortality. While extensive research is being conducted on treatments and their efficacy in various stages of cancer, finding cytotoxic drugs that target tumor cells with no/less toxicity toward normal tissue is a significant challenge. In addition, traditional cancer treatments continue to suffer from chemical resistance. Fortunately, the cytotoxic properties of several natural products derived from various microorganisms, including fungi, are now well-established. The current review aims to extract and consolidate the findings of various scientific studies that identified fungi-derived bioactive metabolites with antitumor (anticancer) properties. The antitumor secondary metabolites identified from extremophilic and extremotolerant fungi are grouped according to their biological activity and type. It became evident that the significance of these compounds, with their medicinal properties and their potential application in cancer treatment, is tremendous. Furthermore, the utilization of omics tools, analysis, and genome mining technology to identify the novel metabolites for targeted treatments is discussed. Through this review, we tried to accentuate the invaluable importance of fungi grown in extreme environments and the necessity of innovative research in discovering naturally occurring bioactive compounds for the development of novel cancer treatments. Full article
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14 pages, 2337 KiB  
Article
Fusarium spp. in Human Disease: Exploring the Boundaries between Commensalism and Pathogenesis
by Anca Cighir, Anca Delia Mare, Florina Vultur, Teodora Cighir, Suzana Doina Pop, Karin Horvath and Adrian Man
Life 2023, 13(7), 1440; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13071440 - 26 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2121
Abstract
Fusarium is a large fungal genus that is widely distributed in the environment, mostly known for its plant pathogenicity. Rarely, it is involved in human pathology, where the type of infection caused is highly dependent upon the portal of entry and the immune [...] Read more.
Fusarium is a large fungal genus that is widely distributed in the environment, mostly known for its plant pathogenicity. Rarely, it is involved in human pathology, where the type of infection caused is highly dependent upon the portal of entry and the immune status of the host. The study at hand aims to summarize routine methods used in diagnosing such infections as well as more advanced molecular diagnostic methods, techniques that can play a huge role in differentiating between colonization and infection when trying to decide the therapeutic outcome. Consequently, to further support our findings, two different strains (one isolated from corneal scrapings and one isolated from purulent discharge) were analyzed in a clinical context and thoroughly tested using classical and modern diagnostic methods: identification by macroscopical and microscopical examinations of the culture and mass spectrometry, completed by molecular methods such as PCR for trichothecene and ERIC-PCR for genetic fingerprinting. Isolation of a clinically relevant Fusarium spp. from a sample still remains a diagnostic challenge for both the clinician and the microbiologist, because differentiating between colonization and infection is very strenuous, but can make a difference in the treatment that is administered to the patient. Full article
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11 pages, 292 KiB  
Article
Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci from Bloodstream Infections: Frequency of Occurrence and Antimicrobial Resistance, 2018–2021
by Nicola Serra, Paola Di Carlo, Maria Andriolo, Giovanni Mazzola, Elena Diprima, Teresa Rea, Antonio Anastasia, Teresa Maria Assunta Fasciana, Luca Pipitò, Giuseppina Capra, Anna Giammanco and Antonio Cascio
Life 2023, 13(6), 1356; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13061356 - 09 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1164
Abstract
Background: The abuse of antibiotics during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic might have disrupted efforts to curb the further development and spread of the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus infection and Staphylococcus spp. coagulase-negative (CoNS) agents of nosocomial bloodstream infections (NBSIs). The purpose of our [...] Read more.
Background: The abuse of antibiotics during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic might have disrupted efforts to curb the further development and spread of the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus infection and Staphylococcus spp. coagulase-negative (CoNS) agents of nosocomial bloodstream infections (NBSIs). The purpose of our work was to study the resistance patterns of Staphylococcus aureus and CoNS through the analysis of blood cultures in hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-positive and SARS-CoV-2-negative patients (pts.). Materials and methods: During the period January 2018–June 2021, a retrospective case–control study was performed on blood cultures positive for Staphylococcus spp. detected in 177 adult pts. (≥18 years old) hospitalized for >48 hours at Sant’Elia Hospital, Caltanissetta. Results: Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 33.9% of blood culture samples, and among CoNS, the most frequent strains were Staphylococcus capitis (18.6%) and Staphylococcus hominis (18.1%). Patients aged ≥ 65 years, with a greater number of males, comprised the SARS-CoV-2-negative pts. (71.8% vs. 52.2%, p = 0.0154). Among the SARS-CoV-2-positive patients, the significant resistance of Staphylococcus aureus was only observed for erythromycin (57.1%). The oxacillin resistance of Staphylococcus capitis was higher in SARS-CoV-2-positive than in negative pts. (90% and 78.3%, respectively). Comparing the two groups, we found an increase in resistance in SARS-CoV-2-negative patients for the following antibiotics: gentamicin for Staphylococcus aureus (p = 0.007), clindamycin and erythromycin (p = 0.012) for Staphylococcus hominis and oxacillin and rifampicin for Staphylococcus haemoliticus (p = 0.012). Conclusions: Our study confirms the relevance of oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in being responsible for bloodstream infection and draws attention to highly oxacillin-resistant CoNS such as Staphylococcus capitis. The presence of resistant strains of CoNS in hospitals can be worrying, as it limits treatment options and worsens outcomes. The Infection Control Committee (ICC) recommends new treatment strategies to decrease colonization and infections. As part of the implementation of a bloodstream infection prevention program, the authors encourage the introduction of a report on the antimicrobial resistance of hospital bacteremia due to CoNS. Full article
14 pages, 1321 KiB  
Review
Gut Microbiota and Infectious Complications in Advanced Chronic Liver Disease: Focus on Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis
by Valeria Maccauro, Carlo Airola, Francesco Santopaolo, Antonio Gasbarrini, Francesca Romana Ponziani and Maurizio Pompili
Life 2023, 13(4), 991; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13040991 - 11 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1673
Abstract
Liver cirrhosis is a chronic disease that can be complicated by episodes of decompensation such as variceal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, ascites, and jaundice, with subsequent increased mortality. Infections are also among the most common complications in cirrhotic patients, mostly due to a defect [...] Read more.
Liver cirrhosis is a chronic disease that can be complicated by episodes of decompensation such as variceal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, ascites, and jaundice, with subsequent increased mortality. Infections are also among the most common complications in cirrhotic patients, mostly due to a defect in immunosurveillance. Among them, one of the most frequent is spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), defined as the primary infection of ascitic fluid without other abdominal foci. SBP is mainly induced by Gram-negative bacteria living in the intestinal tract, and translocating through the intestinal barrier, which in cirrhotic patients is defective and more permeable. Moreover, in cirrhotic patients, the intestinal microbiota shows an altered composition, poor in beneficial elements and enriched in potentially pathogenic ones. This condition further promotes the development of leaky gut and increases the risk of SBP. The first-line treatment of SBP is antibiotic therapy; however, the antibiotics used have a broad spectrum of action and may adversely affect the composition of the gut microbiota, worsening dysbiosis. For this reason, the future goal is to use new therapeutic agents that act primarily on the gut microbiota, selectively modulating it, or on the intestinal barrier, reducing its permeability. In this review, we aim to describe the reciprocal relationship between gut microbiota and SBP, focusing on pathogenetic aspects but also on new future therapies. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2023, 2021

13 pages, 1279 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial Activity of Crocus sativus L. Petals Extracts against Foodborne Pathogenic and Spoilage Microorganisms, with a Special Focus on Clostridia
by Sara Primavilla, Cinzia Pagano, Rossana Roila, Raffaella Branciari, David Ranucci, Andrea Valiani, Maurizio Ricci and Luana Perioli
Life 2023, 13(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13010060 - 25 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2031
Abstract
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the use of novel antimicrobial agents able to inhibit or kill food-borne bacteria or to interrupt the onset of food spoilage. Crocus sativus L. petals, typically considered as waste obtained from saffron spice [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the use of novel antimicrobial agents able to inhibit or kill food-borne bacteria or to interrupt the onset of food spoilage. Crocus sativus L. petals, typically considered as waste obtained from saffron spice production, could be a source of natural bioactive compounds to be used as food preservatives. The purpose of this work was to investigate the antibacterial properties of two hydroalcoholicsaffron petal extracts obtained by maceration (SPEA) and by ultrasonic bath (SPEB) methods. The main polyphenols identified in both extracts were gallic and chlorogenic acids, representing almost 70% of the phenolic fraction monitored. The antibacterial activity was studied by the agar well-diffusion method, against food-borne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. Both extracts showed activity mainly against Gram-positive bacteria, in particular those belonging to the Clostridiaceae family (C. perfringens, C. botulinum and C. difficile), with inhibition zone diameters ranging from 13 to 18 mm. The antibacterial properties against Clostridia were further analyzed, determining MIC and MBC and performing a time-kill test. SPEA showed lower MIC/MBC values (250 mg/mL) compared to SPEB (500 mg/mL), suggesting that it could be more active against the assayed strains, probably because of its higher content of gallic acid. SPEA and SPEB, tested at a concentration of 1 × MIC, showed bactericidal activity against C. perfringens, C. botulinum and C. difficile and these results suggest that saffron petals could represent a valuable natural alternative source to conventional preservatives. Further investigations are needed to evaluate possible applications in the food industry. Full article
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23 pages, 1273 KiB  
Review
Emergence and Dissemination of Extraintestinal Pathogenic High-Risk International Clones of Escherichia coli
by Béla Kocsis, Dániel Gulyás and Dóra Szabó
Life 2022, 12(12), 2077; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12122077 - 10 Dec 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2532
Abstract
Multiresistant Escherichia coli has been disseminated worldwide, and it is one of the major causative agents of nosocomial infections. E. coli has a remarkable and complex genomic plasticity for taking up and accumulating genetic elements; thus, multiresistant high-risk clones can evolve. In this [...] Read more.
Multiresistant Escherichia coli has been disseminated worldwide, and it is one of the major causative agents of nosocomial infections. E. coli has a remarkable and complex genomic plasticity for taking up and accumulating genetic elements; thus, multiresistant high-risk clones can evolve. In this review, we summarise all available data about internationally disseminated extraintestinal pathogenic high-risk E. coli clones based on whole-genome sequence (WGS) data and confirmed outbreaks. Based on genetic markers, E. coli is clustered into eight phylogenetic groups. Nowadays, the E. coli ST131 clone from phylogenetic group B2 is the predominant high-risk clone worldwide. Currently, strains of the C1-M27 subclade within clade C of ST131 are circulating and becoming prominent in Canada, China, Germany, Hungary and Japan. The C1-M27 subclade is characterised by blaCTX-M-27. Recently, the ST1193 clone has been reported as an emerging high-risk clone from phylogenetic group B2. ST38 clone carrying blaOXA-244 (a blaOXA-48-like carbapenemase gene) caused several outbreaks in Germany and Switzerland. Further high-risk international E. coli clones include ST10, ST69, ST73, ST405, ST410, ST457. High-risk E. coli strains are present in different niches, in the human intestinal tract and in animals, and persist in environment. These strains can be transmitted easily within the community as well as in hospital settings. WGS analysis is a useful tool for tracking the dissemination of resistance determinants, the emergence of high-risk mulitresistant E. coli clones and to analyse changes in the E. coli population on a genomic level. Full article
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9 pages, 578 KiB  
Article
Sepsityper® Kit versus In-House Method in Rapid Identification of Bacteria from Positive Blood Cultures by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry
by Gabrijela Perše, Ivana Samošćanec, Zrinka Bošnjak, Ana Budimir, Tomislav Kuliš and Ivana Mareković
Life 2022, 12(11), 1744; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12111744 - 30 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1950
Abstract
In order to further accelerate pathogen identification from positive blood cultures (BC), various sample preparation protocols to identify bacteria with MALDI-TOF MS directly from positive BCs have been developed. We evaluated an in-house method in comparison to the Sepsityper® Kit (Bruker Daltonics, [...] Read more.
In order to further accelerate pathogen identification from positive blood cultures (BC), various sample preparation protocols to identify bacteria with MALDI-TOF MS directly from positive BCs have been developed. We evaluated an in-house method in comparison to the Sepsityper® Kit (Bruker Daltonics, Bremen, Germany) as well as the benefit of an on-plate formic acid extraction step following positive signal by the BACTECTM FX system. Confirmation of identification was achieved using subcultured growing biomass used for MALDI-TOF MS analysis. A total of 113 monomicrobial positive BCs were analyzed. The rates of Gram-positive bacteria correctly identified to the genus level using in-house method and Sepsityper® Kit were 63.3% (38/60) and 81.7% (49/60), respectively (p = 0.025). Identification rates at species level for Gram-positive bacteria with in-house method and Sepsityper® kit were 30.0% (18/60) and 66.7% (40/60), respectively (p < 0.001). Identification rates of Gram-negative bacteria were similar with the in-house method and Sepsityper® Kit. Additional on-plate formic acid extraction demonstrated significant improvement in the identification rate of Gram-positive bacteria at both genus and species level for both in-house (p = 0.001, p < 0.001) and Sepsityper® Kit methods (p = 0.007, p < 0.001). Our in-house method is a candidate for laboratory routines with Sepsityper® Kit as a back-up solution when identification of Gram-positive bacteria is unsuccessful. Full article
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19 pages, 2470 KiB  
Article
Comparative Characteristics and Pathogenic Potential of Escherichia coli Isolates Originating from Poultry Farms, Retail Meat, and Human Urinary Tract Infection
by Jolanta Sarowska, Tomasz Olszak, Agnieszka Jama-Kmiecik, Magdalena Frej-Madrzak, Bozena Futoma-Koloch, Andrzej Gawel, Zuzanna Drulis-Kawa and Irena Choroszy-Krol
Life 2022, 12(6), 845; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12060845 - 06 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2190
Abstract
The pathogenicity of many bacterial strains is determined by the acquisition of virulence genes and depends on many factors. The aim of this study was to analyse the phylogenetic background, virulence patterns, and drug susceptibility of 132 E. coli isolates tested in the [...] Read more.
The pathogenicity of many bacterial strains is determined by the acquisition of virulence genes and depends on many factors. The aim of this study was to analyse the phylogenetic background, virulence patterns, and drug susceptibility of 132 E. coli isolates tested in the context of the ExPEC (Extraintestinal Pathogenic E. coli) pathotype and the correlation of these features with bacterial isolation source: food (retail meat), poultry farms (AFEC—Avian Faecal E. coli), and patients with UTI (urinary tract infection) symptoms. The drug-susceptibility results of tested E. coli isolates obtained indicate that the resistance profile—ampicillin/tetracycline/trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole/ciprofloxacin (AMP/TE/SXT/CIP)—was most frequently observed. The multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype was found in 31.8% of isolates from poultry farms, 36.8% of strains isolated from food, and 20% of clinical samples. The greatest similarity of virulence profiles applied to isolates derived from poultry farms and food. Most of the AFEC from poultry farms and food-derived isolates belonged to commensals from phylogroups A and B1, while among the isolates from patients with UTI symptoms, the most common was the B2 phylogroup. The collective analysis showed similarity of the three studied groups of E. coli isolates in terms of the presented patterns of antimicrobial resistance, while the virulence profiles of the isolates studied showed great diversity. The phylogroup analysis showed no similarity between the poultry/food isolates and the UTI isolates, which had significant pathogenic potential. Full article
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10 pages, 283 KiB  
Article
Milk Quality and Safety in a One Health Perspective: Results of a Prevalence Study on Dairy Herds in Lombardy (Italy)
by Valerio M. Sora, Sara Panseri, Maria Nobile, Federica Di Cesare, Gabriele Meroni, Luca M. Chiesa and Alfonso Zecconi
Life 2022, 12(6), 786; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12060786 - 25 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1880
Abstract
Mastitis is one of the major diseases of dairy cows that affects milk quality and quantity and increases the potential risk for the presence of antimicrobial residues (AR) in milk, which could lead to the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among human pathogens. [...] Read more.
Mastitis is one of the major diseases of dairy cows that affects milk quality and quantity and increases the potential risk for the presence of antimicrobial residues (AR) in milk, which could lead to the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among human pathogens. Even if the presence of AR in milk and milk products is low in many countries, the threat is not negligible and cannot be ignored. These problems may be investigated by applying a One Health approach, and this prevalence study aimed to estimate the risks for human health related to milk production applied to dairy herds in Lombardy. Three hundred thirty-one bulk tank milk samples were randomly collected and analyzed by CombiFoss 7 and MilkoScan 7 (milk quality, bacteria, and somatic cell count), an HPLC system coupled to a Q-Exactive Orbitrap (AR), and qPCR (contagious pathogens). The data were analyzed by a generalized linear model. The results showed a relatively high prevalence of contagious pathogens (S. aureus 28.1%; Str. agalactiae 7.3%; M. bovis 3%), which primarily affect milk nutritional components decreasing mainly milk fat content (range 1%–2.5%), but did not show them to be associated to an increase of the risk of antimicrobial residues. These latter ones were recovered only in 7/331 samples at concentrations far below official MLRs. The results support currently active surveillance programs’ efficacy in reducing AR risks, which may be further improved by prioritizing them based on geographical area characteristics. Full article
10 pages, 629 KiB  
Article
Prognostic Significance of Simple Scoring Systems in the Prediction of Diffuse Peritonitis Morbidity and Mortality
by Petr Špička, Josef Chudáček, Tomáš Řezáč, Lubomír Starý, Rostislav Horáček and Dušan Klos
Life 2022, 12(4), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12040487 - 28 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1923
Abstract
Introduction: Diffuse peritonitis is a serious disease. It is often addressed within urgent management of an unstable patient in shock. The therapy consists of treatment of the source of peritonitis, decontamination of the abdominal cavity, stabilization of the patient and comprehensive resuscitation care [...] Read more.
Introduction: Diffuse peritonitis is a serious disease. It is often addressed within urgent management of an unstable patient in shock. The therapy consists of treatment of the source of peritonitis, decontamination of the abdominal cavity, stabilization of the patient and comprehensive resuscitation care in an intensive care unit. A number of scoring systems to determine patient prognosis are available, but most of them require complex input data, making their practical application a substantial problem. Objective: Our aim was to assess simple scoring systems within a cohort, evaluate the level of mortality, morbidity, and duration of hospital stay, followed by a comparison of the acquired data with the literature and determination of an easily implementable scoring system for use in clinical practice. Material and Methods: We evaluated a group of patients with diffuse peritonitis who underwent surgery in the 2015–2019 period. Medical history, surgical findings, and paraclinical examinations were used as the input for four scoring systems commonly used in practice—MPI, qSOFA, ECOG, and ASA. We compared the results between the systems and with the literature. Results: Our cohort included 274 patients diagnosed with diffuse peritonitis. Mortality was 22.6%, morbidity 73.4%, with a 25.2 day average duration of hospital stay. Mortality and morbidity increased with rising MPI and qSOFA, well-established scoring systems, but also with rising ASA and ECOG, similarly to MPI and qSOFA. Conclusions: The utilized scoring systems correlated well with the severity of the condition and with predicted mortality and morbidity as reported in the literature. Simple scoring systems primarily used in other indications (i.e., ASA and ECOG) have a similar predictive value in our cohort as commonly used systems (MPI, qSOFA). We recommend them in routine clinical practice due to their simplicity. Full article
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4 pages, 219 KiB  
Editorial
Bacterial Infections, Antimicrobial Resistance and Antibiotic Therapy
by Milan Kolář
Life 2022, 12(4), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12040468 - 23 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1948
Abstract
Bacterial infections have been, and are very likely to continue to be, among the most serious problems in medicine [...] Full article
16 pages, 970 KiB  
Article
Pulmonary Complications after COVID-19
by Petr Jakubec, Kateřina Fišerová, Samuel Genzor and Milan Kolář
Life 2022, 12(3), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12030357 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4023
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a threat to patients not only because of its acute course, but also because of various complications occurring in the following period, that is, more than 28 days after the onset of acute infection. The present study identified [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a threat to patients not only because of its acute course, but also because of various complications occurring in the following period, that is, more than 28 days after the onset of acute infection. The present study identified a total of 121 patients hospitalized 29 or more days after the first positive result of a PCR test for SARS-CoV-2, of whom 98 patients were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups by the time interval between the positive COVID-19 test result and hospitalization date. The time intervals were week 5–11 in an ongoing-COVID group (57.1% of patients) and 12 or more weeks in a post-COVID-group (42.9%). The most frequent reason for hospitalization was respiratory tract infection (58.2%). Pneumonia accounted for 77.2% of these cases. Other reasons for hospitalization were interstitial lung disease (22.4%), pulmonary embolism (8.2%), and sarcoidosis (6.1%). The study group was further divided according to the causes of hospitalization into subgroups with infections and other causes. In the group with infectious diseases, there was a shorter time period between PCR positivity and hospitalization and there were significantly more frequent non-respiratory complications. In the entire sample, the in-hospital mortality was 5.1%. Full article
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9 pages, 7481 KiB  
Article
Frequency and Molecular Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from Placenta of Mothers with Term and Preterm Deliveries
by Hafiz Muhammad Umer Farooqi, Kyung-Hwan Kim, Farzana Kausar, Javed Muhammad, Habib Bukhari and Kyung-Hyun Choi
Life 2022, 12(2), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12020257 - 09 Feb 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1908
Abstract
Globally, prematurity is the leading cause of neonatal mortality (babies in the first four weeks of life) and now the second leading cause of mortality after pneumonia in children under age five. The neonatal gut microbial colonization is crucial in the human life [...] Read more.
Globally, prematurity is the leading cause of neonatal mortality (babies in the first four weeks of life) and now the second leading cause of mortality after pneumonia in children under age five. The neonatal gut microbial colonization is crucial in the human life cycle. Placental microbiota transmits from the gut microbiota plays a significant role in association with kinship. Simultaneously, this transition is being made from mother to infant. This comparative study explored the diversity of microbiota associated with term and preterm neonates by evaluating the placental samples. The study found that 16/68 (23.5%) full-term placental samples were positive for S. aureus; on the other hand, 4/16 (25%) preterm placental samples confirmed culture growth for S. aureus. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns showed that Staphylococcusaureus (S. aureus) isolates from both types of samples were resistant to Ofloxacin, Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, Oxacillin, and Cefoxitin. However, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) detection was 43.75% in full-term and 75% in preterm placental samples. Moreover, two isolates were positive for both mecA and PVL virulent genes, and the rest were positive only for the mecA gene. Interestingly few isolates lacked both characteristic MRSA genes, mecA and PVL. Notably, resistances were more inclined towards preterm samples for antimicrobial susceptibility and MRSA screening. It may be concluded that there is a significant presence of S. aureus in the placenta of mothers with term and preterm deliveries which might be responsible for preterm deliveries. Therefore, judicious use of antibiotics during pregnancies may help prevent preterm births. Full article
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13 pages, 672 KiB  
Article
The Short-Term Antibacterial Activity of Three Selected Endodontic Sealers against Enterococcus faecalis Bacterial Culture
by Matej Rosa, Yuliya Morozova, Roman Moštěk, Pavel Holík, Lucia Somolová, Barbora Novotná, Soňa Zábojníková, Kateřina Bogdanová, Kateřina Langová, Iva Voborná, Lenka Pospíšilová and Josef Paul Kovařík
Life 2022, 12(2), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12020158 - 21 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2415
Abstract
(1) Background: Microorganisms originating from the microflora of the oral cavity are the main cause of the inflammatory diseases of the dental pulp and periapical periodontium, as well as the failure of endodontic treatment. The subsequent root canal treatment is not able to [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Microorganisms originating from the microflora of the oral cavity are the main cause of the inflammatory diseases of the dental pulp and periapical periodontium, as well as the failure of endodontic treatment. The subsequent root canal treatment is not able to remove all the pathogens, and a small number of viable bacteria remain in the dentine tubules, which must be sealed by endodontic sealers. These sealers should have at least a bacteriostatic effect to prevent the remaining bacteria from reproducing. The aim of this study is to compare the short-term antibacterial activity of three endodontic sealers based on poly-epoxy resin, zinc oxide-eugenol and calcium silicate with a calcium hydroxide-based sealer. Calcium hydroxide is used as temporary intracanal medicament and, thus, should show significant antibacterial activity. (2) Methods: A total of 25 bovine dentine samples infected with Enterococcus faecalis were used in this study. After the sealer placement and a 24 h incubation period, the root canal walls were scraped, and the suspension of dentine fillings was used for a semi-quantitative evaluation of microbial growth. (3) Results: The poly-epoxide resin-based sealer ADSeal™ showed significant antibacterial properties. (4) Conclusions: The highest antibacterial activity was shown in poly-epoxide resin-based sealer group, followed by the zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealer and calcium silicate-based sealer. Full article
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16 pages, 2488 KiB  
Article
Resistant Genes and Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria in Wastewater: A Study of Their Transfer to the Water Reservoir in the Czech Republic
by Tereza Stachurová, Nikola Sýkorová, Jaroslav Semerád and Kateřina Malachová
Life 2022, 12(2), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12020147 - 20 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2754
Abstract
Wastewater is considered the most serious source of the spread of antibiotic resistance in the environment. This work, therefore, focuses on the fate and spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in wastewater and the monitoring of multidrug-resistant strains. ARGs were monitored in the [...] Read more.
Wastewater is considered the most serious source of the spread of antibiotic resistance in the environment. This work, therefore, focuses on the fate and spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in wastewater and the monitoring of multidrug-resistant strains. ARGs were monitored in the nitrification and sedimentation tanks of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and in the dam into which this WWTP flows, at various times. The highest relative abundance was found for the blaTEM > tetW > blaNDM-1 > vanA resistance genes, respectively. An increased concentration of tetracycline (up to 96.00 ng/L) and ampicillin (up to 19.00 ng/L) was found in water samples compared to other antibiotics detected. The increased incidence of seven ARGs and four antibiotics was observed in the November and December sampling times. Isolated ampicillin-resistant strains showed a high degree of resistance to ampicillin (61.2% of the total isolates had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥ 20 mg/mL). In 87.8% of isolates, out of the total number, the occurrence of two or more ARGs was confirmed. These multidrug-resistant strains were most often identified as Aeromonas sp. This strain could represent a significant role in the spread of multidrug resistance through wastewater in the environment. Full article
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11 pages, 8766 KiB  
Article
Ex Vivo Effect of Novel Lipophosphonoxins on Root Canal Biofilm Produced by Enterococcus faecalis: Pilot Study
by Yuliya Morozova, Iva Voborná, Radovan Žižka, Kateřina Bogdanová, Renata Večeřová, Dominik Rejman, Milan Kolář, Duy Dinh Do Pham, Pavel Holík, Roman Moštěk, Matej Rosa and Lenka Pospíšilová
Life 2022, 12(1), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12010129 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2118
Abstract
(1) Background: The root canal system has complex anatomical and histological features that make it impossible to completely remove all bacteria by mechanical means only; they must be supplemented with disinfectant irrigation. Current disinfectants are unable to eliminate certain microorganisms that persist in [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The root canal system has complex anatomical and histological features that make it impossible to completely remove all bacteria by mechanical means only; they must be supplemented with disinfectant irrigation. Current disinfectants are unable to eliminate certain microorganisms that persist in the root canal, resulting in treatment failure. At the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Prague, novel substances with the bactericidal effect, termed lipophosphonoxins (LPPOs), have been discovered. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the ex vivo effects of second- and third-generation LPPOs on Enterococcus faecalis and compare them with 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). (2) Methods: The root canal’s dentin was used as a carrier for biofilm formation in the extracted human mature mandibular premolars. The samples were filled with cultivation broth and 0.25% glucose with tested solutions. In control samples, only fresh cultivation broth (negative control) and cultivation broth with bacterial suspension (growth control) were used. Each sample was inoculated with E. faecalis CCM4224 except for the negative control, and cultivation was performed. To determine the number of planktonic cells, the sample content was inoculated on blood agar. To evaluate biofilm formation inhibition, samples were placed in tubes with BHI. (3) Results: LPPOs exhibited a reduction in biofilm growth and bacteria comparable to NaOCl, and they were superior to other tested disinfectants. (4) Conclusions: The study results suggest the effect of lipophosphonoxins on E. faecalis CCM 4224 reduces planktonic bacterial cells and inhibits formation of biofilm in root canal samples. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2023, 2022

18 pages, 2890 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci and Antimicrobial Residues in Wastewater and Surface Water
by Kristýna Hricová, Magdaléna Röderová, Petr Fryčák, Volodymyr Pauk, Ondřej Kurka, Kristýna Mezerová, Taťána Štosová, Jan Bardoň, David Milde, Pavla Kučová and Milan Kolář
Life 2021, 11(12), 1403; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11121403 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2261
Abstract
Due to the extensive use of antimicrobial agents in human and veterinary medicine, residues of various antimicrobials get into wastewater and, subsequently, surface water. On the one hand, a combination of processes in wastewater treatment plants aims to eliminate chemical and biological pollutants; [...] Read more.
Due to the extensive use of antimicrobial agents in human and veterinary medicine, residues of various antimicrobials get into wastewater and, subsequently, surface water. On the one hand, a combination of processes in wastewater treatment plants aims to eliminate chemical and biological pollutants; on the other hand, this environment may create conditions suitable for the horizontal transfer of resistance genes and potential selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Wastewater and surface water samples (Morava River) were analyzed to determine the concentrations of 10 antibiotics and identify those exceeding so-called predicted no-effect environmental concentrations (PNECs). This study revealed that residues of five of the tested antimicrobials, namely ampicillin, clindamycin, tetracycline, tigecycline and vancomycin, in wastewater samples exceeded the PNEC. Vancomycin concentrations were analyzed with respect to the detected strains of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), in which the presence of resistance genes, virulence factors and potential relationship were analyzed. VRE were detected in 16 wastewater samples (11%) and two surface water samples (6%). The PNEC of vancomycin was exceed in 16% of the samples. Since the detected VRE did not correlate with the vancomycin concentrations, no direct relationship was confirmed between the residues of this antimicrobials and the presence of the resistant strains. Full article
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25 pages, 788 KiB  
Review
Risk Factors for Infections, Antibiotic Therapy, and Its Impact on Cancer Therapy Outcomes for Patients with Solid Tumors
by Ondřej Kubeček, Pavla Paterová and Martina Novosadová
Life 2021, 11(12), 1387; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11121387 - 11 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3513
Abstract
Infections represent a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. Multiple factors related to the patient, tumor, and cancer therapy can affect the risk of infection in patients with solid tumors. A thorough understanding of such factors can aid in the [...] Read more.
Infections represent a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. Multiple factors related to the patient, tumor, and cancer therapy can affect the risk of infection in patients with solid tumors. A thorough understanding of such factors can aid in the identification of patients with substantial risk of infection, allowing medical practitioners to tailor therapy and apply prophylactic measures to avoid serious complications. The use of novel treatment modalities, including targeted therapy and immunotherapy, brings diagnostic and therapeutic challenges into the management of infections in cancer patients. A growing body of evidence suggests that antibiotic therapy can modulate both toxicity and antitumor response induced by chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and especially immunotherapy. This article provides a comprehensive review of potential risk factors for infections and therapeutic approaches for the most prevalent infections in patients with solid tumors, and discusses the potential effect of antibiotic therapy on toxicity and efficacy of cancer therapy. Full article
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19 pages, 3365 KiB  
Article
An Engineered Multimodular Enzybiotic against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
by Salim Manoharadas, Mohammad Altaf, Abdulwahed Fahad Alrefaei, Naushad Ahmad, Shaik Althaf Hussain and Basel F. Al-Rayes
Life 2021, 11(12), 1384; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11121384 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2367
Abstract
Development of multidrug antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a predicament encountered worldwide. Researchers are in a constant hunt to develop effective antimicrobial agents to counter these dreadful pathogenic bacteria. Here we describe a chimerically engineered multimodular enzybiotic to treat a clinical isolate of [...] Read more.
Development of multidrug antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a predicament encountered worldwide. Researchers are in a constant hunt to develop effective antimicrobial agents to counter these dreadful pathogenic bacteria. Here we describe a chimerically engineered multimodular enzybiotic to treat a clinical isolate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The cell wall binding domain of phage ϕ11 endolysin was replaced with a truncated and more potent cell wall binding domain from a completely unrelated protein from a different phage. The engineered enzybiotic showed strong activity against clinically relevant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In spite of a multimodular peptidoglycan cleaving catalytic domain, the engineered enzybiotic could not exhibit its activity against a veterinary isolate of S. aureus. Our studies point out that novel antimicrobial proteins can be genetically engineered. Moreover, the cell wall binding domain of the engineered protein is indispensable for a strong binding and stability of the proteins. Full article
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15 pages, 1878 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Medicinal Plant Extracts against Some Bacterial Pathogens Isolated from Raw and Processed Meat
by Ahmed Kh. Meshaal, Helal F. Hetta, Ramadan Yahia, Khamael M. Abualnaja, Abdallah Tageldein Mansour, Israa M. S. Al-Kadmy, Saad Alghamdi, Anas S. Dablool, Talha Bin Emran, Haitham Sedky, Gaber El-Saber Batiha and Waleed El-Kazzaz
Life 2021, 11(11), 1178; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11111178 - 04 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3428
Abstract
Background and aim: The poultry meat and its products are considered ideal media for bacterial growth and spoilage, as they are highly nutritive with a favorable pH. The food industry has focused its attention on a great diversity of plant species as food [...] Read more.
Background and aim: The poultry meat and its products are considered ideal media for bacterial growth and spoilage, as they are highly nutritive with a favorable pH. The food industry has focused its attention on a great diversity of plant species as food preservatives. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157: H7, and Klebsiella pneumonia in food samples and to evaluate of the antibacterial activity of some medicinal plant extracts against these bacteria. Methods: Raw and processed meat samples (n = 60) were collected from abattoirs and local markets. S. aureus, E. coli O157: H7, and K. pneumonia were isolated, identified by phenotypic methods, and then confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The antibacterial activity and spectrum of essential oils and spices powder of cumin, black seeds, cloves, cinnamon, and marjoram was determined against the isolated strains in this study by microbial count and well-diffusion techniques. Results: A total of 33 isolates have been identified as S. aureus, 30 isolates were identified as E. coli O157: H7, and 15 isolates were identified as K. pneumonia. S. aureus, E. coli O157: H7, and K. pneumonia could be detected in both fresh and processed food with higher prevalence in the processed meat. There was a significant decrease in microbial count in treated samples either with the spices powder or essential oils of the tested medicinal plants compared to control samples during storage time period. Furthermore, while the microbial count increased in the control samples, the microbial count decreased to reach zero in almost all treated samples with essential oils after 15 days of storage. Conclusion: S. aureus, E. coli O157: H7, and K. pneumonia are associated with food from animal sources, in either fresh or processed meat samples. The prevalence of them was higher in the processed meat than in fresh meat. The essential oils and spices powder of cumin, black seeds, cloves, cinnamon, and marjoram have an in vitro wide spectrum antibacterial activity with the highest antibacterial activity for the black seeds. Full article
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16 pages, 1023 KiB  
Article
Cyclomodulins and Hemolysis in E. coli as Potential Low-Cost Non-Invasive Biomarkers for Colorectal Cancer Screening
by Kristýna Mezerová, Lubomír Starý, Pavel Zbořil, Ivo Klementa, Martin Stašek, Petr Špička, Pavel Skalický and Vladislav Raclavský
Life 2021, 11(11), 1165; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11111165 - 31 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2015
Abstract
The frequent occurrence of E. coli positive for cyclomodulins such as colibactin (CLB), the cytotoxic necrotizing factor (CNF), and the cytolethal distending factor (CDT) in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients published so far provides the opportunity to use them as CRC screening markers. We [...] Read more.
The frequent occurrence of E. coli positive for cyclomodulins such as colibactin (CLB), the cytotoxic necrotizing factor (CNF), and the cytolethal distending factor (CDT) in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients published so far provides the opportunity to use them as CRC screening markers. We examined the practicability and performance of a low-cost detection approach that relied on culture followed by simplified DNA extraction and PCR in E. coli isolates recovered from 130 CRC patients and 111 controls. Our results showed a statistically significant association between CRC and the presence of colibactin genes clbB and clbN, the cnf gene, and newly, the hemolytic phenotype of E. coli isolates. We also observed a significant increase in the mean number of morphologically distinct E. coli isolates per patient in the CRC cohort compared to controls, indicating that the cyclomodulin-producing E. coli strains may represent potentially preventable harmful newcomers in CRC patients. A colibactin gene assay showed the highest detection rate (45.4%), and males would benefit from the screening more than females. However, because of the high number of false positives, practical use of this marker must be explored. In our opinion, it may serve as an auxiliary marker to increase the specificity and/or sensitivity of the well-established fecal immunochemical test (FIT) in CRC screening. Full article
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15 pages, 1569 KiB  
Article
Clostridioides difficile and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in COVID-19 Patients with Severe Pneumonia
by Kateřina Bogdanová, Lenka Doubravská, Iva Vágnerová, Kristýna Hricová, Vendula Pudová, Magdaléna Röderová, Jan Papajk, Radovan Uvízl, Kateřina Langová and Milan Kolář
Life 2021, 11(11), 1127; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11111127 - 22 Oct 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2347
Abstract
Broad-spectrum antibiotics administered to patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia pose a risk of infection caused by Clostridioides difficile. This risk is reduced mainly by strict hygiene measures and early de-escalation of antibiotic therapy. Recently, oral vancomycin prophylaxis (OVP) has also been discussed. [...] Read more.
Broad-spectrum antibiotics administered to patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia pose a risk of infection caused by Clostridioides difficile. This risk is reduced mainly by strict hygiene measures and early de-escalation of antibiotic therapy. Recently, oral vancomycin prophylaxis (OVP) has also been discussed. This retrospective study aimed to assess the prevalence of C. difficile in critical COVID-19 patients staying in an intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital department of anesthesiology, resuscitation, and intensive care from November 2020 to May 2021 and the rates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) after the introduction of OVP and to compare the data with those from controls in the pre-pandemic period (November 2018 to May 2019). During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a significant increase in toxigenic C. difficile rates to 12.4% of patients, as compared with 1.6% in controls. The peak rates were noted in February 2021 (25% of patients), immediately followed by initiation of OVP, changes to hygiene precautions, and more rapid de-escalation of antibiotic therapy. Subsequently, toxigenic C. difficile detection rates started to fall. There was a nonsignificant increase in VRE detected in non-gastrointestinal tract samples to 8.9% in the COVID-19 group, as compared to 5.3% in the control group. Molecular analysis confirmed mainly clonal spread of VRE. Full article
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14 pages, 1650 KiB  
Case Report
Insights into the Resistome and Phylogenomics of a ST195 Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Isolate from the Czech Republic
by Patrik Mlynarcik, Monika Dolejska, Iva Vagnerova, Jana Petrzelova, Iva Sukkar, Veronika Zdarska and Milan Kolar
Life 2021, 11(10), 1079; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11101079 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1791
Abstract
Increasing antimicrobial resistance in nosocomial pathogens, such as Acinetobacter baumannii, is becoming a serious threat to public health. It is necessary to detect β-lactamase-producing microorganisms in clinical settings to be able to control the spread of carbapenem resistance. This study was [...] Read more.
Increasing antimicrobial resistance in nosocomial pathogens, such as Acinetobacter baumannii, is becoming a serious threat to public health. It is necessary to detect β-lactamase-producing microorganisms in clinical settings to be able to control the spread of carbapenem resistance. This study was conducted to evaluate the presence of β-lactamases in a selected clinical isolate of A. baumannii of ST2P/ST195Ox and to characterize possible enzymes, as well as its β-lactam resistome, using PCR and whole-genome sequencing analysis. PCR and sequencing confirmed that the isolate harbored five bla gene alleles, namely, blaADC-73, blaTEM-1, blaOXA-23, blaOXA-58 and blaOXA-66, as well as aminoglycosides, macrolides, sulfonamides and tetracyclines resistance determinants, which were either chromosomally and/or plasmid located. Furthermore, a gene order comparison using MAUVE alignment showed multiple changes compared with the clinical isolate of Malaysian A. baumannii AC30 genome and 76 regions with high homology. This study suggests that resistance to β-lactams in this A. baumannii isolate is mainly due to an overproduction of β-lactamases in combination with other resistance mechanism (efflux pump system). Full article
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11 pages, 1579 KiB  
Article
Raman Stable Isotope Probing of Bacteria in Visible and Deep UV-Ranges
by Georgette Azemtsop Matanfack, Aikaterini Pistiki, Petra Rösch and Jürgen Popp
Life 2021, 11(10), 1003; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11101003 - 24 Sep 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2573
Abstract
Raman stable isotope probing (Raman-SIP) is an excellent technique that can be used to access the overall metabolism of microorganisms. Recent studies have mainly used an excitation wavelength in the visible range to characterize isotopically labeled bacteria. In this work, we used UV [...] Read more.
Raman stable isotope probing (Raman-SIP) is an excellent technique that can be used to access the overall metabolism of microorganisms. Recent studies have mainly used an excitation wavelength in the visible range to characterize isotopically labeled bacteria. In this work, we used UV resonance Raman spectroscopy (UVRR) to evaluate the spectral red-shifts caused by the uptake of isotopes (13C, 15N, 2H(D) and 18O) in E. coli cells. Moreover, we present a new approach based on the extraction of labeled DNA in combination with UVRR to identify metabolically active cells. The proof-of-principle study on E. coli revealed heterogeneities in the Raman features of both the bacterial cells and the extracted DNA after labeling with 13C, 15N, and D. The wavelength of choice for studying 18O- and deuterium-labeled cells is 532 nm is, while 13C-labeled cells can be investigated with visible and deep UV wavelengths. However, 15N-labeled cells are best studied at the excitation wavelength of 244 nm since nucleic acids are in resonance at this wavelength. These results highlight the potential of the presented approach to identify active bacterial cells. This work can serve as a basis for the development of new techniques for the rapid and efficient detection of active bacteria cells without the need for a cultivation step. Full article
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8 pages, 238 KiB  
Article
A Retrospective Experience of Helicobacter pylori Histology in a Large Sample of Subjects in Northern Italy
by Davide Giuseppe Ribaldone, Carlo Zurlo, Sharmila Fagoonee, Chiara Rosso, Angelo Armandi, Gian Paolo Caviglia, Giorgio Maria Saracco and Rinaldo Pellicano
Life 2021, 11(7), 650; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11070650 - 04 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2157
Abstract
Updated data about the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and its correlation with histological results are scarce. The aim of our study was to provide current data on the impact of H. pylori in a third-level endoscopy service. We performed [...] Read more.
Updated data about the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and its correlation with histological results are scarce. The aim of our study was to provide current data on the impact of H. pylori in a third-level endoscopy service. We performed a large, retrospective study analyzing the results of all histological samples of gastroscopy from the year 2019. In total, 1512 subjects were included. The prevalence of H. pylori was 16.8%. A significant difference between the prevalence in subjects born in Italy and those from eastern Europe, south America, or Africa was found (p < 0.0001, p = 0.006, and p = 0.0006, respectively). An association was found between H. pylori and active superficial gastritis (p < 0.0001). Current H. pylori and/or a previous finding of H. pylori was related to antral atrophy (p < 0.0001). Fifteen patients had low-grade dysplasia. There were no statistically significant associations with current or past H. pylori infection. One patient presented gastric cardia adenocarcinoma with regular gastric mucosa. One patient, H. pylori positive, was diagnosed with gastric signet ring cell adenocarcinoma in a setting of diffuse atrophy, without metaplasia.. Our study provides updated, solid (biopsy diagnosis and large population) data on the prevalence of H. pylori infection in a representative region of southern Europe. Full article
20 pages, 459 KiB  
Review
Blood Stream Infections from MDR Bacteria
by Sveva Di Franco, Aniello Alfieri, Maria Caterina Pace, Pasquale Sansone, Vincenzo Pota, Ciro Fittipaldi, Marco Fiore and Maria Beatrice Passavanti
Life 2021, 11(6), 575; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11060575 - 18 Jun 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3183
Abstract
Background: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) constitute a growing public health concern, are among the most severe nosocomial pathologies, and are considered a worldwide cause of unfaithful outcomes, increasing treatment costs and diagnostic uncertainties. BSIs are one of the most frequent lethal conditions that are [...] Read more.
Background: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) constitute a growing public health concern, are among the most severe nosocomial pathologies, and are considered a worldwide cause of unfaithful outcomes, increasing treatment costs and diagnostic uncertainties. BSIs are one of the most frequent lethal conditions that are managed in intensive care units (ICUs). In the case of septic shock, immune deficiency, and delayed treatment, even with adequate antimicrobial therapy and/or source control, the outcomes are often unfavorable. Methods: this review article summarizes the epidemiological and microbiological characteristics of BSIs with a particular focus on ICU acquired BSIs (ICU-BSIs), which are usually caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. For this reason, their antimicrobial resistance patterns and therapeutic options have also been compiled. Results: ICU-acquired BSIs prevail in 5–7% of ICU patients. Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosae are the pathogens most often responsible for MDR infections. MDR Enterobacteriaceae have seen their prevalence increase from 6.2% (1997–2000) to 15.8% (2013–2016) in recent years. Conclusions: Considering that prevention and treatment of sepsis is nowadays considered a global health priority by the World Health Organization, it is our obligation to invest more resources into solving or reducing the spread of these unfaithful infections. It is relevant to identify patients with risk factors that make them more susceptible to BSIs, to guarantee earlier molecular or microbiological diagnoses, and more rapidly appropriate treatment by using de-escalation strategies where possible. Full article
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