Editor's Choice Articles

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to authors, or important in this field. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.

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Article
Influence of Spanwise and Streamwise Film Hole Spacing on Adiabatic Film Effectiveness for Effusion-Cooled Gas Turbine Blades
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2021, 6(3), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp6030037 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
To meet the challenges of increased thermal loads and performance demands on aero-engine turbine blades, more advanced cooling techniques are required. This study used a modification of the well-known Goldstein equation to predict film effectiveness for an individual film cooling hole and applied [...] Read more.
To meet the challenges of increased thermal loads and performance demands on aero-engine turbine blades, more advanced cooling techniques are required. This study used a modification of the well-known Goldstein equation to predict film effectiveness for an individual film cooling hole and applied the Sellers’ superposition method to apply these films across effusion-cooled configurations. In doing so, it tackles a relatively unchallenged problem of film holes in close spanwise proximity. An experimental set-up utilised infrared cameras to assess the film effectiveness of nine geometries of varying spanwise and streamwise spacings. Higher porosity led to increased thermal protection, and the spanwise spacing had the most profound impact, with film effectiveness approaching 0.9. Additionally, greater uniformity in the spanwise direction was observed. The modified Goldstein-Sellers method showed good agreement with experimental results although lateral mixing was underestimated. This method represents a tool that could be easily implemented in the industry for rapid assessment of novel cooling geometries. Full article
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Article
Influence of the Rotor-Driven Perturbation on the Stator-Exit Flow within a High-Pressure Gas Turbine Stage
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2021, 6(3), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp6030028 - 13 Jul 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
In stator–rotor interaction studies on axial turbines, the attention is commonly focused on the unsteady rotor aerodynamics resulting from the periodic perturbations induced by the stator flow structures. Conversely, less interest has been historically attracted regarding the influence of the rotor on the [...] Read more.
In stator–rotor interaction studies on axial turbines, the attention is commonly focused on the unsteady rotor aerodynamics resulting from the periodic perturbations induced by the stator flow structures. Conversely, less interest has been historically attracted regarding the influence of the rotor on the flow released by the stator, correlated to propagation of the blade potential field upstream of the rotor leading edge. In this paper, experiments in the research high-pressure turbine of the Laboratory of Fluid-Machines of the Politecnico di Milano, performed by applying a fast-response aerodynamic pressure probe, alongside fully-3D time-accurate CFD simulations of the flow, are combined with the aim of discussing the rotor-to-stator interaction. While rotating, the rotor induces periodic perturbations on the pressure and velocity field in the stator–rotor gap, altering the evolution of the total quantities and the flow rate discharged by each stator channel and eventually triggering energy-separation effects which result in total pressure and total temperature oscillations in the stator-exit flow. Such oscillations were found to rise up to almost ±10% of the stage total temperature drop. Full article
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Article
Radial Turbine Thermo-Mechanical Stress Optimization by Multidisciplinary Discrete Adjoint Method
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2020, 5(4), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp5040030 - 25 Nov 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper addresses the problem of the design optimization of turbomachinery components under thermo-mechanical constraints, with focus on a radial turbine impeller for turbocharger applications. Typically, turbine components operate at high temperatures and are exposed to important thermal gradients, leading to thermal stresses. [...] Read more.
This paper addresses the problem of the design optimization of turbomachinery components under thermo-mechanical constraints, with focus on a radial turbine impeller for turbocharger applications. Typically, turbine components operate at high temperatures and are exposed to important thermal gradients, leading to thermal stresses. Dealing with such structural requirements necessitates the optimization algorithms to operate a coupling between fluid and structural solvers that is computationally intensive. To reduce the cost during the optimization, a novel multiphysics gradient-based approach is developed in this work, integrating a Conjugate Heat Transfer procedure by means of a partitioned coupling technique. The discrete adjoint framework allows for the efficient computation of the gradients of the thermo-mechanical constraint with respect to a large number of design variables. The contribution of the thermal strains to the sensitivities of the cost function extends the multidisciplinary outlook of the optimization and the accuracy of its predictions, with the aim of reducing the empirical safety factors applied to the design process. Finally, a turbine impeller is analyzed in a demanding operative condition and the gradient information results in a perturbation of the grid coordinates, reducing the stresses at the rotor back-plate, as a demonstration of the suitability of the presented method. Full article
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Article
An Extended Version of an Algebraic Intermittency Model for Prediction of Separation-Induced Transition at Elevated Free-Stream Turbulence Level
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2020, 5(4), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp5040028 - 26 Oct 2020
Cited by 6
Abstract
An algebraic intermittency model for boundary layer flow transition from laminar to turbulent state, is extended using an experimental data base on boundary layer flows with various transition types and results by large eddy simulation of transition in a separated boundary layer. The [...] Read more.
An algebraic intermittency model for boundary layer flow transition from laminar to turbulent state, is extended using an experimental data base on boundary layer flows with various transition types and results by large eddy simulation of transition in a separated boundary layer. The originating algebraic transition model functions well for bypass transition in an attached boundary layer under a moderately high or elevated free-stream turbulence level, and for transition by Kelvin–Helmholtz instability in a separated boundary layer under a low free-stream turbulence level. It also functions well for transition in a separated layer, caused by a very strong adverse pressure gradient under a moderately high or elevated free-stream turbulence level. It is not accurate for transition in a separated layer under a moderately strong adverse pressure gradient, in the presence of a moderately high or elevated free-stream turbulence level. The extension repairs this deficiency. Therefore, a sensor function for detection of the front part of a separated boundary layer activates two terms that express the effect of free-stream turbulence on the breakdown of a separated layer, without changing the functioning of the model in other flow regions. The sensor and the breakdown terms use only local variables. Full article
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Article
Design and Commissioning of a Combustor Simulator Combining Swirl and Entropy Wave Generation
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2020, 5(4), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp5040027 - 19 Oct 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
Modern aero-engine combustion chambers burn a lean and premixed mixture, generating a turbulent flame which involves large heat-release fluctuations, thus producing unsteady temperature phenomena commonly referred to as entropy waves (EWs). Furthermore, to enhance the fuel air mixing, combustion air is swirled, leading [...] Read more.
Modern aero-engine combustion chambers burn a lean and premixed mixture, generating a turbulent flame which involves large heat-release fluctuations, thus producing unsteady temperature phenomena commonly referred to as entropy waves (EWs). Furthermore, to enhance the fuel air mixing, combustion air is swirled, leading to vorticity disturbances. These instabilities represent one of the biggest challenges in gas turbine design. In this paper, the design and testing of a novel entropy wave generator (EWG) equipped with a swirler generator (SG) are described. The novel EWG will be used in future works on the high-speed test rig at Politecnico di Milano to study the combustor–turbine interaction. The paper shows the process of the EWG geometry and layout. The EWG is able to produce an engine-representative EW, the extreme condition is at the maximum frequency of 110 Hz, a peak-to-valley temperature value of 20 °C and swirling angles of ±25° are measured. By virtue of these results, the proposed system outperforms other EWG devices documented in the literature. Furthermore, the addition of a swirling generator makes this device one of a kind. Full article
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Article
High-Temperature Profile Monitoring in Gas Turbine Exhaust-Gas Diffusors with Six-Point Fiber-Optic Sensor Array
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2020, 5(4), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp5040025 - 24 Sep 2020
Cited by 6
Abstract
In this paper, the deployment of a newly developed, multipoint, fiber-optic temperature-sensor system for temperature distribution measurements in a 6 MW gas turbine is demonstrated. The optical sensor fiber was integrated in a stainless steel protection cable with a 1.6 mm outside diameter. [...] Read more.
In this paper, the deployment of a newly developed, multipoint, fiber-optic temperature-sensor system for temperature distribution measurements in a 6 MW gas turbine is demonstrated. The optical sensor fiber was integrated in a stainless steel protection cable with a 1.6 mm outside diameter. It included six measurement points, distributed over a length of 110 mm. The sensor cable was mounted in a temperature probe and was positioned radially in the exhaust-gas diffusor of the turbine. With this temperature probe, the radial temperature profiles in the exhaust-gas diffusor were measured with high spatial and temporal resolution. During a test run of the turbine, characteristic temperature gradients were observed when the machine operated at different loads. Full article
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Article
Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Effects of Design-Based Geometry Variations on a Low-Pressure Compressor
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2020, 5(4), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp5040026 - 24 Sep 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
In modern aircraft engines, the low-pressure compressor (LPC) is subjected to a flow characterized by strong wakes and secondary flows from the upstream fan. This concerns ultra-high bypass ratio (UHBR) turbofan engines, in particular. This paper presents the aerodynamic and aeroelastic sensitivities of [...] Read more.
In modern aircraft engines, the low-pressure compressor (LPC) is subjected to a flow characterized by strong wakes and secondary flows from the upstream fan. This concerns ultra-high bypass ratio (UHBR) turbofan engines, in particular. This paper presents the aerodynamic and aeroelastic sensitivities of parametric variations on the LPC, driven by the design considerations in the upstream fan. The goal of this investigation was to determine the influence of design-based geometry parameter variations on the LPC performance under realistic inlet flow distributions and the presence of an s-duct. Aerodynamic simulations are conducted at the design and off-design operating points with the fan outflow as the inlet boundary conditions. Based on the aerodynamic results, time-linearized unsteady simulations are conducted to evaluate the vibration amplitude at the resonance operating points. First, the bypass ratio is varied by reducing the channel height of the LPC. The LPC efficiency decreases by up to 1.7% due to the increase in blockage of the core flow. The forced response amplitude of the rotor decreases with increasing bypass ratio due to increased aerodynamic damping. Secondly, the fan cavity leakage flow is considered as it directly affects the near hub fan flow and thus the inflow of the LPC. This results in an increased total-pressure loss for the s-duct due to mixing losses. The additional mixing redistributes the flow at the s-duct exit leading to a total-pressure loss reduction of 4.3% in the first rotor at design point. This effect is altered at off-design conditions. The vibration amplitude at low speed resonance points is increased by 19% for the first torsion and 26% for second bending. Thirdly, sweep and lean are applied to the inlet guide vane (IGV) upstream of the LPC. Despite the s-duct and the variable inlet guide vane (VIGV) affecting the flow, the three-dimensional blade design achieves aerodynamic and aeroelastic improvements of rotor 1 at off-design. The total-pressure loss reduces by up to 18% and the resonance amplitude more than 10%. Only negligible improvements for rotor 1 are present at the design point. In a fourth step, the influence of axial gap size between the stator and the rotor rows in the LPC is examined in the range of small variations which shows no distinct aerodynamic and aeroelastic sensitivities. This finding not only supports previous studies, but it also suggests a correlation between mode shapes and locally increased excitaion with increasing axial gap size. As a result, potential design improvements in future fan-compressor design are suggested. Full article
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Article
Infrared Thermography Investigation of Heat Transfer on Outlet Guide Vanes in a Turbine Rear Structure
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2020, 5(3), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp5030023 - 01 Sep 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Aerothermal heat transfer measurements in fluid dynamics have a relatively high acceptance of uncertainty due to the intricate nature of the experiments. The large velocity and pressure gradients present in turbomachinery application add further complexity to the measurement procedure. Recent method and manufacturing [...] Read more.
Aerothermal heat transfer measurements in fluid dynamics have a relatively high acceptance of uncertainty due to the intricate nature of the experiments. The large velocity and pressure gradients present in turbomachinery application add further complexity to the measurement procedure. Recent method and manufacturing development has addressed some of the primary sources of uncertainty in these heat transfer measurements. However, new methods have so far not been applied in a holistic approach for heat transfer studies. This gap is bridged in the present study where a cost-effective and highly accurate method for heat transfer measurements is implemented, utilising infrared thermography technique (IRT) for surface temperature measurement. Novel heat transfer results are obtained for the turbine rear sturcture (TRS), at engine representative conditions for three different outlet guide vane (OGV) blade loading and at Reynolds Number of 235000. In addition to that, an extensive description of the implementation and error mitigation is presented. Full article
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Article
Impact of Underlying RANS Turbulence Models in Zonal Detached Eddy Simulation: Application to a Compressor Rotor
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2020, 5(3), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp5030022 - 26 Aug 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
The present study focuses on the impact of the underlying RANS turbulence model in the Zonal Detached Eddy Simulation (ZDES) method when used for secondary flow prediction. This is carried out in light of three issues commonly investigated for hybrid RANS/LES methods (detection [...] Read more.
The present study focuses on the impact of the underlying RANS turbulence model in the Zonal Detached Eddy Simulation (ZDES) method when used for secondary flow prediction. This is carried out in light of three issues commonly investigated for hybrid RANS/LES methods (detection and protection of attached boundary layer, emergence, and growth of resolved turbulent fluctuations and accurate prediction of separation front due to progressive adverse pressure gradient). The studied configuration is the first rotor of a high pressure compressor. Three different turbulence modelings (Spalart and Allmaras model (SA), Menter model with (SST) and without (BSL) shear stress correction) are assessed as ZDES underlying turbulence model and also as turbulence model of unsteady RANS simulations. Whatever the underlying turbulence model, the ZDES behaves well with respect to the first two issues as the boundary layers appear effectively shielded and the RANS-to-LES switch is close downstream of trailing edges and separation fronts leading to a quick LES treatment of wakes and shear layers. Both tip leakage and corner flows are strongly influenced by the Navier–Stokes resolution approach (unsteady RANS vs. ZDES) but the underlying turbulence modelling (SA vs. SST vs. BSL) impacts mainly the junction flow near the hub for both approaches. ZDES underlying turbulence model choice appear essential since it leads to quite different corner flow separation topologies and so to inversion of the downstream stagnation pressure radial gradient. Full article
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Article
Real Gas Models in Coupled Algorithms Numerical Recipes and Thermophysical Relations
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2020, 5(3), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp5030020 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
In the majority of compressible flow CFD simulations, the standard ideal gas state equation is accurate enough. However, there is a range of applications where the deviations from the ideal gas behaviour is significant enough that performance predictions are no longer valid and [...] Read more.
In the majority of compressible flow CFD simulations, the standard ideal gas state equation is accurate enough. However, there is a range of applications where the deviations from the ideal gas behaviour is significant enough that performance predictions are no longer valid and more accurate models are needed. While a considerable amount of the literature has been written about the application of real gas state equations in CFD simulations, there is much less information on the numerical issues involved in the actual implementation of such models. The aim of this article is to present a robust implementation of real gas flow physics in an in-house, coupled, pressure-based solver, and highlight the main difference that arises as compared to standard ideal gas model. The consistency of the developed iterative procedures is demonstrated by first comparing against results obtained with a framework using perfect gas simplifications. The generality of the developed framework is tested by using the parameters from two different real gas state equations, namely the IAPWS-97 and the cubic state equations state equations. The highly polynomial IAPWS-97 formulation for water is applied to a transonic nozzle case where steam is expanded at transonic conditions until phase transition occurs. The cubic state equations are applied to a two stage radial compressor setup. Results are compared in terms of accuracy with a commercial code and measurement data. Results are also compared against simulations using the ideal gas model, highlighting the limitations of the later model. Finally, the effects of the real gas formulations on computational time are compared with results obtained using the ideal gas model. Full article
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Article
Comparison and Sensibility Analysis of Warning Parameters for Rotating Stall Detection in an Axial Compressor
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2020, 5(3), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp5030016 - 07 Jul 2020
Cited by 10
Abstract
The present paper aims at evaluating the surveillance parameters used for early stall warning in axial compressors, and is based on unsteady pressure measurements at the casing of a single stage axial compressor. Two parameters—Correlation and Root Mean Square (RMS)—are first compared and [...] Read more.
The present paper aims at evaluating the surveillance parameters used for early stall warning in axial compressors, and is based on unsteady pressure measurements at the casing of a single stage axial compressor. Two parameters—Correlation and Root Mean Square (RMS)—are first compared and their relative performances discussed. The influence of sensor locations (in both radial and axial directions) is then considered, and the role of the compressor’s geometrical irregularities in the behavior of the indicators is clearly highlighted. The influence of the throttling process is also carefully analyzed. This aspect of the experiment’s process appears to have a non-negligible impact on the stall warning parameters, despite being poorly documented in the literature. This last part of this research work allow us to get a different vision of the alert parameters compared to what is classically done in the literature, as the level of irregularity that is reflected by the magnitude of the parameters appears to be an image of a given flow rate value, and not a clear indicator of the stall inception. Full article
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Article
Heat Transfer Enhancement of Impingement Cooling by Adopting Circular-Ribs or Vortex Generators in the Wall Jet Region of A Round Impingement Jet
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2020, 5(3), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp5030017 - 07 Jul 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
In the near future, when designing and using Double Wall Airfoils, which will be manufactured by 3D printers, the positional relationship between the impingement cooling nozzle and the heat transfer enhancement ribs on the target plate naturally becomes more accurate. Taking these circumstances [...] Read more.
In the near future, when designing and using Double Wall Airfoils, which will be manufactured by 3D printers, the positional relationship between the impingement cooling nozzle and the heat transfer enhancement ribs on the target plate naturally becomes more accurate. Taking these circumstances into account, an experimental study was conducted to enhance the heat transfer of the wall jet region of a round impingement jet cooling system. This was done by installing circular ribs or vortex generators (VGs) in the impingement cooling wall jet region. The local heat transfer coefficient was measured using the naphthalene sublimation method, which utilizes the analogy between heat and mass transfer. As a result, it was clarified that, within the ranges of geometries and Reynolds numbers at which the experiments were conducted, it is possible to improve the averaged Nusselt number Nu up to 21% for circular ribs and up to 51% for VGs. Full article
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Article
Combined Optic-Acoustic Monitoring of Combustion in a Gas Turbine
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2020, 5(3), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp5030015 - 06 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The need for better combustion monitoring in gas turbines has become more acute with the latest technical requirements, standards, and policies in terms of safety, environment, efficiency, operation flexibility, and operation costs. Combustion Bay One e.U. and FH JOANNEUM GmbH initiated in 2015 [...] Read more.
The need for better combustion monitoring in gas turbines has become more acute with the latest technical requirements, standards, and policies in terms of safety, environment, efficiency, operation flexibility, and operation costs. Combustion Bay One e.U. and FH JOANNEUM GmbH initiated in 2015 an experimental research program about the feasibility and first assessments of placing optical systems near the combustor. The project’s acronym “emootion” stands for “Engine health MOnitOring and refined combusTION control based on optical diagnostic techniques embedded in the combustor”. The motivation of the project is twofold. On one side, one wants to exploit the radiative feature of the flame and to transform it into a piece of reliable information about the combustion status. On the other side, this information can be useful in terms of data interpretation or data reconciliation with other information coming from other sensors such as temperature probes, fast pressure probes, or accelerometers. The focus is put on several aspects of combustor operations: on detection of the flame, on monitoring of the ignition process, on a quality assessment of combustion based on its spectral contents (including soot formation), and on the detection of possible combustion instabilities. Promising results were obtained using photodiodes that offer an adequate trade-off between narrow-band sensitivity and signal time response. It is shown that it is convenient to combine a fast-pressure sensor with an optical sensor in a compact form; this combination has led to the so-called Rayleigh Criterion Probe (RCP). The split in red, green, and blue (RGB) light components and their further analysis allows for mapping the different types of operation. Regarding the probe packaging aspect, it is discussed that the level of light collection needed to keep an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio has been so far a restraint for the use of optical fibres. Solutions are proposed to bring the optical sensor as close as possible to the optical interface and to make it operational and reliable in prevailing heat. This contribution closes with a description of the pressure tests in a new combustion facility built for this purpose. A compact and portable combustion monitoring system including at least 3 RCPs can become an instrumentation standard within the next decade. Full article
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Article
Forcing Pulsations by Means of a Siren for Gas Turbine Applications
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2020, 5(2), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp5020009 - 13 May 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
A siren is a robust fast-valve that generates effective flow pulsations and powerful noise levels under well-controlled conditions. It operates under the inlet flow conditions of a gas turbine combustor. Its principle is based on a sonic air jet periodically sheared by a [...] Read more.
A siren is a robust fast-valve that generates effective flow pulsations and powerful noise levels under well-controlled conditions. It operates under the inlet flow conditions of a gas turbine combustor. Its principle is based on a sonic air jet periodically sheared by a cogged wheel rotating at a given speed. It is used as an alternative to loudspeakers in combustion laboratories when the use of these is made difficult by aggressive flow conditions, such as hot air under pressure, possibly containing impurities. It is also a serious candidate as an effective flow actuator to be deployed on power gas turbine fleets. The authors have gathered more than twenty years of knowledge on siren technology. This pulsator was originally developed for research on thermoacoustics. By scanning through a given frequency range, one detects the acoustic resonance of specific parts of the combustor assembly, or possibly triggers a combustion instability during a sensitivity analysis of a flame to small perturbations. In 2010, Giuliani et al. developed a novel siren model with the capacity to vary the amplitude of pulsation independently from the frequency. In this contribution, the physics, the metrics, and the resulting parameters of the pulsator are discussed. Technical solutions are unveiled about visiting large frequency ranges (currently 6 kHz) and achieving elevated pressure fluctuations (150 dB SPL proven, possibly up to 155 dB SPL) with a compact device. A multimodal excitation is available with this technology, one idea being to dissipate the acoustic energy on nearby peaks. The contribution ends with a summary of the applications performed so far and the perspective of an industrial application. Full article
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Article
Technology Development of Fast-Response Aerodynamic Pressure Probes
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2020, 5(2), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp5020006 - 12 Apr 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
This paper presents and discusses the recent developments on the Fast-Response Aerodynamic Pressure Probe (FRAPP) technology at the Laboratorio di Fluidodinamica delle Macchine (LFM) of the Politecnico di Milano. First, the different geometries developed and tested at LFM are presented and critically discussed: [...] Read more.
This paper presents and discusses the recent developments on the Fast-Response Aerodynamic Pressure Probe (FRAPP) technology at the Laboratorio di Fluidodinamica delle Macchine (LFM) of the Politecnico di Milano. First, the different geometries developed and tested at LFM are presented and critically discussed: the paper refers to single-sensor or two-sensor probes applied as virtual 2D or 3D probes for phase-resolved measurements. The static calibration of the sensors inserted inside the head of the probes is discussed, also taking into account for the temperature field of application: in this context, a novel calibration procedure is discussed and the new manufacturing process is presented. The dynamic calibration is reconsidered in view of the 15-years’ experience, including the extension to probes operating at different temperature and pressure levels with respect to calibration. As for the probe aerodynamics, the calibration coefficients are discussed and the most reliable set here is evidenced. A novel procedure for the quantification of the measurement uncertainty, recently developed and based on the Montecarlo methodology, is introduced and discussed in the paper. Full article
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Article
Evaporation Modeling of Water Droplets in a Transonic Compressor Cascade under Fogging Conditions
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2020, 5(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp5010005 - 19 Feb 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
High-fogging is widely used to rapidly increase the power outputs of stationary gas turbines. Therefore, water droplets are injected into the inflow air, and a considerable number enter the compressor. Within this paper, the primary process of droplet evaporation is investigated closely. A [...] Read more.
High-fogging is widely used to rapidly increase the power outputs of stationary gas turbines. Therefore, water droplets are injected into the inflow air, and a considerable number enter the compressor. Within this paper, the primary process of droplet evaporation is investigated closely. A short discussion about the influential parameters ascribes a major significance to the slip velocity between ambient gas flow and droplets. Hence, experimental results from a transonic compressor cascade are shown to evaluate the conditions in real high-fogging applications. The measured parameter range is used for direct numerical simulations to extract evaporation rates depending on inflow conditions and relative humidity of the air flow. Finally, an applicable correlation for the Sherwood number in the form of S h ( R e 1 / 2 S c 1 / 3 ) is suggested. Full article
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Article
Operating Range Extension of an Open Impeller Centrifugal Compressor Stage Utilising 3D Diffuser End Wall Contouring
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2020, 5(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp5010004 - 07 Feb 2020
Cited by 6
Abstract
State-of-the-art centrifugal compressor units utilised in pipeline and in energy storage applications face the challenge of flexible and highly efficient operation. Geometric contouring on the hub side near a vaned diffuser affects the flow in a way which increases operational flexibility by delaying [...] Read more.
State-of-the-art centrifugal compressor units utilised in pipeline and in energy storage applications face the challenge of flexible and highly efficient operation. Geometric contouring on the hub side near a vaned diffuser affects the flow in a way which increases operational flexibility by delaying the incipience of instability and thereby increases compressor operating range. In the present paper, a hub-side wall contouring is applied within the vaneless space and the vaned diffuser of an open impeller centrifugal compressor stage. The performance characteristic of the novel hub contouring is evaluated in a scale-model test rig and compared against a baseline design. A stable operating range increase of 8% is achieved for the contoured design at Mu 2 = 1.16. 5-hole probe measurements covering a complete diffuser blade-to-blade passage are performed upstream the diffuser and compared both against CFD simulations and against the measurements of the baseline design for an operating point near the stability limit. Full article
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Article
Detection and Analysis of an Alternate Flow Pattern in a Radial Vaned Diffuser
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2020, 5(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp5010002 - 19 Jan 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
The flow in the vaned diffuser of an aeronautical centrifugal compressor designed by Safran Helicopter Engines is analyzed through steady and unsteady pressure measurements at different rotation speeds. The analysis leads to the identification of different operating zones thanks to a new variable, [...] Read more.
The flow in the vaned diffuser of an aeronautical centrifugal compressor designed by Safran Helicopter Engines is analyzed through steady and unsteady pressure measurements at different rotation speeds. The analysis leads to the identification of different operating zones thanks to a new variable, the alternate rate ?. It allows the characterization of a specific behavior of the vaned diffuser consisting of an alternate stall pattern in two adjacent channels of the diffuser. While it is close to zero at low speed, the alternate rate reaches a maximum value at a higher speed before collapsing with a further increase in the rotation speed. Depending on the value reached by the alternate rate, three distinct regimes of the flow within the diffuser can be distinguished. For low ? values, the regime is the most common one with an equivalent flow pattern in each channel of the diffuser. For moderate ? values, a mild difference of the flow fields which develop in two adjacent channels can be observed but it remains time independent. Finally, for high values of ?, the alternate pattern is amplified and becomes time dependent, pulsating together with the mild surge of the entire compressor. Full article
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Article
Focusing Schlieren Visualization of Transonic Turbine Tip-Leakage Flows
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2020, 5(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp5010001 - 02 Jan 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
This paper presents a focusing schlieren system designed for the investigation of transonic turbine tip-leakage flows. In the first part, the functional principle and the design of the system are presented. Major design considerations and necessary trade-offs are discussed. The key optical properties, [...] Read more.
This paper presents a focusing schlieren system designed for the investigation of transonic turbine tip-leakage flows. In the first part, the functional principle and the design of the system are presented. Major design considerations and necessary trade-offs are discussed. The key optical properties, e.g., depth of focus, are verified by means of a simple bench test. In the second part, results of an idealized tip-clearance model as well as linear cascade tests at engine representative Reynolds and Mach numbers are presented and discussed. The focusing schlieren system, designed for minimum depth of focus, has been found to be well suited for the investigation of three-dimensional transonic flow fields in turbomachinery applications. The schlieren images show the origin and growth of the tip-leakage vortex on the blade suction side. A complex shock system was observed in the tip region, and the tip-leakage vortex was found to interact with the suction side part of the trailing edge shock system. The results indicate that transonic vortex shedding is suppressed in the tip region at an exit Mach number around M 2 , i s = 0.8. Full article
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Review

Review
A Review on Turbine Trailing Edge Flow
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2020, 5(2), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp5020010 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 12
Abstract
The paper presents a state-of-the-art review of turbine trailing edge flows, both from an experimental and numerical point of view. With the help of old and recent high-resolution time resolved data, the main advances in the understanding of the essential features of the [...] Read more.
The paper presents a state-of-the-art review of turbine trailing edge flows, both from an experimental and numerical point of view. With the help of old and recent high-resolution time resolved data, the main advances in the understanding of the essential features of the unsteady wake flow are collected and homogenized. Attention is paid to the energy separation phenomenon occurring in turbine wakes, as well as to the effects of the aerodynamic parameters chiefly influencing the features of the vortex shedding. Achievements in terms of unsteady numerical simulations of turbine wake flow characterized by vigorous vortex shedding are also reviewed. Whenever possible the outcome of a detailed code-to-code and code-to-experiments validation process is presented and discussed, on account of the adopted numerical method and turbulence closure. Full article
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