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Special Issue "Plant Cell and Organism Development"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Plant Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Robert Hasterok
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Guest Editor
Plant Cytogenetics and Molecular Biology Group, Institute of Biology, Biotechnology and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Silesia in Katowice, Katowice, Poland
Interests: plant molecular cytogenetics; structure and evolution of karyotypes; arrangement of chromosomes at interphase; cytogenetics of meiosis; nucleolar dominance; Brachypodium as a model genus to study the organisation of the grass genome at the cytomolecular level
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Alexander Betekhtin
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Guest Editor
University of Silesia in Katowice, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Institute of Biology, Biotechnology and Environmental Protection, Plant Cytogenetics and Molecular Biology Group, Katowice, Poland
Interests: arabinogalactan proteins; cell cycle; cell wall; extensins; model plants; pectins; ploidy instability; somatic embryogenesis; somaclonal variation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Model organisms possess certain features which make them more amenable to scientific investigations compared to other, less tractable species. Today, there are many plant species applied as models in various studies, the most commonly used being Arabidopsis thaliana for dicots and rice and Brachypodium distachyon for monocots. The use of these and similar species contributes significantly to bettering our understanding of fundamental processes that govern various aspects of plant development in vivo and in vitro.

This Special Issue addresses a wide range of topics linked with plant cell and organism development with a special (though not exclusive) emphasis on using model plants. Recent research on plant tissue culture, for example, linked with plant response to abiotic and biotic stresses, somatic embryogenesis, somaclonal variation, various cytological, cytogenetic, epigenetic, and genetic aspects of cell development, and other related topics is welcome.

Prof. Dr. Robert Hasterok
Dr. Alexander Betekhtin
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • Abiotic stress
  • Biotic stress
  • Cell cycle
  • Cell development
  • Chromosome number and integrity
  • Endoreplication
  • Model plants
  • Plant cell tissue culture
  • Somaclonal variation
  • Somatic embryogenesis

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Published Papers (39 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Plant Cell and Organism Development
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5636; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165636 - 06 Aug 2020
Viewed by 695
Abstract
Plants represent a unique and fascinating group of living organisms [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)

Research

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Article
Integrative Analyses of Widely Targeted Metabolic Profiling and Transcriptome Data Reveals Molecular Insight into Metabolomic Variations during Apple (Malus domestica) Fruit Development and Ripening
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(13), 4797; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134797 - 07 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1167
Abstract
The apple is a favorite fruit for human diet and is one of the most important commercial fruit crops around the world. Investigating metabolic variations during fruit development can provide a better understanding on the formation of fruit quality. The present study applied [...] Read more.
The apple is a favorite fruit for human diet and is one of the most important commercial fruit crops around the world. Investigating metabolic variations during fruit development can provide a better understanding on the formation of fruit quality. The present study applied a widely targeted LC-MS-based metabolomics approach with large-scale detection, identification and quantification to investigate the widespread metabolic changes during “Pinova” apple development and ripening. A total of 462 primary and secondary metabolites were simultaneously detected, and their changes along with the four fruit-development stages were further investigated. The results indicated that most of the sugars presented increasing accumulation levels while organic acid, including Tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) intermediates, showed a distinct decreasing trend across the four fruit-development stages. A total of 207 secondary metabolites consisted of 104 flavonoids and 103 other secondary metabolites. Many flavonoids maintained relatively high levels in the early fruit stage and then rapidly decreased their levels at the following developmental stages. Further correlation analyses of each metabolite–metabolite pair highlighted the cross talk between the primary and secondary metabolisms across fruit development and ripening, indicating the significant negative correlations between sugars and secondary metabolites. Moreover, transcriptome analysis provided the molecular basis for metabolic variations during fruit development. The results showed that most differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in the TCA cycle were upregulated from the early fruit stage to the preripening stage. The extensive downregulation of controlling genes involved in the flavonoid pathway is probably responsible for the rapid decrease of flavonoid content at the early fruit stage. These data provide a global view of the apple metabolome and a comprehensive analysis on metabolomic variations during fruit development, providing a broader and better understanding on the molecular and metabolic basis of important fruit quality traits in commercial apples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Article
3-D Nucleus Architecture in Oat × Maize Addition Lines
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(12), 4280; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124280 - 16 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 872
Abstract
The nucleus architecture of hybrid crop plants is not a well-researched topic, yet it can have important implications for their genetic stability and usefulness in the successful expression of agronomically desired traits. In this work we studied the spatial distribution of introgressed maize [...] Read more.
The nucleus architecture of hybrid crop plants is not a well-researched topic, yet it can have important implications for their genetic stability and usefulness in the successful expression of agronomically desired traits. In this work we studied the spatial distribution of introgressed maize chromatin in oat × maize addition lines with the number of added maize chromosomes varying from one to four. The number of chromosome additions was confirmed by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Maize chromosome-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to identify the added chromosomes. GISH on 3-D root and leaf nuclei was performed to assess the number, volume, and position of the maize-chromatin occupied regions. We revealed that the maize chromosome territory (CT) associations of varying degree prevailed in the double disomic lines, while CT separation was the most common distribution pattern in the double monosomic line. In all analyzed lines, the regions occupied by maize CTs were located preferentially at the nuclear periphery. A comparison between the tissues showed that the maize CTs in the leaf nuclei are positioned closer to the center of the nucleus than in the root nuclei. These findings shed more light on the processes that shape the nucleus architecture in hybrids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Article
Supernumerary B Chromosomes and Plant Genome Changes: A Snapshot of Wild Populations of Aegilops speltoides Tausch (Poaceae, Triticeae)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(11), 3768; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21113768 - 26 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 916
Abstract
In various eukaryotes, supernumerary B chromosomes (Bs) are an optional genomic component that affect their integrity and functioning. In the present study, the impact of Bs on the current changes in the genome of goatgrass, Aegilops speltoides, was addressed. Individual plants from [...] Read more.
In various eukaryotes, supernumerary B chromosomes (Bs) are an optional genomic component that affect their integrity and functioning. In the present study, the impact of Bs on the current changes in the genome of goatgrass, Aegilops speltoides, was addressed. Individual plants from contrasting populations with and without Bs were explored using fluorescence in situ hybridization. In parallel, abundances of the Ty1-copia, Ty3-gypsy, and LINE retrotransposons (TEs), and the species-specific Spelt1 tandem repeat (TR) in vegetative and generative spike tissues were estimated by real-time quantitative PCR. The results revealed: (i) ectopic associations between Bs and the regular A chromosomes, and (ii) cell-specific rearrangements of Bs in both mitosis and microgametogenesis. Further, the copy numbers of TEs and TR varied significantly between (iii) genotypes and (iv) different spike tissues in the same plant(s). Finally, (v) in plants with and without Bs from different populations, genomic abundances and/or copy number dynamics of TEs and TR were similar. These findings indicate that fluctuations in TE and TR copy numbers are associated with DNA damage and repair processes during cell proliferation and differentiation, and ectopic recombination is one of the mechanisms by which Bs play a role in genome changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Article
Two Festuca Species—F. arundinacea and F. glaucescens—Differ in the Molecular Response to Drought, While Their Physiological Response Is Similar
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(9), 3174; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093174 - 30 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1232
Abstract
Impact of photosynthetic and antioxidant capacities on drought tolerance of two closely related forage grasses, Festuca arundinacea and Festuca glaucescens, was deciphered. Within each species, two genotypes distinct in drought tolerance were subjected to a short-term drought, followed by a subsequent re-watering. [...] Read more.
Impact of photosynthetic and antioxidant capacities on drought tolerance of two closely related forage grasses, Festuca arundinacea and Festuca glaucescens, was deciphered. Within each species, two genotypes distinct in drought tolerance were subjected to a short-term drought, followed by a subsequent re-watering. The studies were focused on: (i) analysis of plant physiological performance, including: water uptake, abscisic acid (ABA) content, membrane integrity, gas exchange, and relative water content in leaf tissue; (ii) analysis of plant photosynthetic capacity (chlorophyll fluorescence; gene expression, protein accumulation, and activity of selected enzymes of the Calvin cycle); and (iii) analysis of plant antioxidant capacity (reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation; gene expression, protein accumulation and activity of selected enzymes). Though, F. arundinacea and F. glaucescens revealed different strategies in water uptake, and partially also in ABA signaling, their physiological reactions to drought and further re-watering, were similar. On the other hand, performance of the Calvin cycle and antioxidant system differed between the analyzed species under drought and re-watering periods. A stable efficiency of the Calvin cycle in F. arundinacea was crucial to maintain a balanced network of ROS/redox signaling, and consequently drought tolerance. The antioxidant capacity influenced mostly tolerance to stress in F. glaucescens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Article
Functional Divergence of Microtubule-Associated TPX2 Family Members in Arabidopsis thaliana
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(6), 2183; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21062183 - 22 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1376
Abstract
TPX2 (Targeting Protein for Xklp2) is an evolutionary conserved microtubule-associated protein important for microtubule nucleation and mitotic spindle assembly. The protein was described as an activator of the mitotic kinase Aurora A in humans and the Arabidopsis AURORA1 (AUR1) kinase. In contrast to [...] Read more.
TPX2 (Targeting Protein for Xklp2) is an evolutionary conserved microtubule-associated protein important for microtubule nucleation and mitotic spindle assembly. The protein was described as an activator of the mitotic kinase Aurora A in humans and the Arabidopsis AURORA1 (AUR1) kinase. In contrast to animal genomes that encode only one TPX2 gene, higher plant genomes encode a family with several TPX2-LIKE gene members (TPXL). TPXL genes of Arabidopsis can be divided into two groups. Group A proteins (TPXL2, 3, 4, and 8) contain Aurora binding and TPX2_importin domains, while group B proteins (TPXL1, 5, 6, and 7) harbor an Xklp2 domain. Canonical TPX2 contains all the above-mentioned domains. We confirmed using in vitro kinase assays that the group A proteins contain a functional Aurora kinase binding domain. Transient expression of Arabidopsis TPX2-like proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana revealed preferential localization to microtubules and nuclei. Co-expression of AUR1 together with TPX2-like proteins changed the localization of AUR1, indicating that these proteins serve as targeting factors for Aurora kinases. Taken together, we visualize the various localizations of the TPX2-LIKE family in Arabidopsis as a proxy to their functional divergence and provide evidence of their role in the targeted regulation of AUR1 kinase activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Article
Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Provides Insights into the Seed Germination in Cotton in Response to Chilling Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(6), 2067; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21062067 - 18 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1167
Abstract
Gossypium hirsutum L., is a widely cultivated cotton species around the world, but its production is seriously threatened by its susceptibility to chilling stress. Low temperature affects its germination, and the underlying molecular mechanisms are rarely known, particularly from a transcriptional perspective. In [...] Read more.
Gossypium hirsutum L., is a widely cultivated cotton species around the world, but its production is seriously threatened by its susceptibility to chilling stress. Low temperature affects its germination, and the underlying molecular mechanisms are rarely known, particularly from a transcriptional perspective. In this study, transcriptomic profiles were analyzed and compared between two cotton varieties, the cold-tolerant variety KN27-3 and susceptible variety XLZ38. A total of 7535 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Among them, the transcripts involved in energy metabolism were significantly enriched during germination based on analysis of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, such as glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle), and glyoxylate cycle (GAC). Results from further GO enrichment analysis show the earlier appearance of DNA integration, meristem growth, cotyledon morphogenesis, and other biological processes in KN27-3 compared with XLZ38 under chilling conditions. The synthesis of asparagine, GDP-mannose, and trehalose and the catabolic process of raffinose were activated. DEGs encoding antioxidants (spermidine) and antioxidase (CAT1, GPX4, DHAR2, and APX1) were much more up-regulated in embryos of KN27-3. The content of auxin (IAA), cis-zeatin riboside (cZR), and trans-zeatin riboside (tZR) in KN27-3 are higher than that in XLZ38 at five stages (from 12 h to 54 h). GA3 was expressed at a higher level in KN27-3 from 18 h to 54 h post imbibition compared to that in XLZ38. And abscisic acid (ABA) content of KN27-3 is lower than that in XLZ38 at five stages. Results from hormone content measurements and the related gene expression analysis indicated that IAA, CTK, and GA3 may promote germination of the cold-tolerant variety, while ABA inhibits it. These results expand the understanding of cottonseed germination and physiological regulations under chilling conditions by multiple pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Article
A Silent Exonic Mutation in a Rice Integrin-α FG-GAP Repeat-Containing Gene Causes Male-Sterility by Affecting mRNA Splicing
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(6), 2018; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21062018 - 16 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 822
Abstract
Pollen development plays crucial roles in the life cycle of higher plants. Here we characterized a rice mutant with complete male-sterile phenotype, pollen-less 1 (pl1). pl1 exhibited smaller anthers with arrested pollen development, absent Ubisch bodies, necrosis-like tapetal hypertrophy, and smooth [...] Read more.
Pollen development plays crucial roles in the life cycle of higher plants. Here we characterized a rice mutant with complete male-sterile phenotype, pollen-less 1 (pl1). pl1 exhibited smaller anthers with arrested pollen development, absent Ubisch bodies, necrosis-like tapetal hypertrophy, and smooth anther cuticular surface. Molecular mapping revealed a synonymous mutation in the fourth exon of PL1 co-segregated with the mutant phenotype. This mutation disrupts the exon-intron splice junction in PL1, generating aberrant mRNA species and truncated proteins. PL1 is highly expressed in the tapetal cells of developing anther, and its protein is co-localized with plasma membrane (PM) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) signal. PL1 encodes an integrin-α FG-GAP repeat-containing protein, which has seven β-sheets and putative Ca2+-binding motifs and is broadly conserved in terrestrial plants. Our findings therefore provide insights into both the role of integrin-α FG-GAP repeat-containing protein in rice male fertility and the influence of exonic mutation on intronic splice donor site selection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Article
Comprehensive Phosphoproteomic Analysis of Pepper Fruit Development Provides Insight into Plant Signaling Transduction
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(6), 1962; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21061962 - 13 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 938
Abstract
Limited knowledge is available for phosphorylation modifications in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), especially in pepper fruit development. In this study, we conducted the first comprehensive phosphoproteomic analysis of pepper fruit at four development stage by Tandem Mass Tag proteomic approaches. A total [...] Read more.
Limited knowledge is available for phosphorylation modifications in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), especially in pepper fruit development. In this study, we conducted the first comprehensive phosphoproteomic analysis of pepper fruit at four development stage by Tandem Mass Tag proteomic approaches. A total of 2639 unique phosphopeptides spanning 1566 proteins with 4150 nonredundant sites of phosphorylation were identified, among which 2327 peptides in 1413 proteins were accurately quantified at four different stages. Mature Green (MG) to breaker stage showed the largest number of differentially expressed phosphoproteins and the number of downregulated phosphoproteins was significantly higher than that of upregulated after MG stage. Twenty seven phosphorylation motifs, including 22 pSer motifs and five pThr motifs and 85 kinase including 28 serine/threonine kinases, 14 receptor protein kinases, six mitogen-activated protein kinases, seven calcium-dependent protein kinases, two casein kinases, and some other kinases were quantified. Then the dynamic changes of phosphorylated proteins in ethylene and abscisic acid signaling transduction pathways during fruit development were analyzed. Our results provide a cascade of phosphoproteins and a regulatory network of phosphorylation signals, which help to further understand the mechanism of phosphorylation in pepper fruit development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Article
At-Hook Motif Nuclear Localised Protein 18 as a Novel Modulator of Root System Architecture
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(5), 1886; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21051886 - 10 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1462
Abstract
The At-Hook Motif Nuclear Localized Protein (AHL) gene family encodes embryophyte-specific nuclear proteins with DNA binding activity. They modulate gene expression and affect various developmental processes in plants. We identify AHL18 (At3G60870) as a developmental modulator of root system architecture and [...] Read more.
The At-Hook Motif Nuclear Localized Protein (AHL) gene family encodes embryophyte-specific nuclear proteins with DNA binding activity. They modulate gene expression and affect various developmental processes in plants. We identify AHL18 (At3G60870) as a developmental modulator of root system architecture and growth. AHL18 is involved in regulation of the length of the proliferation domain and number of dividing cells in the root apical meristem and thereby, cell production. Both primary root growth and lateral root development respond according to AHL18 transcription level. The ahl18 knock-out plants show reduced root systems due to a shorter primary root and a lower number of lateral roots. This change results from a higher number of arrested and non-developing lateral root primordia (LRP) rather than from a decreased LRP initiation. The over-expression of AHL18 results in a more extensive root system, longer primary roots, and increased density of lateral root initiation events. AHL18 is thus involved in the formation of lateral roots at both LRP initiation and their later development. We conclude that AHL18 participates in modulation of root system architecture through regulation of root apical meristem activity, lateral root initiation and emergence; these correspond well with expression pattern of AHL18. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Article
Transcriptomics and Proteomics Reveal the Cellulose and Pectin Metabolic Processes in the Tension Wood (Non-G-Layer) of Catalpa bungei
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(5), 1686; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21051686 - 01 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1095
Abstract
Catalpa bungei is an economically important tree with high-quality wood and highly valuable to the study of wood formation. In this work, the xylem microstructure of C. bungei tension wood (TW) was observed, and we performed transcriptomics, proteomics and Raman spectroscopy of TW, [...] Read more.
Catalpa bungei is an economically important tree with high-quality wood and highly valuable to the study of wood formation. In this work, the xylem microstructure of C. bungei tension wood (TW) was observed, and we performed transcriptomics, proteomics and Raman spectroscopy of TW, opposite wood (OW) and normal wood (NW). The results showed that there was no obvious gelatinous layer (G-layer) in the TW of C. bungei and that the secondary wall deposition in the TW was reduced compared with that in the OW and NW. We found that most of the differentially expressed mRNAs and proteins were involved in carbohydrate polysaccharide synthesis. Raman spectroscopy results indicated that the cellulose and pectin content and pectin methylation in the TW were lower than those in the OW and NW, and many genes and proteins involved in the metabolic pathways of cellulose and pectin, such as galacturonosyltransferase (GAUT), polygalacturonase (PG), endoglucanase (CLE) and β-glucosidase (BGLU) genes, were significantly upregulated in TW. In addition, we found that the MYB2 transcription factor may regulate the pectin degradation genes PG1 and PG3, and ARF, ERF, SBP and MYB1 may be the key transcription factors regulating the synthesis and decomposition of cellulose. In contrast to previous studies on TW with a G-layer, our results revealed a change in metabolism in TW without a G-layer, and we inferred that the change in the pectin type, esterification and cellulose characteristics in the TW of C. bungei may contribute to high tensile stress. These results will enrich the understanding of the mechanism of TW formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Article
Ectopic Expression of Gs5PTase8, a Soybean Inositol Polyphosphate 5-Phosphatase, Enhances Salt Tolerance in Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(3), 1023; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21031023 - 04 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 801
Abstract
Inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases (5PTases) function in inositol signaling by regulating the catabolism of phosphoinositol derivatives. Previous reports showed that 5PTases play a critical role in plant development and stress responses. In this study, we identified a novel 5PTase gene, Gs5PTase8, from the [...] Read more.
Inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases (5PTases) function in inositol signaling by regulating the catabolism of phosphoinositol derivatives. Previous reports showed that 5PTases play a critical role in plant development and stress responses. In this study, we identified a novel 5PTase gene, Gs5PTase8, from the salt-tolerance locus of chromosome 3 in wild soybean (Glycine soja). Gs5PTase8 is highly up-regulated under salt treatment. It is localized in the nucleus and plasma membrane with a strong signal in the apoplast. Ectopic expression of Gs5PTase8 significantly increased salt tolerance in transgenic BY-2 cells, soybean hairy roots and Arabidopsis, suggesting Gs5PTase8 could increase salt tolerance in plants. The overexpression of Gs5PTase8 significantly enhanced the activities of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase under salt stress. The seeds of Gs5PTase8-transgenic Arabidopsis germinated earlier than the wild type under abscisic acid treatment, indicating Gs5PTase8 would alter ABA sensitivity. Besides, transcriptional analyses showed that the stress-responsive genes, AtRD22, AtRD29A and AtRD29B, were induced with a higher level in the Gs5PTase8-transgenic Arabidopsis plants than in the wild type under salt stress. These results reveal that Gs5PTase8 play a positive role in salt tolerance and might be a candidate gene for improving soybean adaptation to salt stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Article
Comprehensive Profiling of Tubby-Like Protein Expression Uncovers Ripening-Related TLP Genes in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(3), 1000; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21031000 - 03 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1020
Abstract
Tubby-like proteins (TLPs), which were firstly identified in obese mice, play important roles in male gametophyte development, biotic stress response, and abiotic stress responses in plants. To date, the role of TLP genes in fruit ripening is largely unknown. Here, through a bioinformatics [...] Read more.
Tubby-like proteins (TLPs), which were firstly identified in obese mice, play important roles in male gametophyte development, biotic stress response, and abiotic stress responses in plants. To date, the role of TLP genes in fruit ripening is largely unknown. Here, through a bioinformatics analysis, we identified 11 TLPs which can be divided into three subgroups in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), a model plant for studying fruit development and ripening. It was shown that all SlTLPs except SlTLP11 contain both the Tub domain and F-box domain. An expression profiling analysis in different tomato tissues and developmental stages showed that 7 TLP genes are mainly expressed in vegetative tissues, flower, and early fruit developmental stages. Interestingly, other 4 TLP members (SlTLP1, SlTLP2, SlTLP4, and SlTLP5) were found to be highly expressed after breaker stage, suggesting a potential role of these genes in fruit ripening. Moreover, the induced expression of SlTLP1 and SlTLP2 by exogenous ethylene treatment and the down expression of the two genes in ripening mutants, further support their putative role in the ripening process. Overall, our study provides a basis for further investigation of the function of TLPs in plant development and fruit ripening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Article
Genome-Wide Characterization and Analysis of CIPK Gene Family in Two Cultivated Allopolyploid Cotton Species: Sequence Variation, Association with Seed Oil Content, and the Role of GhCIPK6
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(3), 863; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21030863 - 29 Jan 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 963
Abstract
Calcineurin B-like protein-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs), as key regulators, play an important role in plant growth and development and the response to various stresses. In the present study, we identified 80 and 78 CIPK genes in the Gossypium hirsutum and G. [...] Read more.
Calcineurin B-like protein-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs), as key regulators, play an important role in plant growth and development and the response to various stresses. In the present study, we identified 80 and 78 CIPK genes in the Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense, respectively. The phylogenetic and gene structure analysis divided the cotton CIPK genes into five groups which were classified into an exon-rich clade and an exon-poor clade. A synteny analysis showed that segmental duplication contributed to the expansion of Gossypium CIPK gene family, and purifying selection played a major role in the evolution of the gene family in cotton. Analyses of expression profiles showed that GhCIPK genes had temporal and spatial specificity and could be induced by various abiotic stresses. Fourteen GhCIPK genes were found to contain 17 non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and co-localized with oil or protein content quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Additionally, five SNPs from four GhCIPKs were found to be significantly associated with oil content in one of the three field tests. Although most GhCIPK genes were not associated with natural variations in cotton oil content, the overexpression of the GhCIPK6 gene reduced the oil content and increased C18:1 and C18:1+C18:1d6 in transgenic cotton as compared to wild-type plants. In addition, we predicted the potential molecular regulatory mechanisms of the GhCIPK genes. In brief, these results enhance our understanding of the roles of CIPK genes in oil synthesis and stress responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Article
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors KRP1 and KRP2 Are Involved in Grain Filling and Seed Germination in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010245 - 30 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1153
Abstract
Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors known as KRPs (kip-related proteins) control the progression of plant cell cycles and modulate various plant developmental processes. However, the function of KRPs in rice remains largely unknown. In this study, two rice KRPs members, KRP1 and KRP2, were [...] Read more.
Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors known as KRPs (kip-related proteins) control the progression of plant cell cycles and modulate various plant developmental processes. However, the function of KRPs in rice remains largely unknown. In this study, two rice KRPs members, KRP1 and KRP2, were found to be predominantly expressed in developing seeds and were significantly induced by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and Brassinosteroid (BR) applications. Sub-cellular localization experiments showed that KRP1 was mainly localized in the nucleus of rice protoplasts. KRP1 overexpression transgenic lines (OxKRP1), krp2 single mutant (crkrp2), and krp1/krp2 double mutant (crkrp1/krp2) all exhibited significantly smaller seed width, seed length, and reduced grain weight, with impaired seed germination and retarded early seedling growth, suggesting that disturbing the normal steady state of KRP1 or KRP2 blocks seed development partly through inhibiting cell proliferation and enlargement during grain filling and seed germination. Furthermore, two cyclin-dependent protein kinases, CDKC;2 and CDKF;3, could interact with KRP1 in a yeast-two-hybrid system, indicating that KRP1 might regulate the mitosis cell cycle and endoreduplication through the two targets. In a word, this study shed novel insights into the regulatory roles of KRPs in rice seed maturation and germination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Article
ORESARA15 Acts Synergistically with ANGUSTIFOLIA3 and Separately from AINTEGUMENTA to Promote Cell Proliferation during Leaf Growth
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010241 - 29 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1127
Abstract
Developing leaves undergo sequential coordinated cell proliferation and cell expansion to determine their final size and shape. Although several important regulators of cell proliferation have been reported, the gene network regulating leaf developmental processes remains unclear. Previously, we showed that ORESARA15 (ORE15) positively [...] Read more.
Developing leaves undergo sequential coordinated cell proliferation and cell expansion to determine their final size and shape. Although several important regulators of cell proliferation have been reported, the gene network regulating leaf developmental processes remains unclear. Previously, we showed that ORESARA15 (ORE15) positively regulates the rate and duration of cell proliferation by promoting the expression of direct targets, GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR (GRF) transcription factors, during leaf growth. In the current study, we examined the spatiotemporal patterns of ORE15 expression and determined that ORE15 expression partially overlapped with AN3/GIF1 and ANT expression along the midvein in the proximal region of the leaf blade in young leaves. Genetic analysis revealed that ORE15 may function synergistically with AN3 to control leaf growth as a positive regulator of cell proliferation. Our molecular and genetic studies are the first to suggest the importance of functional redundancies between ORE15 and AN3, and between AN3 and ANT in cell proliferation regulatory pathway during leaf growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Article
CRK5 Protein Kinase Contributes to the Progression of Embryogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(24), 6120; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20246120 - 04 Dec 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1143
Abstract
The fine tuning of hormone (e.g., auxin and gibberellin) levels and hormone signaling is required for maintaining normal embryogenesis. Embryo polarity, for example, is ensured by the directional movement of auxin that is controlled by various types of auxin transporters. Here, we present [...] Read more.
The fine tuning of hormone (e.g., auxin and gibberellin) levels and hormone signaling is required for maintaining normal embryogenesis. Embryo polarity, for example, is ensured by the directional movement of auxin that is controlled by various types of auxin transporters. Here, we present pieces of evidence for the auxin-gibberellic acid (GA) hormonal crosstalk during embryo development and the regulatory role of the Arabidopsis thaliana Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase-Related Kinase 5 (AtCRK5) in this regard. It is pointed out that the embryogenesis of the Atcrk5-1 mutant is delayed in comparison to the wild type. This delay is accompanied with a decrease in the levels of GA and auxin, as well as the abundance of the polar auxin transport (PAT) proteins PIN1, PIN4, and PIN7 in the mutant embryos. We have previously showed that AtCRK5 can regulate the PIN2 and PIN3 proteins either directly by phosphorylation or indirectly affecting the GA level during the root gravitropic and hypocotyl hook bending responses. In this manuscript, we provide evidence that the AtCRK5 protein kinase can in vitro phosphorylate the hydrophilic loops of additional PIN proteins that are important for embryogenesis. We propose that AtCRK5 can govern embryo development in Arabidopsis through the fine tuning of auxin-GA level and the accumulation of certain polar auxin transport proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Article
phyB and HY5 are Involved in the Blue Light-Mediated Alleviation of Dormancy of Arabidopsis Seeds Possibly via the Modulation of Expression of Genes Related to Light, GA, and ABA
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(23), 5882; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20235882 - 23 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1718
Abstract
Light is one of the most important environmental factors regulating seed germination. It is known that light inhibits seed germination of some monocotyledonous species and that it is mostly related to the blue wavelength of the spectrum received by cryptochromes (cry). Research has [...] Read more.
Light is one of the most important environmental factors regulating seed germination. It is known that light inhibits seed germination of some monocotyledonous species and that it is mostly related to the blue wavelength of the spectrum received by cryptochromes (cry). Research has also found that the red light (R) stimulates germination of dicotyledonous seeds and that this reaction involves mainly phytochromes (phy). Surprisingly, up to date, the role and the mechanism of action of blue light (BL) in seed biology of dicot plants is still very poorly understood and some questions are unexplained, e.g., whether BL plays a role in regulation of dicot seeds dormancy and/or germination? If, so what particular elements of light signaling pathway are involved in modulation of this(ese) process(es)? Also, is the BL action in regulation of dicot seeds dormancy and/or germination maybe due to changes of expression of genes related to metabolism and/or signaling of two phytohormones controlling seed-related events, such as gibberellins (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA)? To answer these intriguing questions, the combination of biological, transcriptomic, and genetic approaches was performed in this particular study. The germination tests show that freshly harvested wild type (WT) Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 seeds are dormant and do not germinate in darkness (at 25 °C), while nondormant (after-ripened) seeds germinate well in these conditions. It is also proven that dormancy of seeds of this species is released in the presence of white and/or BL (λ = 447 nm) when placed at 25 °C. Presented here, novel results emphasize the role of BL in dormancy alleviation of dicot seeds, indicating that this wavelength of light spectrum received by phyB induces this process and that the sensitivity to this stimulus depends on the depth of seed dormancy. In addition, it is demonstrated that various elements of phy-mediated pathway can be used in response to the signal induced by BL in germinating dormant seeds of Arabidopsis. The quantitative real time PCR analysis supported by results of germination tests of WT, T-DNA insertion mutants (i.e., hy5, hfr1, and laf1) and overexpression transformants of Arabidopsis seeds (i.e., 35S:OE:HY5, 35S:OE:HYH, 35S:OE:HFR1, and 35S:OE:LAF1) revealed that the HY5 gene coding transcription factor is most probably responsible for the control of expression of genes involved in GA/ABA metabolism and/or signaling pathways during BL-dependent dormancy alleviation of Arabidopsis seeds, while biological functions of HYH and HFR1 are associated with regulation of germination. The model of BL action in regulation of dormancy alleviation and germination potential of Arabidopsis seeds is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Article
Composition of the Reconstituted Cell Wall in Protoplast-Derived Cells of Daucus Is Affected by Phytosulfokine (PSK)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(21), 5490; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20215490 - 04 Nov 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1275
Abstract
Phytosulfokine-α (PSK), a peptidyl plant growth factor, has been recognized as a promising intercellular signaling molecule involved in cellular proliferation and dedifferentiation. It was shown that PSK stimulated and enhanced cell divisions in protoplast cultures of several species leading to callus and proembryogenic [...] Read more.
Phytosulfokine-α (PSK), a peptidyl plant growth factor, has been recognized as a promising intercellular signaling molecule involved in cellular proliferation and dedifferentiation. It was shown that PSK stimulated and enhanced cell divisions in protoplast cultures of several species leading to callus and proembryogenic mass formation. Since PSK had been shown to cause an increase in efficiency of somatic embryogenesis, it was reasonable to check the distribution of selected chemical components of the cell walls during the protoplast regeneration process. So far, especially for the carrot, a model species for in vitro cultures, it has not been specified what pectic, arabinogalactan protein (AGP) and extensin epitopes are involved in the reconstruction of the wall in protoplast-derived cells. Even less is known about the correlation between wall regeneration and the presence of PSK during the protoplast culture. Three Daucus taxa, including the cultivated carrot, were analyzed during protoplast regeneration. Several antibodies directed against wall components (anti-pectin: LM19, LM20, anti-AGP: JIM4, JIM8, JIM13 and anti-extensin: JIM12) were used. The obtained results indicate a diverse response of the used Daucus taxa to PSK in terms of protoplast-derived cell development, and diversity in the chemical composition of the cell walls in the control and the PSK-treated cultures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Article
Cell Wall Modifications in Giant Cells Induced by the Plant Parasitic Nematode Meloidogyne incognita in Wild-Type (Col-0) and the fra2 Arabidopsis thaliana Katanin Mutant
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(21), 5465; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20215465 - 02 Nov 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1294
Abstract
Meloidogyne incognita is a root knot nematode (RKN) species which is among the most notoriously unmanageable crop pests with a wide host range. It inhabits plants and induces unique feeding site structures within host roots, known as giant cells (GCs). The cell walls [...] Read more.
Meloidogyne incognita is a root knot nematode (RKN) species which is among the most notoriously unmanageable crop pests with a wide host range. It inhabits plants and induces unique feeding site structures within host roots, known as giant cells (GCs). The cell walls of the GCs undergo the process of both thickening and loosening to allow expansion and finally support nutrient uptake by the nematode. In this study, a comparative in situ analysis of cell wall polysaccharides in the GCs of wild-type Col-0 and the microtubule-defective fra2 katanin mutant, both infected with M. incognita has been carried out. The fra2 mutant had an increased infection rate. Moreover, fra2 roots exhibited a differential pectin and hemicellulose distribution when compared to Col-0 probably mirroring the fra2 root developmental defects. Features of fra2 GC walls include the presence of high-esterified pectic homogalacturonan and pectic arabinan, possibly to compensate for the reduced levels of callose, which was omnipresent in GCs of Col-0. Katanin severing of microtubules seems important in plant defense against M. incognita, with the nematode, however, to be nonchalant about this “katanin deficiency” and eventually induce the necessary GC cell wall modifications to establish a feeding site. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Article
Optimization of Mature Embryo-Based Tissue Culture and Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation in Model Grass Brachypodium distachyon
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(21), 5448; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20215448 - 31 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1611
Abstract
Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation is well established in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon. However, most protocols employ immature embryos because of their better regenerative capacity. A major problem associated with the immature embryo system is that they are available only during a [...] Read more.
Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation is well established in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon. However, most protocols employ immature embryos because of their better regenerative capacity. A major problem associated with the immature embryo system is that they are available only during a limited time window of growing plants. In this study, we have developed an optimized Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation protocol that utilizes mature embryos. We have adopted seed shearing and photoautotrophic rooting (PR) in callus induction and root regeneration, respectively, with evident significant improvement in these aspects. We have also revealed that the newly developed chemical inducer Fipexide (FPX) had the ability to induce callus, shoots, and roots. By comparison, we have demonstrated that FPX shows higher efficiency in shoot generation than other frequently used chemicals in our mature embryo-based system. In addition, we demonstrated that the age of embryogenetic callus severely affects the transformation efficiency (TE), with the seven-week-old embryogenetic callus having the highest TE reaching 52.6%, which is comparable with that in immature embryo transformation. The new methodologies reported here will advance the development and utilization of Brachypodium as a new model system for grass genomics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Article
Spike Activator 1, Encoding a bHLH, Mediates Axillary Bud Development and Spike Initiation in Phalaenopsis aphrodite
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(21), 5406; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20215406 - 30 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1042
Abstract
Double-spikes Phalaenopsis orchids have greater market value than those with single-spike. In this study, a gene designated as Spike Activator 1 (SPK1), which encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, was isolated and characterized from Phalaenopsis aphrodite (moth orchid). SPK1 was [...] Read more.
Double-spikes Phalaenopsis orchids have greater market value than those with single-spike. In this study, a gene designated as Spike Activator 1 (SPK1), which encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, was isolated and characterized from Phalaenopsis aphrodite (moth orchid). SPK1 was highly expressed in the meristematic tissues. In the axillary bud, SPK1 was highly upregulated by a moderately low temperature of 20 °C but downregulated by a spike inhibition temperature of 30 °C. SPK1 protein is localized in the nucleus. Another bHLH, bHLH35, which is also highly expressed in young tissues in the same way as SPK1 was also identified. In contrast to SPK1, bHLH35 transcripts are downregulated at 20 °C but upregulated at 30 °C. Bimolecular florescence complementation assay and yeast two-hybrid assays indicated that SPK1 interacts with bHLH35 and forms a heterodimer. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) showed that 7 out of 15 vector control plants produced double spikes but that only 1 out of 15 VIGS-spk1 plants produced double spikes. RT-qPCR results indicated that VIGS-spk1 downregulated gene expression levels of SPK1, FT, CYCB, and EXPA8. Overall, we propose that SPK1 plays an essential role in early axillary bud development and spike initiation of P. aphrodite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Article
Development of an Efficient Protocol to Obtain Transgenic Coffee, Coffea arabica L., Expressing the Cry10Aa Toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(21), 5334; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20215334 - 26 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1277
Abstract
This report presents an efficient protocol of the stable genetic transformation of coffee plants expressing the Cry10Aa protein of Bacillus thuringiensis. Embryogenic cell lines with a high potential of propagation, somatic embryo maturation, and germination were used. Gene expression analysis of cytokinin [...] Read more.
This report presents an efficient protocol of the stable genetic transformation of coffee plants expressing the Cry10Aa protein of Bacillus thuringiensis. Embryogenic cell lines with a high potential of propagation, somatic embryo maturation, and germination were used. Gene expression analysis of cytokinin signaling, homedomains, auxin responsive factor, and the master regulators of somatic embryogenesis genes involved in somatic embryo maturation were evaluated. Plasmid pMDC85 containing the cry10Aa gene was introduced into a Typica cultivar of C. arabica L. by biobalistic transformation. Transformation efficiency of 16.7% was achieved, according to the number of embryogenic aggregates and transgenic lines developed. Stable transformation was proven by hygromycin-resistant embryogenic lines, green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression, quantitative analyses of Cry10Aa by mass spectrometry, Western blot, ELISA, and Southern blot analyses. Cry10Aa showed variable expression levels in somatic embryos and the leaf tissue of transgenic plants, ranging from 76% to 90% of coverage of the protein by mass spectrometry and from 3.25 to 13.88 μg/g fresh tissue, with ELISA. qPCR-based 2−ΔΔCt trials revealed high transcription levels of cry10Aa in somatic embryos and leaf tissue. This is the first report about the stable transformation and expression of the Cry10Aa protein in coffee plants with the potential for controlling the coffee berry borer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Article
Unravelling the Metabolic and Hormonal Machinery During Key Steps of Somatic Embryogenesis: A Case Study in Coffee
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4665; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194665 - 20 Sep 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1329
Abstract
Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is one of the most promising processes for large-scale dissemination of elite varieties. However, for many plant species, optimizing SE protocols still relies on a trial-and-error approach. Using coffee as a model plant, we report here the first global analysis [...] Read more.
Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is one of the most promising processes for large-scale dissemination of elite varieties. However, for many plant species, optimizing SE protocols still relies on a trial-and-error approach. Using coffee as a model plant, we report here the first global analysis of metabolome and hormone dynamics aiming to unravel mechanisms regulating cell fate and totipotency. Sampling from leaf explant dedifferentiation until embryo development covered 15 key stages. An in-depth statistical analysis performed on 104 metabolites revealed that massive re-configuration of metabolic pathways induced SE. During initial dedifferentiation, a sharp decrease in phenolic compounds and caffeine levels was also observed while auxins, cytokinins and ethylene levels were at their highest. Totipotency reached its highest expression during the callus stages when a shut-off in hormonal and metabolic pathways related to sugar and energetic substance hydrolysis was evidenced. Abscisic acid, leucine, maltotriose, myo-inositol, proline, tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites and zeatin appeared as key metabolic markers of the embryogenic capacity. Combining metabolomics with multiphoton microscopy led to the identification of chlorogenic acids as markers of embryo redifferentiation. The present analysis shows that metabolite fingerprints are signatures of cell fate and represent a starting point for optimizing SE protocols in a rational way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Article
Exogenous Promoter Triggers APETALA3 Silencing through RNA-Directed DNA Methylation Pathway in Arabidopsis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(18), 4478; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184478 - 11 Sep 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 923
Abstract
The development of floral organs plays a vital role in plant reproduction. In our research, the APETALA3 (AP3) promoter-transgenic lines showed abnormal developmental phenotypes in stamens and petals. The aim of this study is to understand the molecular mechanisms of the [...] Read more.
The development of floral organs plays a vital role in plant reproduction. In our research, the APETALA3 (AP3) promoter-transgenic lines showed abnormal developmental phenotypes in stamens and petals. The aim of this study is to understand the molecular mechanisms of the morphological defects in transgenic plants. By performing transgenic analysis, it was found that the AP3-promoted genes and the vector had no relation to the morphological defects. Then, we performed the expression analysis of the class A, B, and C genes. A dramatic reduction of transcript levels of class B genes (AP3 and PISTILLATA) was observed. Additionally, we also analyzed the methylation of the promoters of class B genes and found that the promoter of AP3 was hypermethylated. Furthermore, combining mutations in rdr2-2, drm1/2, and nrpd1b-11 with the AP3-silencing lines rescued the abnormal development of stamens and petals. The expression of AP3 was reactivated and the methylation level of AP3 promoter was also reduced in RdDM-defective AP3-silencing lines. Our results showed that the RdDM pathway contributed to the transcriptional silencing in the transgenic AP3-silencing lines. Moreover, the results revealed that fact that the exogenous fragment of a promoter could trigger the methylation of homologous endogenous sequences, which may be ubiquitous in transgenic plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Article
IBR5 Regulates Leaf Serrations Development via Modulation of the Expression of PIN1
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(18), 4429; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184429 - 09 Sep 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1155
Abstract
Biodiversity in plant shape is mainly attributable to the diversity of leaf shape, which is largely determined by the transient morphogenetic activity of the leaf margin that creates leaf serrations. However, the precise mechanism underlying the establishment of this morphogenetic capacity remains poorly [...] Read more.
Biodiversity in plant shape is mainly attributable to the diversity of leaf shape, which is largely determined by the transient morphogenetic activity of the leaf margin that creates leaf serrations. However, the precise mechanism underlying the establishment of this morphogenetic capacity remains poorly understood. We report here that INDOLE-3-BUTYRIC ACID RESPONSE 5 (IBR5), a dual-specificity phosphatase, is a key component of leaf-serration regulatory machinery. Loss-of-function mutants of IBR5 exhibited pronounced serrations due to increased cell area. IBR5 was localized in the nucleus of leaf epidermis and petiole cells. Introducing a C129S mutation within the highly conserved VxVHCx2GxSRSx5AYLM motif of IBR5 rendered it unable to rescue the leaf-serration defects of the ibr5-3 mutant. In addition, auxin reporters revealed that the distribution of auxin maxima was expanded ectopically in ibr5-3. Furthermore, we found that the distribution of PIN1 on the plasma membrane of the epidermal and cells around the leaf vein was compromised in ibr5-3. We concluded that IBR5 is essential for the establishment of PIN-FORMED 1 (PIN1)-directed auxin maxima at the tips of leaf serration, which is vital for the elaborated regulation during its formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Article
RcAP1, a Homolog of APETALA1, is Associated with Flower Bud Differentiation and Floral Organ Morphogenesis in Rosa chinensis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(14), 3557; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20143557 - 20 Jul 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1365
Abstract
Rosa chinensis is one of the most popular flower plants worldwide. The recurrent flowering trait greatly enhances the ornamental value of roses, and is the result of the constant formation of new flower buds. Flower bud differentiation has always been a major topic [...] Read more.
Rosa chinensis is one of the most popular flower plants worldwide. The recurrent flowering trait greatly enhances the ornamental value of roses, and is the result of the constant formation of new flower buds. Flower bud differentiation has always been a major topic of interest among researchers. The APETALA1 (AP1) MADS-box (Mcm1, Agamous, Deficiens and SRF) transcription factor-encoding gene is important for the formation of the floral meristem and floral organs. However, research on the rose AP1 gene has been limited. Thus, we isolated AP1 from Rosa chinensis ‘Old Blush’. An expression analysis revealed that RcAP1 was not expressed before the floral primordia formation stage in flower buds. The overexpression of RcAP1 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in an early-flowering phenotype. Additionally, the virus-induced down-regulation of RcAP1 expression delayed flowering in ‘Old Blush’. Moreover, RcAP1 was specifically expressed in the sepals of floral organs, while its expression was down-regulated in abnormal sepals and leaf-like organs. These observations suggest that RcAP1 may contribute to rose bud differentiation as well as floral organ morphogenesis, especially the sepals. These results may help for further characterization of the regulatory mechanisms of the recurrent flowering trait in rose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Article
Aluminum Alters the Histology and Pectin Cell Wall Composition of Barley Roots
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(12), 3039; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20123039 - 21 Jun 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1457
Abstract
Aluminum (Al) is one of the most important crust elements causing reduced plant production in acidic soils. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is considered to be one of the crops that is most sensitive to Al, and the root cell wall is the [...] Read more.
Aluminum (Al) is one of the most important crust elements causing reduced plant production in acidic soils. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is considered to be one of the crops that is most sensitive to Al, and the root cell wall is the primary target of Al toxicity. In this study, we evaluate the possible involvement of specific pectic epitopes in the cells of barley roots in response to aluminum exposure. We targeted four different pectic epitopes recognized by LM5, LM6, LM19, and LM20 antibodies using an immunocytochemical approach. Since Al becomes available and toxic to plants in acidic soils, we performed our analyses on barley roots that had been grown in acidic conditions (pH 4.0) with and without Al and in control conditions (pH 6.0). Differences connected with the presence and distribution of the pectic epitopes between the control and Al-treated roots were observed. In the Al-treated roots, pectins with galactan sidechains were detected with a visually lower fluorescence intensity than in the control roots while pectins with arabinan sidechains were abundantly present. Furthermore, esterified homogalacturonans (HGs) were present with a visually higher fluorescence intensity compared to the control, while methyl-esterified HGs were present in a similar amount. Based on the presented results, it was concluded that methyl-esterified HG can be a marker for newly arising cell walls. Additionally, histological changes were detected in the roots grown under Al exposure. Among them, an increase in root diameter, shortening of root cap, and increase in the size of rhizodermal cells and divisions of exodermal and cortex cells were observed. The presented data extend upon the knowledge on the chemical composition of the cell wall of barley root cells under stress conditions. The response of cells to Al can be expressed by the specific distribution of pectins in the cell wall and, thus, enables the knowledge on Al toxicity to be extended by explaining the mechanism by which Al inhibits root elongation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Article
Effect of Nanoparticles Surface Charge on the Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Roots Development and Their Movement into the Root Cells and Protoplasts
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(7), 1650; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20071650 - 03 Apr 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1517
Abstract
Increasing usage of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in different industrial areas inevitably leads to their release into the environment. Thus, living organisms, including plants, may be exposed to a direct contact with nanoparticles (NPs). Despite the growing amount of research on this topic, our [...] Read more.
Increasing usage of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in different industrial areas inevitably leads to their release into the environment. Thus, living organisms, including plants, may be exposed to a direct contact with nanoparticles (NPs). Despite the growing amount of research on this topic, our knowledge about NPs uptake by plants and their influence on different developmental processes is still insufficient. The first physical barrier for NPs penetration to the plant body is a cell wall which protects cytoplasm from external factors and environmental stresses. The absence of a cell wall may facilitate the internalization of various particles including NPs. Our studies have shown that AuNPs, independently of their surface charge, did not cross the cell wall of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) roots. However, the research carried out with using light and transmission electron microscope revealed that AuNPs with different surface charge caused diverse changes in the root’s histology and ultrastructure. Therefore, we verified whether this is only the wall which protects cells against particles penetration and for this purpose we used protoplasts culture. It has been shown that plasma membrane (PM) is not a barrier for positively charged (+) AuNPs and negatively charged (−) AuNPs, which passage to the cell. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Article
Tempo-Spatial Pattern of Stepharine Accumulation in Stephania Glabra Morphogenic Tissues
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(4), 808; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20040808 - 13 Feb 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1330
Abstract
Alkaloids attract great attention due to their valuable therapeutic properties. Stepharine, an aporphine alkaloid of Stephania glabra plants, exhibits anti-aging, anti-hypertensive, and anti-viral effects. The distribution of aporphine alkaloids in cell cultures, as well as whole plants is unknown, which hampers the development [...] Read more.
Alkaloids attract great attention due to their valuable therapeutic properties. Stepharine, an aporphine alkaloid of Stephania glabra plants, exhibits anti-aging, anti-hypertensive, and anti-viral effects. The distribution of aporphine alkaloids in cell cultures, as well as whole plants is unknown, which hampers the development of bioengineering strategies toward enhancing their production. The spatial distribution of stepharine in cell culture models, plantlets, and mature micropropagated plants was investigated at the cellular and organ levels. Stepharine biosynthesis was found to be highly spatially and temporally regulated during plant development. We proposed that self-intoxication is the most likely reason for the failure of the induction of alkaloid biosynthesis in cell cultures. During somatic embryo development, the toxic load of alkaloids inside the cells increased. Only specialized cell sites such as vascular tissues with companion cells (VT cells), laticifers, and parenchymal cells with inclusions (PI cells) can tolerate the accumulation of alkaloids, and thus circumvent this restriction. S. glabra plants have adapted to toxic pressure by forming an additional transport secretory (laticifer) system and depository PI cells. Postembryonic growth restricts specialized cell site formation during organ development. Future bioengineering strategies should include cultures enriched in the specific cells identified in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Review
Research Tools for the Functional Genomics of Plant miRNAs During Zygotic and Somatic Embryogenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(14), 4969; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21144969 - 14 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1133
Abstract
During early plant embryogenesis, some of the most fundamental decisions on fate and identity are taken making it a fascinating process to study. It is no surprise that higher plant embryogenesis was intensively analysed during the last century, while somatic embryogenesis is probably [...] Read more.
During early plant embryogenesis, some of the most fundamental decisions on fate and identity are taken making it a fascinating process to study. It is no surprise that higher plant embryogenesis was intensively analysed during the last century, while somatic embryogenesis is probably the most studied regeneration model. Encoded by the MIRNA, short, single-stranded, non-coding miRNAs, are commonly present in all Eukaryotic genomes and are involved in the regulation of the gene expression during the essential developmental processes such as plant morphogenesis, hormone signaling, and developmental phase transition. During the last few years dedicated to miRNAs, analytical methods and tools have been developed, which have afforded new opportunities in functional analyses of plant miRNAs, including (i) databases for in silico analysis; (ii) miRNAs detection and expression approaches; (iii) reporter and sensor lines for a spatio-temporal analysis of the miRNA-target interactions; (iv) in situ hybridisation protocols; (v) artificial miRNAs; (vi) MIM and STTM lines to inhibit miRNA activity, and (vii) the target genes resistant to miRNA. Here, we attempted to summarise the toolbox for functional analysis of miRNAs during plant embryogenesis. In addition to characterising the described tools/methods, examples of the applications have been presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Review
From Single Cell to Plants: Mesophyll Protoplasts as a Versatile System for Investigating Plant Cell Reprogramming
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(12), 4195; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124195 - 12 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2563
Abstract
Plants are sessile organisms that have a remarkable developmental plasticity, which ensures their optimal adaptation to environmental stresses. Plant cell totipotency is an extreme example of such plasticity, whereby somatic cells have the potential to form plants via direct shoot organogenesis or somatic [...] Read more.
Plants are sessile organisms that have a remarkable developmental plasticity, which ensures their optimal adaptation to environmental stresses. Plant cell totipotency is an extreme example of such plasticity, whereby somatic cells have the potential to form plants via direct shoot organogenesis or somatic embryogenesis in response to various exogenous and/or endogenous signals. Protoplasts provide one of the most suitable systems for investigating molecular mechanisms of totipotency, because they are effectively single cell populations. In this review, we consider the current state of knowledge of the mechanisms that induce cell proliferation from individual, differentiated somatic plant cells. We highlight initial explant metabolic status, ploidy level and isolation procedure as determinants of successful cell reprogramming. We also discuss the importance of auxin signalling and its interaction with stress-regulated pathways in governing cell cycle induction and further stages of plant cell totipotency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Review
Completing Autophagy: Formation and Degradation of the Autophagic Body and Metabolite Salvage in Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(6), 2205; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21062205 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1345
Abstract
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process that occurs in yeast, plants, and animals. Despite many years of research, some aspects of autophagy are still not fully explained. This mostly concerns the final stages of autophagy, which have not received as much interest from [...] Read more.
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process that occurs in yeast, plants, and animals. Despite many years of research, some aspects of autophagy are still not fully explained. This mostly concerns the final stages of autophagy, which have not received as much interest from the scientific community as the initial stages of this process. The final stages of autophagy that we take into consideration in this review include the formation and degradation of the autophagic bodies as well as the efflux of metabolites from the vacuole to the cytoplasm. The autophagic bodies are formed through the fusion of an autophagosome and vacuole during macroautophagy and by vacuolar membrane invagination or protrusion during microautophagy. Then they are rapidly degraded by vacuolar lytic enzymes, and products of the degradation are reused. In this paper, we summarize the available information on the trafficking of the autophagosome towards the vacuole, the fusion of the autophagosome with the vacuole, the formation and decomposition of autophagic bodies inside the vacuole, and the efflux of metabolites to the cytoplasm. Special attention is given to the formation and degradation of autophagic bodies and metabolite salvage in plant cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Review
Current Perspectives on the Auxin-Mediated Genetic Network that Controls the Induction of Somatic Embryogenesis in Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(4), 1333; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041333 - 16 Feb 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2259
Abstract
Auxin contributes to almost every aspect of plant development and metabolism as well as the transport and signalling of auxin-shaped plant growth and morphogenesis in response to endo- and exogenous signals including stress conditions. Consistently with the common belief that auxin is a [...] Read more.
Auxin contributes to almost every aspect of plant development and metabolism as well as the transport and signalling of auxin-shaped plant growth and morphogenesis in response to endo- and exogenous signals including stress conditions. Consistently with the common belief that auxin is a central trigger of developmental changes in plants, the auxin treatment of explants was reported to be an indispensable inducer of somatic embryogenesis (SE) in a large number of plant species. Treating in vitro-cultured tissue with auxins (primarily 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, which is a synthetic auxin-like plant growth regulator) results in the extensive reprogramming of the somatic cell transcriptome, which involves the modulation of numerous SE-associated transcription factor genes (TFs). A number of SE-modulated TFs that control auxin metabolism and signalling have been identified, and conversely, the regulators of the auxin-signalling pathway seem to control the SE-involved TFs. In turn, the different expression of the genes encoding the core components of the auxin-signalling pathway, the AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACIDs (Aux/IAAs) and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORs (ARFs), was demonstrated to accompany SE induction. Thus, the extensive crosstalk between the hormones, in particular, auxin and the TFs, was revealed to play a central role in the SE-regulatory network. Accordingly, LEAFY COTYLEDON (LEC1 and LEC2), BABY BOOM (BBM), AGAMOUS-LIKE15 (AGL15) and WUSCHEL (WUS) were found to constitute the central part of the complex regulatory network that directs the somatic plant cell towards embryogenic development in response to auxin. The revealing picture shows a high degree of complexity of the regulatory relationships between the TFs of the SE-regulatory network, which involve direct and indirect interactions and regulatory feedback loops. This review examines the recent advances in studies on the auxin-controlled genetic network, which is involved in the mechanism of SE induction and focuses on the complex regulatory relationships between the down- and up-stream targets of the SE-regulatory TFs. In particular, the outcomes from investigations on Arabidopsis, which became a model plant in research on genetic control of SE, are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Review
In Vitro Tissue Culture in Brachypodium: Applications and Challenges
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(3), 1037; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21031037 - 04 Feb 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1314
Abstract
Brachypodium distachyon has become an excellent model for plant breeding and bioenergy grasses that permits many fundamental questions in grass biology to be addressed. One of the constraints to performing research in many grasses has been the difficulty with which they can be [...] Read more.
Brachypodium distachyon has become an excellent model for plant breeding and bioenergy grasses that permits many fundamental questions in grass biology to be addressed. One of the constraints to performing research in many grasses has been the difficulty with which they can be genetically transformed and the generally low frequency of such transformations. In this review, we discuss the contribution that transformation techniques have made in Brachypodium biology as well as how Brachypodium could be used to determine the factors that might contribute to transformation efficiency. In particular, we highlight the latest research on the mechanisms that govern the gradual loss of embryogenic potential in a tissue culture and propose using B. distachyon as a model for other recalcitrant monocots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
Review
Regulation of Photomorphogenic Development by Plant Phytochromes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(24), 6165; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20246165 - 06 Dec 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4528
Abstract
Photomorphogenesis and skotomorphogenesis are two key events that control plant development, from seed germination to flowering and senescence. A group of wavelength-specific photoreceptors, E3 ubiquitin ligases, and various transcription factors work together to regulate these two critical processes. Phytochromes are the main photoreceptors [...] Read more.
Photomorphogenesis and skotomorphogenesis are two key events that control plant development, from seed germination to flowering and senescence. A group of wavelength-specific photoreceptors, E3 ubiquitin ligases, and various transcription factors work together to regulate these two critical processes. Phytochromes are the main photoreceptors in plants for perceiving red/far-red light and transducing the light signals to downstream factors that regulate the gene expression network for photomorphogenic development. In this review, we highlight key developmental stages in the life cycle of plants and how phytochromes and other components in the phytochrome signaling pathway play roles in plant growth and development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Review
Autophagic Machinery of Plant Peroxisomes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4754; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194754 - 25 Sep 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1616
Abstract
Peroxisomes are cell organelles that play an important role in plants in many physiological and developmental processes. The plant peroxisomes harbor enzymes of the β-oxidation of fatty acids and the glyoxylate cycle; photorespiration; detoxification of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species; as well as [...] Read more.
Peroxisomes are cell organelles that play an important role in plants in many physiological and developmental processes. The plant peroxisomes harbor enzymes of the β-oxidation of fatty acids and the glyoxylate cycle; photorespiration; detoxification of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species; as well as biosynthesis of hormones and signal molecules. The function of peroxisomes in plant cells changes during plant growth and development. They are transformed from organelles involved in storage lipid breakdown during seed germination and seedling growth into leaf peroxisomes involved in photorespiration in green parts of the plant. Additionally, intensive oxidative metabolism of peroxisomes causes damage to their components. Therefore, unnecessary or damaged peroxisomes are degraded by selective autophagy, called pexophagy. This is an important element of the quality control system of peroxisomes in plant cells. Despite the fact that the mechanism of pexophagy has already been described for yeasts and mammals, the molecular mechanisms by which plant cells recognize peroxisomes that will be degraded via pexophagy still remain unclear. It seems that a plant-specific mechanism exists for the selective degradation of peroxisomes. In this review, we describe the physiological role of pexophagy in plant cells and the current hypotheses concerning the mechanism of plant pexophagy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Review
Role of the INDETERMINATE DOMAIN Genes in Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(9), 2286; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20092286 - 09 May 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2275
Abstract
The INDETERMINATE DOMAIN (IDD) genes comprise a conserved transcription factor family that regulates a variety of developmental and physiological processes in plants. Many recent studies have focused on the genetic characterization of IDD family members and revealed various biological functions, including modulation of [...] Read more.
The INDETERMINATE DOMAIN (IDD) genes comprise a conserved transcription factor family that regulates a variety of developmental and physiological processes in plants. Many recent studies have focused on the genetic characterization of IDD family members and revealed various biological functions, including modulation of sugar metabolism and floral transition, cold stress response, seed development, plant architecture, regulation of hormone signaling, and ammonium metabolism. In this review, we summarize the functions and working mechanisms of the IDD gene family in the regulatory network of metabolism and developmental processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Review
Defining the Genetic Basis of Plant–Endophytic Bacteria Interactions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(8), 1947; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081947 - 20 Apr 2019
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 4081
Abstract
Endophytic bacteria, which interact closely with their host, are an essential part of the plant microbiome. These interactions enhance plant tolerance to environmental changes as well as promote plant growth, thus they have become attractive targets for increasing crop production. Numerous studies have [...] Read more.
Endophytic bacteria, which interact closely with their host, are an essential part of the plant microbiome. These interactions enhance plant tolerance to environmental changes as well as promote plant growth, thus they have become attractive targets for increasing crop production. Numerous studies have aimed to characterise how endophytic bacteria infect and colonise their hosts as well as conferring important traits to the plant. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge regarding endophytic colonisation and focus on the insights that have been obtained from the mutants of bacteria and plants as well as ‘omic analyses. These show how endophytic bacteria produce various molecules and have a range of activities related to chemotaxis, motility, adhesion, bacterial cell wall properties, secretion, regulating transcription and utilising a substrate in order to establish a successful interaction. Colonisation is mediated by plant receptors and is regulated by the signalling that is connected with phytohormones such as auxin and jasmonic (JA) and salicylic acids (SA). We also highlight changes in the expression of small RNAs and modifications of the cell wall properties. Moreover, in order to exploit the beneficial plant-endophytic bacteria interactions in agriculture successfully, we show that the key aspects that govern successful interactions remain to be defined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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