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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(4), 808; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20040808

Tempo-Spatial Pattern of Stepharine Accumulation in Stephania Glabra Morphogenic Tissues

1
Federal Scientific Center of the East Asia Terrestrial Biodiversity (Institute of Biology and Soil Science), Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 159 Stoletija Str., 690022 Vladivostok, Russia
2
Far Eastern Federal University, School of Biomedicine, 8 Sukhanova Str., 690950 Vladivostok, Russia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 December 2018 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
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Abstract

Alkaloids attract great attention due to their valuable therapeutic properties. Stepharine, an aporphine alkaloid of Stephania glabra plants, exhibits anti-aging, anti-hypertensive, and anti-viral effects. The distribution of aporphine alkaloids in cell cultures, as well as whole plants is unknown, which hampers the development of bioengineering strategies toward enhancing their production. The spatial distribution of stepharine in cell culture models, plantlets, and mature micropropagated plants was investigated at the cellular and organ levels. Stepharine biosynthesis was found to be highly spatially and temporally regulated during plant development. We proposed that self-intoxication is the most likely reason for the failure of the induction of alkaloid biosynthesis in cell cultures. During somatic embryo development, the toxic load of alkaloids inside the cells increased. Only specialized cell sites such as vascular tissues with companion cells (VT cells), laticifers, and parenchymal cells with inclusions (PI cells) can tolerate the accumulation of alkaloids, and thus circumvent this restriction. S. glabra plants have adapted to toxic pressure by forming an additional transport secretory (laticifer) system and depository PI cells. Postembryonic growth restricts specialized cell site formation during organ development. Future bioengineering strategies should include cultures enriched in the specific cells identified in this study. View Full-Text
Keywords: alkaloids localization; plant cell culture; stepharine; biotechnology; MALDI-MS; Menispermaceae alkaloids localization; plant cell culture; stepharine; biotechnology; MALDI-MS; Menispermaceae
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Gorpenchenko, T.Y.; Grigorchuk, V.P.; Bulgakov, D.V.; Tchernoded, G.K.; Bulgakov, V.P. Tempo-Spatial Pattern of Stepharine Accumulation in Stephania Glabra Morphogenic Tissues. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 808.

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