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Open AccessArticle

CRK5 Protein Kinase Contributes to the Progression of Embryogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana

1
Institute of Plant Biology, Biological Research Centre, 6726 Szeged, Hungary
2
Doctoral School in Biology, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Hungary
3
Department of Botany, Bhavan’s College Andheri West, Mumbai 400058, India
4
Developmental and Cell Biology of Plants, CEITEC Masaryk University, 62500 Brno, Czech Republic
5
Department of Plant Biology, University of Szeged, 52. Középfasor, H-6726 Szeged, Hungary
6
Proteomics Research Group, Biological Research Centre, 6726 Szeged, Hungary
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(24), 6120; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20246120
Received: 31 October 2019 / Revised: 29 November 2019 / Accepted: 30 November 2019 / Published: 4 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
The fine tuning of hormone (e.g., auxin and gibberellin) levels and hormone signaling is required for maintaining normal embryogenesis. Embryo polarity, for example, is ensured by the directional movement of auxin that is controlled by various types of auxin transporters. Here, we present pieces of evidence for the auxin-gibberellic acid (GA) hormonal crosstalk during embryo development and the regulatory role of the Arabidopsis thaliana Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase-Related Kinase 5 (AtCRK5) in this regard. It is pointed out that the embryogenesis of the Atcrk5-1 mutant is delayed in comparison to the wild type. This delay is accompanied with a decrease in the levels of GA and auxin, as well as the abundance of the polar auxin transport (PAT) proteins PIN1, PIN4, and PIN7 in the mutant embryos. We have previously showed that AtCRK5 can regulate the PIN2 and PIN3 proteins either directly by phosphorylation or indirectly affecting the GA level during the root gravitropic and hypocotyl hook bending responses. In this manuscript, we provide evidence that the AtCRK5 protein kinase can in vitro phosphorylate the hydrophilic loops of additional PIN proteins that are important for embryogenesis. We propose that AtCRK5 can govern embryo development in Arabidopsis through the fine tuning of auxin-GA level and the accumulation of certain polar auxin transport proteins. View Full-Text
Keywords: auxin gradient; polar auxin transport (PAT) proteins; GA3; embryogenesis; Arabidopsis thaliana; Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase-Related Kinase (CRK) auxin gradient; polar auxin transport (PAT) proteins; GA3; embryogenesis; Arabidopsis thaliana; Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase-Related Kinase (CRK)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Baba, A.I.; Valkai, I.; Labhane, N.M.; Koczka, L.; Andrási, N.; Klement, É.; Darula, Z.; Medzihradszky, K.F.; Szabados, L.; Fehér, A.; Rigó, G.; Cséplő, Á. CRK5 Protein Kinase Contributes to the Progression of Embryogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 6120.

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