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Review

Completing Autophagy: Formation and Degradation of the Autophagic Body and Metabolite Salvage in Plants

1
Department of Plant Physiology, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University Poznań, Uniwersytetu Poznańskiego 6, 61-614 Poznań, Poland
2
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agronomy and Bioengineering, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Dojazd 11, 60-632 Poznań, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(6), 2205; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21062205
Received: 24 February 2020 / Revised: 18 March 2020 / Accepted: 20 March 2020 / Published: 23 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process that occurs in yeast, plants, and animals. Despite many years of research, some aspects of autophagy are still not fully explained. This mostly concerns the final stages of autophagy, which have not received as much interest from the scientific community as the initial stages of this process. The final stages of autophagy that we take into consideration in this review include the formation and degradation of the autophagic bodies as well as the efflux of metabolites from the vacuole to the cytoplasm. The autophagic bodies are formed through the fusion of an autophagosome and vacuole during macroautophagy and by vacuolar membrane invagination or protrusion during microautophagy. Then they are rapidly degraded by vacuolar lytic enzymes, and products of the degradation are reused. In this paper, we summarize the available information on the trafficking of the autophagosome towards the vacuole, the fusion of the autophagosome with the vacuole, the formation and decomposition of autophagic bodies inside the vacuole, and the efflux of metabolites to the cytoplasm. Special attention is given to the formation and degradation of autophagic bodies and metabolite salvage in plant cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: Atg proteins; autophagosome; tonoplast; vacuole; SNARE proteins Atg proteins; autophagosome; tonoplast; vacuole; SNARE proteins
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MDPI and ACS Style

Stefaniak, S.; Wojtyla, Ł.; Pietrowska-Borek, M.; Borek, S. Completing Autophagy: Formation and Degradation of the Autophagic Body and Metabolite Salvage in Plants. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 2205. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21062205

AMA Style

Stefaniak S, Wojtyla Ł, Pietrowska-Borek M, Borek S. Completing Autophagy: Formation and Degradation of the Autophagic Body and Metabolite Salvage in Plants. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(6):2205. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21062205

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stefaniak, Szymon, Łukasz Wojtyla, Małgorzata Pietrowska-Borek, and Sławomir Borek. 2020. "Completing Autophagy: Formation and Degradation of the Autophagic Body and Metabolite Salvage in Plants" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 6: 2205. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21062205

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