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Review

From Single Cell to Plants: Mesophyll Protoplasts as a Versatile System for Investigating Plant Cell Reprogramming

1
Institute of Biology II/Molecular Plant Physiology, Centre for BioSystems Analysis, BIOSS Centre for Biological Signalling Studies University of Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
2
Institute of Cell Biology and Genetic Engineering of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 03143 Kyiv, Ukraine
3
Plant Cytogenetics and Molecular Biology Group, Institute of Biology, Biotechnology and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Silesia in Katowice, 40-032 Katowice, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(12), 4195; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124195
Received: 20 May 2020 / Revised: 7 June 2020 / Accepted: 10 June 2020 / Published: 12 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development)
Plants are sessile organisms that have a remarkable developmental plasticity, which ensures their optimal adaptation to environmental stresses. Plant cell totipotency is an extreme example of such plasticity, whereby somatic cells have the potential to form plants via direct shoot organogenesis or somatic embryogenesis in response to various exogenous and/or endogenous signals. Protoplasts provide one of the most suitable systems for investigating molecular mechanisms of totipotency, because they are effectively single cell populations. In this review, we consider the current state of knowledge of the mechanisms that induce cell proliferation from individual, differentiated somatic plant cells. We highlight initial explant metabolic status, ploidy level and isolation procedure as determinants of successful cell reprogramming. We also discuss the importance of auxin signalling and its interaction with stress-regulated pathways in governing cell cycle induction and further stages of plant cell totipotency. View Full-Text
Keywords: cell cycle; epigenetics; protoplasts; reprogramming; totipotency cell cycle; epigenetics; protoplasts; reprogramming; totipotency
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pasternak, T.; Lystvan, K.; Betekhtin, A.; Hasterok, R. From Single Cell to Plants: Mesophyll Protoplasts as a Versatile System for Investigating Plant Cell Reprogramming. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 4195. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124195

AMA Style

Pasternak T, Lystvan K, Betekhtin A, Hasterok R. From Single Cell to Plants: Mesophyll Protoplasts as a Versatile System for Investigating Plant Cell Reprogramming. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(12):4195. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124195

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pasternak, Taras, Kateryna Lystvan, Alexander Betekhtin, and Robert Hasterok. 2020. "From Single Cell to Plants: Mesophyll Protoplasts as a Versatile System for Investigating Plant Cell Reprogramming" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 12: 4195. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124195

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