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Special Issue "Regulation of Mineral Nutrients Homeostasis and Their Crosstalk in Plants"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Plant Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Hatem Rouached
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Biochimie et Physiologie Moleculaire des Plantes Research Unit, Montpellier SupAgro, 2, Place Pierre Viala 34060 Montpellier Cedex 2, France
Tel. +33 499 613 154; Fax: +33 467 525 737
Interests: plants; mineral nutrition; ions homeostasis, transport; membrane transporters, signalling; heavy metal; phytoremediation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Setsuko Komatsu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Environmental and Food Sciences, Faculty of Environmental and Information Sciences, Fukui University of Technology, Fukui, Fukui Prefecture 910-0028, Japan
Tel. 81-766-29-2466
Interests: gel-free/label-free proteomics; plant physiology; crop, abiotic stress
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mineral nutrient homeostasis is essential for plant growth and development. Recent research has demonstrated that nutrient homeostasis interaction in plants is a general rule rather than an exception. Answering the question of how plants regulate the homeostasis of these elements and how multiple mineral nutrient signals are wired to influence plant growth is a new frontier in plant nutrition. This Special Issue is focused on introducing the latest interesting findings on the regulation of mineral nutrients homeostasis and their crosstalk in various plant species. The topics of this Special Issue will include, but are not limited to:

  • Roles of nutrient sensing, signalling, and transport in regulating plant growth and development.

  • How environmental stresses modify ions signalling pathways, ions transporters expression, mineral nutrients transport and accumulation in plants.

  • How mineral nutrients homeostasis interact with each other to influence plant growth and development.

  • How use big data and systems biology approaches help to uncover the molecular basis and gene regulatory networks that govern the coordination of mineral nutrient homeostasis and plant growth.

We welcome research and review articles that will augment our understanding in this captivating field of mineral nutrient homeostasis research, which is required for devising future strategies to enhance mineral nutrition in plants and meet the challenges facing agriculture in the 21st century.

Dr. Hatem Rouached
Prof. Dr. Setsuko Komatsu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Macronutrients
  • Micronutrients
  • Heavy metals
  • Ions transport and accumulation
  • Nutrient deficiency/excess/toxicity
  • Drought/flooding
  • Signaling crosstalk
  • Roots/ shoots growth and development
  • Tolerance/stress adaptation
  • Omics/big data
  • Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS)
  • Gene expression
  • System Biology
  • Protein regulation
  • Stress adaptation
  • Plant physiology

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
OsMGT1 Confers Resistance to Magnesium Deficiency By Enhancing the Import of Mg in Rice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(1), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20010207 - 08 Jan 2019
Abstract
Magnesium (Mg) is an essential nutrient element for plant growth and plays an important role in numerous physiological and biochemical processes. Mg deficiency inhibits plant growth and has become a growing problem for crop productions in agriculture. However, the molecular mechanisms for the [...] Read more.
Magnesium (Mg) is an essential nutrient element for plant growth and plays an important role in numerous physiological and biochemical processes. Mg deficiency inhibits plant growth and has become a growing problem for crop productions in agriculture. However, the molecular mechanisms for the resistance to Mg deficiency in plants were not well understood. In this study, we identified a Mg transporter gene OsMGT1 that confers resistance to Mg deficiency in rice (Oryza sativa). The expression of OsMGT1 was highly induced by Mg deficiency in shoots. Investigation of tissue expression patterns revealed that OsMGT1 was mainly expressed in the phloem region; however, Mg deficiency remarkably enhanced its expression in xylem parenchyma and mesophyll cells in shoots. Knockout of OsMGT1 resulted in a significant reduction in Mg content and biomass when grown at Mg-limited conditions. Furthermore, the sensitivity to low-Mg in mutants was intensified by excessive calcium supply. In addition, overexpression of OsMGT1 increased Mg content and biomass under low-Mg supply. In conclusion, our results indicate that OsMGT1 plays an important role in rice Mg import and is required for the resistance to Mg deficiency, which can be utilized for molecular breeding of low-Mg tolerant plants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
LeNRT1.1 Improves Nitrate Uptake in Grafted Tomato Plants under High Nitrogen Demand
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 3921; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123921 - 07 Dec 2018
Abstract
Grafting has become a common practice among tomato growers to obtain vigorous plants. These plants present a substantial increase in nitrogen (N) uptake from the root zone. However, the mechanisms involved in this higher uptake capacity have not been investigated. To elucidate whether [...] Read more.
Grafting has become a common practice among tomato growers to obtain vigorous plants. These plants present a substantial increase in nitrogen (N) uptake from the root zone. However, the mechanisms involved in this higher uptake capacity have not been investigated. To elucidate whether the increase in N uptake in grafted tomato plants under high N demand conditions is related to the functioning of low- (high capacity) or high-affinity (low capacity) root plasma membrane transporters, a series of experiments were conducted. Plants grafted onto a vigorous rootstock, as well as ungrafted and homograft plants, were exposed to two radiation levels (400 and 800 µmol m−2 s−1). We assessed root plasma membrane nitrate transporters (LeNRT1.1, LeNRT1.2, LeNRT2.1, LeNRT2.2 and LeNRT2.3) expression, Michaelis‒Menten kinetics parameters (Vmax and Km), root and leaf nitrate reductase activity, and root respiration rates. The majority of nitrate uptake is mediated by LeNRT1.1 and LeNRT1.2 in grafted and ungrafted plants. Under high N demand conditions, vigorous rootstocks show similar levels of expression for LeNRT1.1 and LeNRT1.2, whereas ungrafted plants present a higher expression of LeNRT1.2. No differences in the uptake capacity (evaluated as Vmax), root respiration rates, or root nitrate assimilation capacity were found among treatments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Can Aluminum Tolerant Wheat Cultivar Perform Better under Phosphate Deficient Conditions?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 2964; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19102964 - 28 Sep 2018
Abstract
Low availability of inorganic phosphate (Pi), together with aluminum (Al), is a major constraint for plant growth and development in acidic soils. To investigate whether or not Al-resistant cultivars can perform better under Pi deficiency, we chose two wheat cultivars with different Al-responses—Atlas [...] Read more.
Low availability of inorganic phosphate (Pi), together with aluminum (Al), is a major constraint for plant growth and development in acidic soils. To investigate whether or not Al-resistant cultivars can perform better under Pi deficiency, we chose two wheat cultivars with different Al-responses—Atlas 66, being Al-tolerant, and Scout 66, which is Al-sensitive—and analyzed their responses to Pi deficiency. Results showed that, unexpectedly, the Al-sensitive cultivar Scout 66 contained comparatively higher amount of soluble phosphate (Pi) and total phosphorus (P) both in the roots and in the shoots than Atlas 66 under P deficiency. In addition, Scout 66 exhibited higher root biomass, root volume, and root tip numbers, compared with Atlas 66. The expression of Pi-responsive marker genes, TaIPS1, TaSPX3, and TaSQD2 was strongly induced in both cultivars, but the extents of induction were higher in Scout 66 than in Atlas 66 under long-term Pi starvation. Taken together, our results suggest that the Al-sensitive cultivar Scout 66 performed much better under sole Pi starvation, which sets the following experimental stage to uncover the underlying mechanisms of why Scout 66 can display better under Pi deficiency. Our study also raises an open question whether Al-resistant plants are more sensitive to Pi deficiency. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Genome Wide Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Complex Regulatory Mechanisms Underlying Phosphate Homeostasis in Soybean Nodules
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 2924; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19102924 - 26 Sep 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Phosphorus (P) deficiency is a major limitation for legume crop production. Although overall adaptations of plant roots to P deficiency have been extensively studied, only fragmentary information is available in regard to root nodule responses to P deficiency. In this study, genome wide [...] Read more.
Phosphorus (P) deficiency is a major limitation for legume crop production. Although overall adaptations of plant roots to P deficiency have been extensively studied, only fragmentary information is available in regard to root nodule responses to P deficiency. In this study, genome wide transcriptome analysis was conducted using RNA-seq analysis in soybean nodules grown under P-sufficient (500 μM KH2PO4) and P-deficient (25 μM KH2PO4) conditions to investigate molecular mechanisms underlying soybean (Glycine max) nodule adaptation to phosphate (Pi) starvation. Phosphorus deficiency significantly decreased soybean nodule growth and nitrogenase activity. Nodule Pi concentrations declined by 49% in response to P deficiency, but this was well below the 87% and 88% decreases observed in shoots and roots, respectively. Nodule transcript profiling revealed that a total of 2055 genes exhibited differential expression patterns between Pi sufficient and deficient conditions. A set of (differentially expressed genes) DEGs appeared to be involved in maintaining Pi homeostasis in soybean nodules, including eight Pi transporters (PTs), eight genes coding proteins containing the SYG1/PHO81/XPR1 domain (SPXs), and 16 purple acid phosphatases (PAPs). The results suggest that a complex transcriptional regulatory network participates in soybean nodule adaption to Pi starvation, most notable a Pi signaling pathway, are involved in maintaining Pi homeostasis in nodules. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Transcriptome Profiling of Two Tomato Genotypes in Response to Potassium-Deficiency Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2402; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082402 - 14 Aug 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Tomato is a crop that requires a sufficient supply of potassium (K) for optimal productivity and quality. K+-deficiency stress decreases tomato yield and quality. To further delve into the mechanism of the response to K+-deficiency and to screen out [...] Read more.
Tomato is a crop that requires a sufficient supply of potassium (K) for optimal productivity and quality. K+-deficiency stress decreases tomato yield and quality. To further delve into the mechanism of the response to K+-deficiency and to screen out low-K+ tolerant genes in tomatoes, BGISEQ-500-based RNA sequencing was performed using two tomato genotypes (low-K+ tolerant JZ34 and low-K+ sensitive JZ18). We identified 1936 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in JZ18 and JZ34 at 12 and 24 h after K+-deficiency treatment. According to the Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses, the DEGs that changed significantly primarily included transcription factors, transporters, kinases, oxidative stress proteins, and hormone signaling-and glycometabolism-related genes. The experimental results confirmed the induced expression of the responsive genes in the low-K+ signaling pathway. The largest group of DEGs comprised up to 110 oxidative stress-related genes. In total, 19 ethylene response factors (ERFs) demonstrated differential expression between JZ18 and JZ34 in response to K+-deficiency. Furthermore, we confirmed 20 DEGs closely related to K+-deficiency stress by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), some of which affected the root configuration, these DEGs could be further studied for use as molecular targets to explore novel approaches, and to acquire more effective K acquisition efficiencies for tomatoes. A hypothesis involving possible cross-talk between phytohormone signaling cues and reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to root growth in JZ34 is proposed. The results provide a comprehensive foundation for the molecular mechanisms involved in the response of tomatoes to low K+ stress. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Time-Course of Metabolic and Proteomic Responses to Different Nitrate/Ammonium Availabilities in Roots and Leaves of Maize
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2202; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082202 - 27 Jul 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The availability of nitrate and ammonium significantly affects plant growth. Co-provision of both nutrients is generally the best nutritional condition, due to metabolic interactions not yet fully elucidated. In this study, maize grown in hydroponics was exposed to different nitrogen (N) availabilities, consisting [...] Read more.
The availability of nitrate and ammonium significantly affects plant growth. Co-provision of both nutrients is generally the best nutritional condition, due to metabolic interactions not yet fully elucidated. In this study, maize grown in hydroponics was exposed to different nitrogen (N) availabilities, consisting of nitrate, ammonium and co-provision. Roots and leaves were analyzed after 6, 30, and 54 h by biochemical evaluations and proteomics. The ammonium-fed plants showed the lowest biomass accumulation and the lowest ratio of inorganic to organic N content, suggesting a metabolic need to assimilate ammonium that was not evident in plants grown in co-provision. The N sources differently affected the root proteome, inducing changes in abundance of proteins involved in N and carbon (C) metabolisms, cell water homeostasis, and cell wall metabolism. Notable among these changes was that some root enzymes, such as asparagine synthetase, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase, and formate dehydrogenase showed a relevant upsurge only under the sole ammonium nutrition. However, the leaf proteome appeared mainly influenced by total N availability, showing changes in the abundance of several proteins involved in photosynthesis and in energy metabolism. Overall, the study provides novel information about the biochemical determinants involved in plant adaptation to different N mineral forms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Individual versus Combinatorial Effects of Silicon, Phosphate, and Iron Deficiency on the Growth of Lowland and Upland Rice Varieties
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 899; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030899 - 18 Mar 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Mineral nutrient homeostasis is essential for plant growth and development. Recent research has demonstrated that the occurrence of interactions among the mechanisms regulating the homeostasis of different nutrients in plants is a general rule rather than an exception. Therefore, it is important to [...] Read more.
Mineral nutrient homeostasis is essential for plant growth and development. Recent research has demonstrated that the occurrence of interactions among the mechanisms regulating the homeostasis of different nutrients in plants is a general rule rather than an exception. Therefore, it is important to understand how plants regulate the homeostasis of these elements and how multiple mineral nutrient signals are wired to influence plant growth. Silicon (Si) is not directly involved in plant metabolism but it is an essential element for a high and sustainable production of crops, especially rice, because of its high content in the total shoot dry weight. Although some mechanisms underlying the role of Si in plants responses to both abiotic and biotic stresses have been proposed, the involvement of Si in regulating plant growth in conditions where the availability of essential macro- and micronutrients changes remains poorly investigated. In this study, the existence of an interaction between Si, phosphate (Pi), and iron (Fe) availability was examined in lowland (Suphanburi 1, SPR1) and upland (Kum Hom Chiang Mai University, KH CMU) rice varieties. The effect of Si and/or Fe deficiency on plant growth, Pi accumulation, Pi transporter expression (OsPHO1;2), and Pi root-to-shoot translocation in these two rice varieties grown under individual or combinatorial nutrient stress conditions were determined. The phenotypic, physiological, and molecular data of this study revealed an interesting tripartite Pi-Fe-Si homeostasis interaction that influences plant growth in contrasting manners in the two rice varieties. These results not only reveal the involvement of Si in modulating rice growth through an interaction with essential micro- and macronutrients, but, more importantly, they opens new research avenues to uncover the molecular basis of Pi-Fe-Si signaling crosstalk in plants. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Complex Fine-Tuning of K+ Fluxes in Plants in Relation to Osmotic and Ionic Abiotic Stresses
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 715; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030715 - 07 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
As the main cation in plant cells, potassium plays an essential role in adaptive responses, especially through its involvement in osmotic pressure and membrane potential adjustments. K+ homeostasis must, therefore, be finely controlled. As a result of different abiotic stresses, especially those [...] Read more.
As the main cation in plant cells, potassium plays an essential role in adaptive responses, especially through its involvement in osmotic pressure and membrane potential adjustments. K+ homeostasis must, therefore, be finely controlled. As a result of different abiotic stresses, especially those resulting from global warming, K+ fluxes and plant distribution of this ion are disturbed. The hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is a key player in responses to these climate stresses. It triggers signaling cascades that ultimately lead to modulation of the activities of K+ channels and transporters. After a brief overview of transcriptional changes induced by abiotic stresses, this review deals with the post-translational molecular mechanisms in different plant organs, in Arabidopsis and species of agronomical interest, triggering changes in K+ uptake from the soil, K+ transport and accumulation throughout the plant, and stomatal regulation. These modifications involve phosphorylation/dephosphorylation mechanisms, modifications of targeting, and interactions with regulatory partner proteins. Interestingly, many signaling pathways are common to K+ and Cl/NO3 counter-ion transport systems. These cross-talks are also addressed. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Nutrient-Responsive Small Signaling Peptides and Their Influence on the Root System Architecture
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 3927; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123927 - 07 Dec 2018
Abstract
The root system architecture (RSA) of plants is highly dependent on the surrounding nutrient environment. The uptake of essential nutrients triggers various signaling cascades and fluctuations in plant hormones to elicit physical changes in RSA. These pathways may involve signaling components known as [...] Read more.
The root system architecture (RSA) of plants is highly dependent on the surrounding nutrient environment. The uptake of essential nutrients triggers various signaling cascades and fluctuations in plant hormones to elicit physical changes in RSA. These pathways may involve signaling components known as small signaling peptides (SSPs), which have been implicated in a variety of plant developmental processes. This review discusses known nutrient-responsive SSPs with a focus on several subclasses that have been shown to play roles in root development. Most functionally well-characterized cases of SSP-mediated changes in RSA are found in responses to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability, but other nutrients have also been known to affect the expression of SSP-encoding genes. These nutrient-responsive SSPs may interact downstream with leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases (LRR-RKs) to modulate hormone signaling and cellular processes impacting plant root development. SSPs responsive to multiple nutrient cues potentially act as mediators of crosstalk between the signaling pathways. Study of SSP pathways is complicated because of functional redundancy within peptide and receptor families and due to their functionality partly associated with post-translational modifications; however, as genomic research and techniques progress, novel SSP-encoding genes have been identified in many plant species. Understanding and characterizing the roles of SSPs influencing the root phenotypes will help elucidate the processes that plants use to optimize nutrient acquisition in the environment. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Adaptation Mechanism of Salt Excluders under Saline Conditions and Its Applications
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3668; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113668 - 20 Nov 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Global soil salinization is increasingly a serious threat to agriculture worldwide. Therefore, it is imperative to improve crop salt tolerance as a means of adaptation to saline habitats. Some halophytes and most monocotyledonous crops are salt-excluders. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of salt exclusion [...] Read more.
Global soil salinization is increasingly a serious threat to agriculture worldwide. Therefore, it is imperative to improve crop salt tolerance as a means of adaptation to saline habitats. Some halophytes and most monocotyledonous crops are salt-excluders. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of salt exclusion at the molecular level in salt-exclusion plants is critical for improving the salt tolerance of monocotyledonous crops such as maize, wheat, rice, and sorghum. In this review, we summarize recent research into salt-exclusion mechanisms and the genes that underlie them. Findings related to salt exclusion may accelerate the process of breeding tolerant cultivars by using genomic and molecular tools. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Importance of Mineral Nutrition for Mitigating Aluminum Toxicity in Plants on Acidic Soils: Current Status and Opportunities
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 3073; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103073 - 08 Oct 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Aluminum (Al) toxicity is one of the major limitations that inhibit plant growth and development in acidic soils. In acidic soils (pH < 5.0), phototoxic-aluminum (Al3+) rapidly inhibits root growth, and subsequently affects water and nutrient uptake in plants. This review [...] Read more.
Aluminum (Al) toxicity is one of the major limitations that inhibit plant growth and development in acidic soils. In acidic soils (pH < 5.0), phototoxic-aluminum (Al3+) rapidly inhibits root growth, and subsequently affects water and nutrient uptake in plants. This review updates the existing knowledge concerning the role of mineral nutrition for alleviating Al toxicity in plants to acid soils. Here, we explored phosphorus (P) is more beneficial in plants under P-deficient, and Al toxic conditions. Exogenous P addition increased root respiration, plant growth, chlorophyll content, and dry matter yield. Calcium (Ca) amendment (liming) is effective for correcting soil acidity, and for alleviating Al toxicity. Magnesium (Mg) is able to prevent Al migration through the cytosolic plasma membrane in root tips. Sulfur (S) is recognized as a versatile element that alleviates several metals toxicity including Al. Moreover, silicon (Si), and other components such as industrial byproducts, hormones, organic acids, polyamines, biofertilizers, and biochars played promising roles for mitigating Al toxicity in plants. Furthermore, this review provides a comprehensive understanding of several new methods and low-cost effective strategies relevant to the exogenous application of mineral nutrition on Al toxicity mitigation. This information would be effective for further improvement of crop plants in acid soils. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Molecular Regulation of Nitrate Responses in Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2039; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072039 - 13 Jul 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Nitrogen is an essential macronutrient that affects plant growth and development. Improving the nitrogen use efficiency of crops is of great importance for the economic and environmental sustainability of agriculture. Nitrate (NO3) is a major form of nitrogen absorbed by [...] Read more.
Nitrogen is an essential macronutrient that affects plant growth and development. Improving the nitrogen use efficiency of crops is of great importance for the economic and environmental sustainability of agriculture. Nitrate (NO3) is a major form of nitrogen absorbed by most crops and also serves as a vital signaling molecule. Research has identified key molecular components in nitrate signaling mainly by employing forward and reverse genetics as well as systems biology. In this review, we focus on advances in the characterization of genes involved in primary nitrate responses as well as the long-term effects of nitrate, especially in terms of how nitrate regulates root development. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Cellular and Subcellular Phosphate Transport Machinery in Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 1914; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19071914 - 29 Jun 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Phosphorus (P) is an essential element required for incorporation into several biomolecules and for various biological functions; it is, therefore, vital for optimal growth and development of plants. The extensive research on identifying the processes underlying the uptake, transport, and homeostasis of phosphate [...] Read more.
Phosphorus (P) is an essential element required for incorporation into several biomolecules and for various biological functions; it is, therefore, vital for optimal growth and development of plants. The extensive research on identifying the processes underlying the uptake, transport, and homeostasis of phosphate (Pi) in various plant organs yielded valuable information. The transport of Pi occurs from the soil into root epidermal cells, followed by loading into the root xylem vessels for distribution into other plant organs. Under conditions of Pi deficiency, Pi is also translocated from the shoot to the root via the phloem. Vacuoles act as a storage pool for extra Pi, enabling its delivery to the cytosol, a process which plays an important role in the homeostatic control of cytoplasmic Pi levels. In mitochondria and chloroplasts, Pi homeostasis regulates ATP synthase activity to maintain optimal ATP levels. Additionally, the endoplasmic reticulum functions to direct Pi transporters and Pi toward various locations. The intracellular membrane potential and pH in the subcellular organelles could also play an important role in the kinetics of Pi transport. The presented review provides an overview of Pi transport mechanisms in subcellular organelles, and also discusses how they affect Pi balancing at cellular, tissue, and whole-plant levels. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Boron: Functions and Approaches to Enhance Its Availability in Plants for Sustainable Agriculture
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 1856; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19071856 - 24 Jun 2018
Cited by 12
Abstract
Boron (B) is an essential trace element required for the physiological functioning of higher plants. B deficiency is considered as a nutritional disorder that adversely affects the metabolism and growth of plants. B is involved in the structural and functional integrity of the [...] Read more.
Boron (B) is an essential trace element required for the physiological functioning of higher plants. B deficiency is considered as a nutritional disorder that adversely affects the metabolism and growth of plants. B is involved in the structural and functional integrity of the cell wall and membranes, ion fluxes (H+, K+, PO43−, Rb+, Ca2+) across the membranes, cell division and elongation, nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolism, sugar transport, cytoskeletal proteins, and plasmalemma-bound enzymes, nucleic acid, indoleacetic acid, polyamines, ascorbic acid, and phenol metabolism and transport. This review critically examines the functions of B in plants, deficiency symptoms, and the mechanism of B uptake and transport under limited B conditions. B deficiency can be mitigated by inorganic fertilizer supplementation, but the deleterious impact of frequent fertilizer application disrupts soil fertility and creates environmental pollution. Considering this, we have summarized the available information regarding alternative approaches, such as root structural modification, grafting, application of biostimulators (mycorrhizal fungi (MF) and rhizobacteria), and nanotechnology, that can be effectively utilized for B acquisition, leading to resource conservation. Additionally, we have discussed several new aspects, such as the combination of grafting or MF with nanotechnology, combined inoculation of arbuscular MF and rhizobacteria, melatonin application, and the use of natural and synthetic chelators, that possibly play a role in B uptake and translocation under B stress conditions. Full article
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