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Cellular and Subcellular Phosphate Transport Machinery in Plants

1
Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, UP, India
2
Plant Stress Physiology and Biotechnology Section, Nuclear Agriculture & Biotechnology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085, India
3
Arid Land Research Center, Tottori University, 1390 Hamaska, Tottori 680-0001, Japan
4
Botany Department, Faculty of Sciences, Aswan University, Aswan 81528, Egypt
5
Plant Stress Research Group & Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
6
Stress Adaptation Research Unit, RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, Yokohama 230-0045, Kanagawa, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 1914; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19071914
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 24 June 2018 / Accepted: 25 June 2018 / Published: 29 June 2018
Phosphorus (P) is an essential element required for incorporation into several biomolecules and for various biological functions; it is, therefore, vital for optimal growth and development of plants. The extensive research on identifying the processes underlying the uptake, transport, and homeostasis of phosphate (Pi) in various plant organs yielded valuable information. The transport of Pi occurs from the soil into root epidermal cells, followed by loading into the root xylem vessels for distribution into other plant organs. Under conditions of Pi deficiency, Pi is also translocated from the shoot to the root via the phloem. Vacuoles act as a storage pool for extra Pi, enabling its delivery to the cytosol, a process which plays an important role in the homeostatic control of cytoplasmic Pi levels. In mitochondria and chloroplasts, Pi homeostasis regulates ATP synthase activity to maintain optimal ATP levels. Additionally, the endoplasmic reticulum functions to direct Pi transporters and Pi toward various locations. The intracellular membrane potential and pH in the subcellular organelles could also play an important role in the kinetics of Pi transport. The presented review provides an overview of Pi transport mechanisms in subcellular organelles, and also discusses how they affect Pi balancing at cellular, tissue, and whole-plant levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: phosphate; subcellular organelles; transporters phosphate; subcellular organelles; transporters
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MDPI and ACS Style

Srivastava, S.; Upadhyay, M.K.; Srivastava, A.K.; Abdelrahman, M.; Suprasanna, P.; Tran, L.-S.P. Cellular and Subcellular Phosphate Transport Machinery in Plants. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1914.

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