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Special Issue "Plant Proteomic Research"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Biochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2016).

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Special Issue Editors

Dr. Zahed Hossain

Guest Editor
Department of Botany, University of Kalyani, West Bengal, India
Interests: plant proteomics; plant stress biology; abiotic stress response; plant antioxidant defence
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Advancement in high-throughput “Omics” techniques has revolutionized plant molecular biology research. Proteomics offer one of the best options for the functional analysis of translated regions of the genome and generate much detail information about the intrinsic mechanism of plant stress response. Various proteomic approaches that are being exploited extensively for elucidating master regulator proteins, which play key roles in stress perception and signaling, largely involve gel-based and gel-free techniques including both label-based and label-free protein quantification. Nevertheless, the ultimate success of any proteomic strategy lies in the various factors including isolation of full component of proteins, separation, visualization and their accurate identification. Despite recent advancements, more emphasis needs to be given to the protein extraction protocols, especially for very low-abundant, as well as proteins with exceedingly large molecular weight. Thus, amalgamation of diverse MS techniques, complemented with genome-sequence data and modern bioinformatics analysis with improved sample preparation and fractionation strategies, offer a powerful tool to identify and characterize novel proteins and to follow temporal changes in protein relative abundances under adverse environmental conditions. Furthermore, post-translational modifications and protein-protein interactions provide deeper insight into protein molecular function. Authors are welcome to submit original research articles and reviews addressing recent advancements, as well as limitations of current proteomic techniques and their diverse applications to get new insights of plant molecular responses to various biotic and abiotic stressors. In addition, bioinformatic techniques are needed for proteomic analysis of plants without genome information. We will also welcome articles about proteomic research, such as meditational plants and so on, which have no genomic information.

Prof. Dr. Setsuko Komatsu
Dr. Zahed Hossain
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • plant proteomic research
  • methods, techniques and protocols of plant proteomics
  • applications of plant proteomics

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Published Papers (18 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Preface—Plant Proteomic Research
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18010088 - 04 Jan 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Plants, being sessile in nature, are constantly exposed to environmental challenges resulting in substantial yield loss[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research) Printed Edition available

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Proteomic and Physiological Analysis Reveals the Variation Mechanisms of Leaf Coloration and Carbon Fixation in a Xantha Mutant of Ginkgo biloba L.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1794; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17111794 - 27 Oct 2016
Cited by 16
Abstract
Yellow-green leaf mutants are common in higher plants, and these non-lethal chlorophyll-deficient mutants are ideal materials for research on photosynthesis and plant development. A novel xantha mutant of Ginkgo biloba displaying yellow-colour leaves (YL) and green-colour leaves (GL) was identified in this study. [...] Read more.
Yellow-green leaf mutants are common in higher plants, and these non-lethal chlorophyll-deficient mutants are ideal materials for research on photosynthesis and plant development. A novel xantha mutant of Ginkgo biloba displaying yellow-colour leaves (YL) and green-colour leaves (GL) was identified in this study. The chlorophyll content of YL was remarkably lower than that in GL. The chloroplast ultrastructure revealed that YL had less dense thylakoid lamellae, a looser structure and fewer starch grains than GL. Analysis of the photosynthetic characteristics revealed that YL had decreased photosynthetic activity with significantly high nonphotochemical quenching. To explain these phenomena, we analysed the proteomic differences in leaves and chloroplasts between YL and GL of ginkgo using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. In total, 89 differential proteins were successfully identified, 82 of which were assigned functions in nine metabolic pathways and cellular processes. Among them, proteins involved in photosynthesis, carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms, carbohydrate/energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and protein metabolism were greatly enriched, indicating a good correlation between differentially accumulated proteins and physiological changes in leaves. The identifications of these differentially accumulated proteins indicates the presence of a specific different metabolic network in YL and suggests that YL possess slower chloroplast development, weaker photosynthesis, and a less abundant energy supply than GL. These studies provide insights into the mechanism of molecular regulation of leaf colour variation in YL mutants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Proteomic Analysis of Hylocereus polyrhizus Reveals Metabolic Pathway Changes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1606; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17101606 - 28 Sep 2016
Cited by 9
Abstract
Red dragon fruit or red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) is the only edible fruit that contains betalains. The color of betalains ranges from red and violet to yellow in plants. Betalains may also serve as an important component of health-promoting and disease-preventing [...] Read more.
Red dragon fruit or red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) is the only edible fruit that contains betalains. The color of betalains ranges from red and violet to yellow in plants. Betalains may also serve as an important component of health-promoting and disease-preventing functional food. Currently, the biosynthetic and regulatory pathways for betalain production remain to be fully deciphered. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analyses were used to reveal the molecular mechanism of betalain biosynthesis in H. polyrhizus fruits at white and red pulp stages, respectively. A total of 1946 proteins were identified as the differentially expressed between the two samples, and 936 of them were significantly highly expressed at the red pulp stage of H. polyrhizus. RNA-seq and iTRAQ analyses showed that some transcripts and proteins were positively correlated; they belonged to “phenylpropanoid biosynthesis”, “tyrosine metabolism”, “flavonoid biosynthesis”, “ascorbate and aldarate metabolism”, “betalains biosynthesis” and “anthocyanin biosynthesis”. In betalains biosynthesis pathway, several proteins/enzymes such as polyphenol oxidase, CYP76AD3 and 4,5-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (DOPA) dioxygenase extradiol-like protein were identified. The present study provides a new insight into the molecular mechanism of the betalain biosynthesis at the posttranscriptional level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ)-Based Comparative Proteome Analysis of the Response of Ramie under Drought Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1607; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17101607 - 27 Sep 2016
Cited by 8
Abstract
In this study, we conducted the first isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ))-based comparative proteomic analysis of ramie plantlets after 0 (minor drought stress), 24 (moderate drought stress), and 72 h (severe drought [...] Read more.
In this study, we conducted the first isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ))-based comparative proteomic analysis of ramie plantlets after 0 (minor drought stress), 24 (moderate drought stress), and 72 h (severe drought stress) of treatment with 15% (w/v) poly (ethylene glycol)6000 (PEG6000) to simulate drought stress. In our study, the association analysis of proteins and transcript expression revealed 1244 and 968 associated proteins identified in leaves and roots, respectively. L1, L2, and L3 are leaf samples which were harvested at 0, 24, and 72 h after being treated with 15% PEG6000, respectively. Among those treatment groups, a total of 118, 216, and 433 unique proteins were identified as differentially expressed during L1 vs. L2, L2 vs. L3, and L1 vs. L3, respectively. R1, R2, and R3 are root samples which were harvested at 0, 24, and 72 h after being treated with 15% PEG6000, respectively. Among those treatment groups,a total of 124, 27, and 240 unique proteins were identified as differentially expressed during R1 vs. R2, R2 vs. R3, and R1 vs. R3, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that glycolysis/gluconeogenesis was significantly upregulated in roots in response to drought stress. This enhancement may result in more glycolytically generated adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in roots to adapt to adverse environmental conditions. To obtain complementary information related to iTRAQ data, the mRNA levels of 12 proteins related to glycolysis/gluconeogenesis in leaves and 7 in roots were further analyzed by qPCR. Most of their expression levels were higher in R3 than R1 and R2, suggesting that these compounds may promote drought tolerance by modulating the production of available energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Mature Pollen in Triploid and Diploid Populus deltoides
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1475; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17091475 - 03 Sep 2016
Cited by 5
Abstract
Ploidy affects plant growth vigor and cell size, but the relative effects of pollen fertility and allergenicity between triploid and diploid have not been systematically examined. Here we performed comparative analyses of fertility, proteome, and abundances of putative allergenic proteins of pollen in [...] Read more.
Ploidy affects plant growth vigor and cell size, but the relative effects of pollen fertility and allergenicity between triploid and diploid have not been systematically examined. Here we performed comparative analyses of fertility, proteome, and abundances of putative allergenic proteins of pollen in triploid poplar ‘ZhongHuai1’ (‘ZH1’, triploid) and ‘ZhongHuai2’ (‘ZH2’, diploid) generated from the same parents. The mature pollen was sterile in triploid poplar ‘ZH1’. By applying two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), a total of 72 differentially expressed protein spots (DEPs) were detected in triploid poplar pollen. Among them, 24 upregulated and 43 downregulated proteins were identified in triploid poplar pollen using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation coupled with time of-flight tandem mass spectrometer analysis (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS). The main functions of these DEPs were related with “S-adenosylmethionine metabolism”, “actin cytoskeleton organization”, or “translational elongation”. The infertility of triploid poplar pollen might be related to its abnormal cytoskeletal system. In addition, the abundances of previously identified 28 putative allergenic proteins were compared among three poplar varieties (‘ZH1’, ‘ZH2’, and ‘2KEN8‘). Most putative allergenic proteins were downregulated in triploid poplar pollen. This work provides an insight into understanding the protein regulation mechanism of pollen infertility and low allergenicity in triploid poplar, and gives a clue to improving poplar polyploidy breeding and decreasing the pollen allergenicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Drought-Induced Leaf Proteome Changes in Switchgrass Seedlings
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1251; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081251 - 02 Aug 2016
Cited by 11
Abstract
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a perennial crop producing deep roots and thus highly tolerant to soil water deficit conditions. However, seedling establishment in the field is very susceptible to prolonged and periodic drought stress. In this study, a “sandwich” system simulating [...] Read more.
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a perennial crop producing deep roots and thus highly tolerant to soil water deficit conditions. However, seedling establishment in the field is very susceptible to prolonged and periodic drought stress. In this study, a “sandwich” system simulating a gradual water deletion process was developed. Switchgrass seedlings were subjected to a 20-day gradual drought treatment process when soil water tension was increased to 0.05 MPa (moderate drought stress) and leaf physiological properties had expressed significant alteration. Drought-induced changes in leaf proteomes were identified using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling method followed by nano-scale liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS/MS) analysis. Additionally, total leaf proteins were processed using a combinatorial library of peptide ligands to enrich for lower abundance proteins. Both total proteins and those enriched samples were analyzed to increase the coverage of the quantitative proteomics analysis. A total of 7006 leaf proteins were identified, and 257 (4% of the leaf proteome) expressed a significant difference (p < 0.05, fold change <0.6 or >1.7) from the non-treated control to drought-treated conditions. These proteins are involved in the regulation of transcription and translation, cell division, cell wall modification, phyto-hormone metabolism and signaling transduction pathways, and metabolic pathways of carbohydrates, amino acids, and fatty acids. A scheme of abscisic acid (ABA)-biosynthesis and ABA responsive signal transduction pathway was reconstructed using these drought-induced significant proteins, showing systemic regulation at protein level to deploy the respective mechanism. Results from this study, in addition to revealing molecular responses to drought stress, provide a large number of proteins (candidate genes) that can be employed to improve switchgrass seedling growth and establishment under soil drought conditions (Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004675). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Aluminum Toxicity-Induced Alterations of Leaf Proteome in Two Citrus Species Differing in Aluminum Tolerance
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 1180; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17071180 - 21 Jul 2016
Cited by 18
Abstract
Seedlings of aluminum-tolerant ‘Xuegan’ (Citrus sinensis) and Al-intolerant ‘sour pummelo’ (Citrus grandis) were fertigated for 18 weeks with nutrient solution containing 0 and 1.2 mM AlCl3·6H2O. Al toxicity-induced inhibition of photosynthesis and the decrease of [...] Read more.
Seedlings of aluminum-tolerant ‘Xuegan’ (Citrus sinensis) and Al-intolerant ‘sour pummelo’ (Citrus grandis) were fertigated for 18 weeks with nutrient solution containing 0 and 1.2 mM AlCl3·6H2O. Al toxicity-induced inhibition of photosynthesis and the decrease of total soluble protein only occurred in C. grandis leaves, demonstrating that C. sinensis had higher Al tolerance than C. grandis. Using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ), we obtained more Al toxicity-responsive proteins from C. sinensis than from C. grandis leaves, which might be responsible for the higher Al tolerance of C. sinensis. The following aspects might contribute to the Al tolerance of C. sinensis: (a) better maintenance of photosynthesis and energy balance via inducing photosynthesis and energy-related proteins; (b) less increased requirement for the detoxification of reactive oxygen species and other toxic compounds, such as aldehydes, and great improvement of the total ability of detoxification; and (c) upregulation of low-phosphorus-responsive proteins. Al toxicity-responsive proteins related to RNA regulation, protein metabolism, cellular transport and signal transduction might also play key roles in the higher Al tolerance of C. sinensis. We present the global picture of Al toxicity-induced alterations of protein profiles in citrus leaves, and identify some new Al toxicity-responsive proteins related to various biological processes. Our results provide some novel clues about plant Al tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessCommunication
Changes in the Arabidopsis thaliana Proteome Implicate cAMP in Biotic and Abiotic Stress Responses and Changes in Energy Metabolism
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(6), 852; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17060852 - 01 Jun 2016
Cited by 17
Abstract
The second messenger 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is increasingly recognized as having many different roles in plant responses to environmental stimuli. To gain further insights into these roles, Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture was treated with 100 nM of cell permeant 8-bromo-cAMP for [...] Read more.
The second messenger 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is increasingly recognized as having many different roles in plant responses to environmental stimuli. To gain further insights into these roles, Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture was treated with 100 nM of cell permeant 8-bromo-cAMP for 5 or 10 min. Here, applying mass spectrometry and comparative proteomics, 20 proteins were identified as differentially expressed and we noted a specific bias in proteins with a role in abiotic stress, particularly cold and salinity, biotic stress as well as proteins with a role in glycolysis. These findings suggest that cAMP is sufficient to elicit specific stress responses that may in turn induce complex changes to cellular energy homeostasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Proteomic Analysis Reveals the Leaf Color Regulation Mechanism in Chimera Hosta “Gold Standard” Leaves
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17030346 - 08 Mar 2016
Cited by 9
Abstract
Leaf color change of variegated leaves from chimera species is regulated by fine-tuned molecular mechanisms. Hosta “Gold Standard” is a typical chimera Hosta species with golden-green variegated leaves, which is an ideal material to investigate the molecular mechanisms of leaf variegation. In this [...] Read more.
Leaf color change of variegated leaves from chimera species is regulated by fine-tuned molecular mechanisms. Hosta “Gold Standard” is a typical chimera Hosta species with golden-green variegated leaves, which is an ideal material to investigate the molecular mechanisms of leaf variegation. In this study, the margin and center regions of young and mature leaves from Hosta “Gold Standard”, as well as the leaves from plants after excess nitrogen fertilization were studied using physiological and comparative proteomic approaches. We identified 31 differentially expressed proteins in various regions and development stages of variegated leaves. Some of them may be related to the leaf color regulation in Hosta “Gold Standard”. For example, cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1), heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), and chloroplastic elongation factor G (cpEF-G) were involved in pigment-related nitrogen synthesis as well as protein synthesis and processing. By integrating the proteomics data with physiological results, we revealed the metabolic patterns of nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis, energy supply, as well as chloroplast protein synthesis, import and processing in various leaf regions at different development stages. Additionally, chloroplast-localized proteoforms involved in nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis and protein processing implied that post-translational modifications were crucial for leaf color regulation. These results provide new clues toward understanding the mechanisms of leaf color regulation in variegated leaves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Stable Expression of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor in Chloroplasts of Tobacco
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17010019 - 23 Dec 2015
Cited by 12
Abstract
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a multifunctional factor in acceleration of cell proliferation, differentiation and transference, and therefore widely used in clinical applications. In this study, expression vector pWX-Nt03 harboring a codon-optimized bFGF gene was constructed and introduced into the tobacco chloroplasts [...] Read more.
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a multifunctional factor in acceleration of cell proliferation, differentiation and transference, and therefore widely used in clinical applications. In this study, expression vector pWX-Nt03 harboring a codon-optimized bFGF gene was constructed and introduced into the tobacco chloroplasts by particle bombardment. After four rounds of selection, bFGF was proved to integrate into the chloroplast genome of regenerated plants and two of four transgenic plants were confirmed to be homoplastomic by PCR and Southern hybridization. ELISA assay indicated that bFGF represented approximately 0.1% of total soluble protein in the leaves of transplastomic tobacco plants. This is the first report of bFGF expression via chloroplast transformation in model plant, providing an additional option for the production of chloroplast-produced therapeutic proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Microtubule-Associated Protein SBgLR Facilitates Storage Protein Deposition and Its Expression Leads to Lysine Content Increase in Transgenic Maize Endosperm
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(12), 29772-29786; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161226199 - 12 Dec 2015
Cited by 4
Abstract
Maize (Zea mays) seed is deficient in protein and lysine content. Many studies have been made to improve the nutritional quality of maize seeds. Previously, we reported the role of a natural lysine-rich protein gene SBgLR in increasing protein and lysine [...] Read more.
Maize (Zea mays) seed is deficient in protein and lysine content. Many studies have been made to improve the nutritional quality of maize seeds. Previously, we reported the role of a natural lysine-rich protein gene SBgLR in increasing protein and lysine content. However, how the SBgLR improves lysine and protein content remains unclear. Here, the reasons and possible mechanism for SBgLR in protein and lysine improvement have been analyzed and discussed. Through seed-specific expression of SBgLR, we obtained transgenic maize with the simultaneously increased lysine and protein contents. High-protein and high-lysine characters were stably inherited across generations. The expression of SBgLR in maize kernels increased the accumulation of both zeins and non-zein proteins. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the number of protein bodies (PBs) was increased obviously in SBgLR transgenic immature endosperms with the morphology and structure of PBs unchanged. The proteinaceous matrix was more abundant in transgenic mature endosperms under scanning electron microscopy. The stabilities of zein and lysine-rich non-zein genes were also increased in transgenic endosperms. Finally, the potential application of SBgLR in maize nutrient improvement was evaluated. This study shows that a cytoskeleton-associated protein has potential applicable value in crop nutrient improving, and provided a feasible strategy for improvement of maize grain quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Herbaceous Peony in Response to Paclobutrazol Inhibition of Lateral Branching
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(10), 24332-24352; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161024332 - 14 Oct 2015
Cited by 8
Abstract
Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) is an emerging high-grade cut flower worldwide, which is usually used in wedding bouquets and known as the “wedding flower”. However, abundant lateral branches appear frequently in some excellent cultivars, and a lack of a method to [...] Read more.
Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) is an emerging high-grade cut flower worldwide, which is usually used in wedding bouquets and known as the “wedding flower”. However, abundant lateral branches appear frequently in some excellent cultivars, and a lack of a method to remove Paeonia lactiflora lateral branches other than inefficient artificial methods is an obstacle for improving the quality of its cut flowers. In this study, paclobutrazol (PBZ) application was found to inhibit the growth of lateral branches in Paeonia lactiflora for the first time, including 96.82% decreased lateral bud number per branch, 77.79% and 42.31% decreased length and diameter of lateral branches, respectively, declined cell wall materials and changed microstructures. Subsequently, isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology was used for quantitative proteomics analysis of lateral branches under PBZ application and control. The results indicated that 178 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) successfully obtained, 98 DEPs were up-regulated and 80 DEPs were down-regulated. Thereafter, 34 candidate DEPs associated with the inhibited growth of lateral branches were screened according to their function and classification. These PBZ-stress responsive candidate DEPs were involved in eight biological processes, which played a very important role in the growth and development of lateral branches together with the response to PBZ stress. These results provide a better understanding of the molecular theoretical basis for removing Paeonia lactiflora lateral branches using PBZ application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of Proteins Modulated in the Date Palm Stem Infested with Red Palm Weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv.) Using Two Dimensional Differential Gel Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(8), 19326-19346; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160819326 - 17 Aug 2015
Cited by 9
Abstract
A state of the art proteomic methodology using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI TOF) has been employed to characterize peptides modulated in the date palm stem subsequent to infestation with red palm weevil (RPW). Our analyses revealed 32 differentially expressed peptides [...] Read more.
A state of the art proteomic methodology using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI TOF) has been employed to characterize peptides modulated in the date palm stem subsequent to infestation with red palm weevil (RPW). Our analyses revealed 32 differentially expressed peptides associated with RPW infestation in date palm stem. To identify RPW infestation associated peptides (I), artificially wounded plants (W) were used as additional control beside uninfested plants, a conventional control (C). A constant unique pattern of differential expression in infested (I), wounded (W) stem samples compared to control (C) was observed. The upregulated proteins showed relative fold intensity in order of I > W and downregulated spots trend as W > I, a quite interesting pattern. This study also reveals that artificially wounding of date palm stem affects almost the same proteins as infestation; however, relative intensity is quite lower than in infested samples both in up and downregulated spots. All 32 differentially expressed spots were subjected to MALDI-TOF analysis for their identification and we were able to match 21 proteins in the already existing databases. Relatively significant modulated expression pattern of a number of peptides in infested plants predicts the possibility of developing a quick and reliable molecular methodology for detecting plants infested with date palm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Buds and the Young Expanding Leaves of the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis L.)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(6), 14007-14038; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160614007 - 18 Jun 2015
Cited by 13
Abstract
Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a perennial woody plant that is widely cultivated to produce a popular non-alcoholic beverage; this beverage has received much attention due to its pleasant flavor and bioactive ingredients, particularly several important secondary metabolites. Due to the significant [...] Read more.
Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a perennial woody plant that is widely cultivated to produce a popular non-alcoholic beverage; this beverage has received much attention due to its pleasant flavor and bioactive ingredients, particularly several important secondary metabolites. Due to the significant changes in the metabolite contents of the buds and the young expanding leaves of tea plants, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis were performed. A total of 233 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Among these, 116 proteins were up-regulated and 117 proteins were down-regulated in the young expanding leaves compared with the buds. A large array of diverse functions was revealed, including roles in energy and carbohydrate metabolism, secondary metabolite metabolism, nucleic acid and protein metabolism, and photosynthesis- and defense-related processes. These results suggest that polyphenol biosynthesis- and photosynthesis-related proteins regulate the secondary metabolite content of tea plants. The energy and antioxidant metabolism-related proteins may promote tea leaf development. However, reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) showed that the protein expression levels were not well correlated with the gene expression levels. These findings improve our understanding of the molecular mechanism of the changes in the metabolite content of the buds and the young expanding leaves of tea plants. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Drought-Responsive Mechanisms in Plant Leaves Revealed by Proteomics
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1706; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17101706 - 18 Oct 2016
Cited by 79
Abstract
Plant drought tolerance is a complex trait that requires a global view to understand its underlying mechanism. The proteomic aspects of plant drought response have been extensively investigated in model plants, crops and wood plants. In this review, we summarize recent proteomic studies [...] Read more.
Plant drought tolerance is a complex trait that requires a global view to understand its underlying mechanism. The proteomic aspects of plant drought response have been extensively investigated in model plants, crops and wood plants. In this review, we summarize recent proteomic studies on drought response in leaves to reveal the common and specialized drought-responsive mechanisms in different plants. Although drought-responsive proteins exhibit various patterns depending on plant species, genotypes and stress intensity, proteomic analyses show that dominant changes occurred in sensing and signal transduction, reactive oxygen species scavenging, osmotic regulation, gene expression, protein synthesis/turnover, cell structure modulation, as well as carbohydrate and energy metabolism. In combination with physiological and molecular results, proteomic studies in leaves have helped to discover some potential proteins and/or metabolic pathways for drought tolerance. These findings provide new clues for understanding the molecular basis of plant drought tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Maize-Pathogen Interactions: An Ongoing Combat from a Proteomics Perspective
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(12), 28429-28448; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161226106 - 30 Nov 2015
Cited by 33
Abstract
Maize (Zea mays L.) is a host to numerous pathogenic species that impose serious diseases to its ear and foliage, negatively affecting the yield and the quality of the maize crop. A considerable amount of research has been carried out to elucidate [...] Read more.
Maize (Zea mays L.) is a host to numerous pathogenic species that impose serious diseases to its ear and foliage, negatively affecting the yield and the quality of the maize crop. A considerable amount of research has been carried out to elucidate mechanisms of maize-pathogen interactions with a major goal to identify defense-associated proteins. In this review, we summarize interactions of maize with its agriculturally important pathogens that were assessed at the proteome level. Employing differential analyses, such as the comparison of pathogen-resistant and susceptible maize varieties, as well as changes in maize proteomes after pathogen challenge, numerous proteins were identified as possible candidates in maize resistance. We describe findings of various research groups that used mainly mass spectrometry-based, high through-put proteomic tools to investigate maize interactions with fungal pathogens Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium spp., and Curvularia lunata, and viral agents Rice Black-streaked Dwarf Virus and Sugarcane Mosaic Virus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Plant Responses to Nanoparticle Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(11), 26644-26653; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161125980 - 06 Nov 2015
Cited by 89
Abstract
With the rapid advancement in nanotechnology, release of nanoscale materials into the environment is inevitable. Such contamination may negatively influence the functioning of the ecosystems. Many manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) contain heavy metals, which can cause soil and water contamination. Proteomic techniques have contributed [...] Read more.
With the rapid advancement in nanotechnology, release of nanoscale materials into the environment is inevitable. Such contamination may negatively influence the functioning of the ecosystems. Many manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) contain heavy metals, which can cause soil and water contamination. Proteomic techniques have contributed substantially in understanding the molecular mechanisms of plant responses against various stresses by providing a link between gene expression and cell metabolism. As the coding regions of genome are responsible for plant adaptation to adverse conditions, protein signatures provide insights into the phytotoxicity of NPs at proteome level. This review summarizes the recent contributions of plant proteomic research to elaborate the complex molecular pathways of plant response to NPs stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Abiotic Stresses: Insight into Gene Regulation and Protein Expression in Photosynthetic Pathways of Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(9), 20392-20416; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160920392 - 28 Aug 2015
Cited by 63
Abstract
Global warming and climate change intensified the occurrence and severity of abiotic stresses that seriously affect the growth and development of plants,especially, plant photosynthesis. The direct impact of abiotic stress on the activity of photosynthesis is disruption of all photosynthesis components such as [...] Read more.
Global warming and climate change intensified the occurrence and severity of abiotic stresses that seriously affect the growth and development of plants,especially, plant photosynthesis. The direct impact of abiotic stress on the activity of photosynthesis is disruption of all photosynthesis components such as photosystem I and II, electron transport, carbon fixation, ATP generating system and stomatal conductance. The photosynthetic system of plants reacts to the stress differently, according to the plant type, photosynthetic systems (C3 or C4), type of the stress, time and duration of the occurrence and several other factors. The plant responds to the stresses by a coordinate chloroplast and nuclear gene expression. Chloroplast, thylakoid membrane, and nucleus are the main targets of regulated proteins and metabolites associated with photosynthetic pathways. Rapid responses of plant cell metabolism and adaptation to photosynthetic machinery are key factors for survival of plants in a fluctuating environment. This review gives a comprehensive view of photosynthesis-related alterations at the gene and protein levels for plant adaptation or reaction in response to abiotic stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research) Printed Edition available
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