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Open AccessArticle

Associations of Objectively-Assessed Smartphone Use with Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, Mood, and Sleep Quality in Young Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

1
Department of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Universidad de Sevilla, 41013 Seville, Spain
2
Department of Didactics and School Organization, University of Sevilla, 41013 Sevilla, Spain
3
Department of Exercise and Nutrition Science, University of Montevallo, Montevallo, AL 35115, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3499; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103499
Received: 11 March 2020 / Revised: 9 May 2020 / Accepted: 14 May 2020 / Published: 17 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
This study assesses the associations of objectively-measured smartphone time with physical activity, sedentary behavior, mood, and sleep patterns among young adults by collecting real-time data of the smartphone screen-state. The sample consisted of 306 college-aged students (mean age ± SD: 20.7 ± 1.4 years; 60% males). Over seven days of time, the following variables were measured in the participants: objectively-measured smartphone use (Your Hour and Screen Time applications), objective and subjective physical activity (GoogleFit and Apple Health applications, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), respectively), the number of hours sitting (IPAQ), mood (The Profile of Mood State (POMS)), and sleep (The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)). Multiple regressions analyses showed that the number of hours sitting per day, physical activity, and the POMS Global Score significantly predicted smartphone use (adj.R2 = 0.15). Further, participants with low levels of physical activity were more likely to increase the use of smartphones (OR = 2.981). Moreover, mood state (β = 0.185; 95% CI = 0.05, 0.32) and sleep quality (β = 0.076; 95% CI = −0.06, 0.21) predicted smartphone use, with those reporting poor quality of sleep (PSQI index >5) being more likely to use the smartphone (OR = 2.679). In conclusion, there is an association between objectively-measured smartphone use and physical activity, sedentary behavior, mood, and sleep patterns. Those participants with low levels of physical activity, high levels of sedentary behavior, poor mood state, and poor sleep quality were more likely to spend more time using their smartphones. View Full-Text
Keywords: screen time; smartphone use; sedentary behavior; fitness; sleep patterns screen time; smartphone use; sedentary behavior; fitness; sleep patterns
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Grimaldi-Puyana, M.; Fernández-Batanero, J.M.; Fennell, C.; Sañudo, B. Associations of Objectively-Assessed Smartphone Use with Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, Mood, and Sleep Quality in Young Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 3499.

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