Special Issue "Integrated Surface Water and Groundwater Analysis"

A special issue of Hydrology (ISSN 2306-5338).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Il-Moon Chung
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Dept. of Land, Water and Environment Research. Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology 10223, Gyeonggi-do, Korea
Interests: groundwater hydrology; surface water and groundwater interaction; hydrologic component analysis; groundwater recharge estimation; sustainable groundwater management
Dr. Sun Woo Chang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dept. of Land, Water and Environment Research, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology 10223, Gyeonggi-do, Korea
Interests: groundwater hydraulics; seawater intrusion; sustainable coastal aquifer management; integrated SW-GW analysis; groundwater contamination and remediation
Dr. Yeonsang Hwang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Engineering and Computer Science, Arkansas State University, PO Box 1740, State University, AR 72467, USA
Interests: drought forecast; rainfall-runoff modeling; climate variability; precipitation
Prof. Yeonjoo Kim
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea
Interests: hydrologic/ecosystem modeling; drought; land-atmosphere interaction

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Comprehensive understanding of groundwater - surface water (GW–SW) interaction is essential for effective water resources management. Groundwater (GW) and surface water (SW) are closely connected components that are constantly interact each other within the Earth’s hydrologic cycle. Many studies utilized observations to explain the GW-SW interactions by carefully analyzing the behavior of surface water (SW) features (streams, lakes, reser voirs, wetlands, and estuaries) andthe related aquifer environments. Surface water bodies gain water and solutes from groundwater systems, and in other cases surface water bodies recharge groundwater, which causes changes in groundwater quality. The interfaces between GW and SW environments, such as hyporheic - benthic zones and riparian corridors often function as biogeochemical hotspots and can have significant influences on the entire stream ecology. However, unlike visible surface water, groundwater, an invisible water resource, is not easy to measure or quantify directly. Nevertheless, demand for groundwater that is highly resilient to climate change is growing rapidly. Furthermore, groundwater is the prime source for drinking water supply and irrigation, hence critical to global food security. Groundwater needs to be managed wisely, protected,and especially sustainably used. However, this task has become a challenge to many hydrologic systems in arid to even humid regions because of added stress caused by changing environment, climate, land use, population growth, etc. In this issue, the editors invite contributions on various research areas such as the integrated GW-SW analysis, sustainable management of groundwater, and the interaction between GW and SW. Methodologies, strategies, case studies as well as quantitative techniques for dealing with combined surface water and groundwater management are of interest for this issue. Studies describing how groundwater resources benefit from an Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) approach are welcome. This special issue aims to elevate integrated understanding of the science in GW-SW system through healthy discussions in the GW-SW system researc h community. The editors also welcome contributions from all relevant areas that improves every aspectof GW-SW connections and its beneficial use.

Dr. Il-Moon Chung
Prof. Yeonsang Hwang
Prof. Yeonjoo Kim
Dr. Sun Woo Chang
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Integrated SW-GW analysis
  • Groundwater -surface water interaction
  • Sustainable groundwater management
  • combined SW-GW management
  • Drought preparedness
  • Groundwater dependent ecosystems
  • Climate change adaptation
  • Hydrologic component analysis

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Article
Hydrological Connectivity in a Permafrost Tundra Landscape near Vorkuta, North-European Arctic Russia
Hydrology 2021, 8(3), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8030106 - 22 Jul 2021
Viewed by 226
Abstract
Hydrochemical and geophysical data collected during a hydrological survey in September 2017, reveal patterns of small-scale hydrological connectivity in a small water track catchment in the north-European Arctic. The stable isotopic composition of water in different compartments was used as a tracer of [...] Read more.
Hydrochemical and geophysical data collected during a hydrological survey in September 2017, reveal patterns of small-scale hydrological connectivity in a small water track catchment in the north-European Arctic. The stable isotopic composition of water in different compartments was used as a tracer of hydrological processes and connectivity at the water track catchment scale. Elevated tundra patches underlain by sandy loams were disconnected from the stream and stored precipitation water from previous months in saturated soil horizons with low hydraulic conductivity. At the catchment surface and in the water track thalweg, some circular hollows, from 0.2 to 0.4 m in diameter, acted as evaporative basins with low deuterium excess (d-excess) values, from 2‰ to 4‰. Observed evaporative loss suggests that these hollows were disconnected from the surface and shallow subsurface runoff. Other hollows were connected to shallow subsurface runoff, yielding d-excess values between 12‰ and 14‰, close to summer precipitation. ‘Connected’ hollows yielded a 50% higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content, 17.5 ± 5.3 mg/L, than the ‘disconnected’ hollows, 11.8 ± 1.7 mg/L. Permafrost distribution across the landscape is continuous but highly variable. Open taliks exist under fens and hummocky depressions, as revealed by electric resistivity tomography surveys. Isotopic evidence supports upward subpermafrost groundwater migration through open taliks under water tracks and fens/bogs/depressions and its supply to streams via shallow subsurface compartment. Temporal variability of isotopic composition and DOC in water track and a major river system, the Vorkuta River, evidence the widespread occurrence of the described processes in the large river basin. Water tracks effectively drain the tundra terrain and maintain xeric vegetation over the elevated intertrack tundra patches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Surface Water and Groundwater Analysis)
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Article
Groundwater-Surface Water Interaction in the Nera River Basin (Central Italy): New Insights after the 2016 Seismic Sequence
Hydrology 2021, 8(3), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8030097 - 27 Jun 2021
Viewed by 377
Abstract
The highest part of the Nera River basin (Central Italy) hosts significant water resources for drinking, hydroelectric, and aquaculture purposes. The river is fed by fractured large carbonate aquifers interconnected by Jurassic and Quaternary normal faults in an area characterized by high seismicity. [...] Read more.
The highest part of the Nera River basin (Central Italy) hosts significant water resources for drinking, hydroelectric, and aquaculture purposes. The river is fed by fractured large carbonate aquifers interconnected by Jurassic and Quaternary normal faults in an area characterized by high seismicity. The 30 October 2016, seismic sequence in Central Italy produced an abrupt increase in river discharge, which lasted for several months. The analysis of the recession curves well documented the processes occurring within the basal aquifer feeding the Nera River. In detail, a straight line has described the river discharge during the two years after the 2016 seismic sequence, indicating that a turbulent flow characterized the emptying process of the hydrogeological system. A permeability enhancement of the aquifer feeding the Nera River—due to cleaning of fractures and the co-seismic fracturing in the recharge area—coupled with an increase in groundwater flow velocity can explain this process. The most recent recession curves (2019 and 2020 periods) fit very well with the pre-seismic ones, indicating that after two years from the mainshock, the recession process recovered to the same pre-earthquake conditions (laminar flow). This behavior makes the hydrogeological system less vulnerable to prolonged droughts, the frequency and length of which are increasingly affecting the Apennine area of Central Italy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Surface Water and Groundwater Analysis)
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Article
Water Budget Analysis Considering Surface Water–Groundwater Interactions in the Exploitation of Seasonally Varying Agricultural Groundwater
Hydrology 2021, 8(2), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8020060 - 02 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 523
Abstract
In South Korea, groundwater intended for use in greenhouse cultivation is collected from shallow riverside aquifers as part of agricultural activities during the winter season. This study quantified the effects of intensive groundwater intake on aquifers during the winter and examined the roles [...] Read more.
In South Korea, groundwater intended for use in greenhouse cultivation is collected from shallow riverside aquifers as part of agricultural activities during the winter season. This study quantified the effects of intensive groundwater intake on aquifers during the winter and examined the roles of nearby rivers in this process. Observation data were collected for approximately two years from six wells and two river-level observation points on the study site. Furthermore, the river water levels before and after the weir structures were examined in detail, because they are determined by artificial structures in the river. The structures have significant impacts on the inflow and outflow from the river to the groundwater reservoirs. As a result, a decline in groundwater levels owing to groundwater depletion was observed during the water curtain cultivation (WCC) period in the winter season. In addition, we found that the groundwater level increased owing to groundwater recharge due to rainfall and induced recharge by rivers during the spring–summer period after the end of the WCC period. MODFLOW, a three-dimensional difference model, was used to simulate the groundwater level decreases and increases around the WCC area in Cheongwon-gun. Time-variable recharge data provided by the soil and water assessment tool model, SWAT for watershed hydrology, was used to determine the amount of groundwater recharge that was input to the groundwater model. The groundwater level time series observations collected from observation wells during the two-year simulation period (2012 to 2014) were compared with the simulation values. In addition, to determine the groundwater depletion of the entire demonstration area and the sustainability of the WCC, the quantitative water budget was analyzed using integrated hydrologic analysis. The result indicated that a 2.5 cm groundwater decline occurred on average every year at the study site. Furthermore, an analysis method that reflects the stratification and boundary conditions of underground aquifers, hydrogeologic properties, hydrological factors, and artificial recharge scenarios was established and simulated with injection amounts of 20%, 40%, and 60%. This study suggested a proper artificial recharge method of injecting water by wells using riverside groundwater in the study area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Surface Water and Groundwater Analysis)
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Article
Importance of the Induced Recharge Term in Riverbank Filtration: Hydrodynamics, Hydrochemical, and Numerical Modelling Investigations
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7040096 - 08 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 987
Abstract
While ensuring adequate drinking water supply is increasingly being a worldwide challenging need, managed aquifer recharge (MAR) schemes may provide reliable solutions in order to guarantee safe and continuous supply of water. This is particularly true in riverbank filtration (RBF) schemes. Several studies [...] Read more.
While ensuring adequate drinking water supply is increasingly being a worldwide challenging need, managed aquifer recharge (MAR) schemes may provide reliable solutions in order to guarantee safe and continuous supply of water. This is particularly true in riverbank filtration (RBF) schemes. Several studies aimed at addressing the treatment capabilities of such schemes, but induced aquifer recharge hydrodynamics from surface water bodies caused by pumping wells is seldom analysed and quantified. In this study, after presenting a detailed description of the Serchio River RBF site, we used a multidisciplinary approach entailing hydrodynamics, hydrochemical, and numerical modelling methods in order to evaluate the change in recharge from the Serchio river to the aquifer due to the building of the RBF infrastructures along the Serchio river (Lucca, Italy). In this way, we estimated the increase in aquifer recharge and the ratio of bank filtrate to ambient groundwater abstracted at such RBF scheme. Results highlight that in present conditions the main source of the RBF pumping wells is the Serchio River water and that the groundwater at the Sant’Alessio plain is mainly characterized by mixing between precipitation occurring in the higher part of the plain and the River water. Based on chemical mixing, a precautionary amount of abstracted Serchio River water is estimated to be on average 13.6 Mm3/year, which is 85% of the total amount of water abstracted in a year (~16 Mm3). RBF is a worldwide recognized MAR technique for supplying good quality and reliable amount of water. As in several cases and countries the induced recharge component is not duly acknowledged, the authors suggest including the term “induced” in the definition of this type of MAR technique (to become then IRBF). Thus, clear reference may be made to the fact that the bank filtration is not completely due to natural recharge, as in many cases of surface water/groundwater interactions, but it may be partly/almost all human-made. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Surface Water and Groundwater Analysis)
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Article
Meeting SDG6 in the Kingdom of Tonga: The Mismatch between National and Local Sustainable Development Planning for Water Supply
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7040081 - 22 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 970
Abstract
UN Sustainable Development Goal 6 challenges small island developing states such as the Kingdom of Tonga, which relies on variable rainwater and fragile groundwater lenses for freshwater supply. Meeting water needs in dispersed small islands under changeable climate and frequent extreme events is [...] Read more.
UN Sustainable Development Goal 6 challenges small island developing states such as the Kingdom of Tonga, which relies on variable rainwater and fragile groundwater lenses for freshwater supply. Meeting water needs in dispersed small islands under changeable climate and frequent extreme events is difficult. Improved governance is central to better water management. Integrated national sustainable development plans have been promulgated as a necessary improvement, but their relevance to island countries has been questioned. Tonga’s national planning instrument is the Tonga Strategic Development Framework, 2015–2025 (TSDFII). Local Community Development Plans (CDPs), developed by rural villages throughout Tonga’s five Island Divisions, are also available. Analyses are presented of island water sources from available census and limited hydrological data, and of the water supply priorities in TSDFII and in 117 accessible village CDPs. Census and hydrological data showed large water supply differences between islands. Nationally, TDSFII did not identify water supply as a priority. In CDPs, 84% of villages across all Island Divisions ranked water supply as a priority. Reasons for the mismatch are advanced. It is recommended that improved governance in water in Pacific Island countries should build on available census and hydrological data and increased investment in local island planning processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Surface Water and Groundwater Analysis)
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Article
A New Physically-Based Spatially-Distributed Groundwater Flow Module for SWAT+
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7040075 - 09 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1036
Abstract
Watershed models are used worldwide to assist with water and nutrient management under conditions of changing climate, land use, and population. Of these models, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and SWAT+ are the most widely used, although their performance in groundwater-driven [...] Read more.
Watershed models are used worldwide to assist with water and nutrient management under conditions of changing climate, land use, and population. Of these models, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and SWAT+ are the most widely used, although their performance in groundwater-driven watersheds can sometimes be poor due to a simplistic representation of groundwater processes. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new physically-based spatially-distributed groundwater flow module called gwflow for the SWAT+ watershed model. The module is embedded in the SWAT+ modeling code and is intended to replace the current SWAT+ aquifer module. The model accounts for recharge from SWAT+ Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs), lateral flow within the aquifer, Evapotranspiration (ET) from shallow groundwater, groundwater pumping, groundwater–surface water interactions through the streambed, and saturation excess flow. Groundwater head and groundwater storage are solved throughout the watershed domain using a water balance equation for each grid cell. The modified SWAT+ modeling code is applied to the Little River Experimental Watershed (LREW) (327 km2) in southern Georgia, USA for demonstration purposes. Using the gwflow module for the LREW increased run-time by 20% compared to the original SWAT+ modeling code. Results from an uncalibrated model are compared against streamflow discharge and groundwater head time series. Although further calibration is required if the LREW model is to be used for scenario analysis, results highlight the capabilities of the new SWAT+ code to simulate both land surface and subsurface hydrological processes and represent the watershed-wide water balance. Using the modified SWAT+ model can provide physically realistic groundwater flow gradients, fluxes, and interactions with streams for modeling studies that assess water supply and conservation practices. This paper also serves as a tutorial on modeling groundwater flow for general watershed modelers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Surface Water and Groundwater Analysis)
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Article
Integrated Surface Water and Groundwater Analysis under the Effects of Climate Change, Hydraulic Fracturing and its Associated Activities: A Case Study from Northwestern Alberta, Canada
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7040070 - 23 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 845
Abstract
This study assessed how hydraulic fracturing (HF) (water withdrawals from nearby river water source) and its associated activities (construction of well pads) would affect surface water and groundwater in 2021–2036 under changing climate (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios of the CanESM2) in a shale [...] Read more.
This study assessed how hydraulic fracturing (HF) (water withdrawals from nearby river water source) and its associated activities (construction of well pads) would affect surface water and groundwater in 2021–2036 under changing climate (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios of the CanESM2) in a shale gas and oil play area (23,984.9 km2) of northwestern Alberta, Canada. An integrated hydrologic model (MIKE-SHE and MIKE-11 models), and a cumulative effects landscape simulator (ALCES) were used for this assessment. The simulation results show an increase in stream flow and groundwater discharge in 2021–2036 under both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios with respect to those under the base modeling period (2000–2012). This occurs because of the increased precipitation and temperature predicted in the study area under both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. The results found that HF has very small (less than 1%) subtractive impacts on stream flow in 2021–2036 because of the large size of the study area, although groundwater discharge would increase minimally (less than 1%) due to the increase in the gradient between groundwater and surface water systems. The simulation results also found that the construction of well pads related to HF have very small (less than 1%) additive impacts on stream flow and groundwater discharge due to the non-significant changes in land use. The obtained results from this study provide valuable information for effective long-term water resources decision making in terms of seasonal and annual water extractions from the river, and allocation of water to the oil and gas industries for HF in the study area to meet future energy demand considering future climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Surface Water and Groundwater Analysis)
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Article
Analysis of Groundwater Level Variations Caused by the Changes in Groundwater Withdrawals Using Long Short-Term Memory Network
Hydrology 2020, 7(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7030064 - 07 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 778
Abstract
To properly manage the groundwater resources, it is necessary to analyze the impact of groundwater withdrawal on the groundwater level. In this study, a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) network was used to evaluate the groundwater level prediction performance and analyze the impact of [...] Read more.
To properly manage the groundwater resources, it is necessary to analyze the impact of groundwater withdrawal on the groundwater level. In this study, a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) network was used to evaluate the groundwater level prediction performance and analyze the impact of the change in the amount of groundwater withdrawal from the pumping wells on the change in the groundwater level in the nearby monitoring wells located in Jeju Island, Korea. The Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency between the observed and simulated groundwater level was over 0.97. Therefore, the groundwater prediction performance of LSTM was remarkably high. If the groundwater level is simulated on the assumption that the future withdrawal amount is reduced by 1/3 of the current groundwater withdrawal, the range of the maximum rise of the groundwater level would be 0.06–0.13 m compared to the current condition. In addition, assuming that no groundwater is taken, the range of the maximum increase in the groundwater level would be 0.11–0.38 m more than the current condition. Therefore, the effect of groundwater withdrawal on the groundwater level in this area was exceedingly small. The method and results can be used to develop new groundwater withdrawal sources for the redistribution of groundwater withdrawals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Surface Water and Groundwater Analysis)
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Article
Analytical and Numerical Groundwater Flow Solutions for the FEMME-Modeling Environment
Hydrology 2020, 7(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7020027 - 12 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1393
Abstract
Simple analytical and numerical solutions for confined and unconfined groundwater-surface water interaction in one and two dimensions were developed in the STRIVE package (stream river ecosystem) as part of FEMME (flexible environment for mathematically modelling the environment). Analytical and numerical solutions for interaction [...] Read more.
Simple analytical and numerical solutions for confined and unconfined groundwater-surface water interaction in one and two dimensions were developed in the STRIVE package (stream river ecosystem) as part of FEMME (flexible environment for mathematically modelling the environment). Analytical and numerical solutions for interaction between one-dimensional confined and unconfined aquifers and rivers were used to study the effects of a 0.5 m sudden rise in the river water level for 24 h. Furthermore, a two-dimensional groundwater model for an unconfined aquifer was developed and coupled with a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model. This model was applied on a 1 km long reach of the Aa River, Belgium. Two different types of river water level conditions were tested. A MODFLOW model was set up for these different types of water level condition in order to compare the results with the models implemented in STRIVE. The results of the analytical solutions for confined and unconfined aquifers were in good agreement with the numerical results. The results of the two-dimensional groundwater model developed in STRIVE also showed that there is a good agreement with the MODFLOW solutions. It is concluded that the facilities of STRIVE can be used to improve the understanding of groundwater-surface water interaction and to couple the groundwater module with other modules developed for STRIVE. With these new models STRIVE proves to be a powerful example as a development and testing environment for integrated water modeling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Surface Water and Groundwater Analysis)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: A new physically-based, spatially-distributed groundwater flow module for SWAT+
Authors: Bailey,Ryan
Affiliation: Colorado State University
Abstract: Watershed models are used worldwide to assist with water and nutrient management under conditions of changing climate, land use, and population. Of these models, SWAT and SWAT+ are the most widely used, although their performance in groundwater-driven watersheds can sometimes be poor due to a simplistic representation of groundwater processes. In this paper we present a new physically-based, spatially-distributed groundwater flow module called gwflow for the SWAT+ watershed model. The module is imbedded in the SWAT+ modeling code and is intended to replace the current SWAT+ aquifer module for watersheds with strong stream-aquifer connections. The model accounts for recharge from SWAT+ HRUs, lateral flow within the aquifer, ET from shallow groundwater, pumping, groundwater-surface water interactions through the streambed, and saturation excess flow. Daily groundwater head and groundwater storage is solved using an explicit numerical method approach for the groundwater balance equation, with head and flow values for the current day based on head and flow values from the previous day. The modified SWAT+ model is applied to the Little River Watershed (327 km2) in southern Georgia, USA, demonstrating its capabilities of simulating land both surface and subsurface hydrological processes. The inclusion of the gwflow module increases run-time by 20% compared to the original SWAT+ modeling code. Using the modified SWAT+ model can provide physically realistic groundwater flow gradients, flux values, and interactions with streams for modeling studies that assess water supply and conservation practices.

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