In South Korea, groundwater intended for use in greenhouse cultivation is collected from shallow riverside aquifers as part of agricultural activities during the winter season. This study quantified the effects of intensive groundwater intake on aquifers during the winter and examined the roles of nearby rivers in this process. Observation data were collected for approximately two years from six wells and two river-level observation points on the study site. Furthermore, the river water levels before and after the weir structures were examined in detail, because they are determined by artificial structures in the river. The structures have significant impacts on the inflow and outflow from the river to the groundwater reservoirs. As a result, a decline in groundwater levels owing to groundwater depletion was observed during the water curtain cultivation (WCC) period in the winter season. In addition, we found that the groundwater level increased owing to groundwater recharge due to rainfall and induced recharge by rivers during the spring–summer period after the end of the WCC period. MODFLOW, a three-dimensional difference model, was used to simulate the groundwater level decreases and increases around the WCC area in Cheongwon-gun. Time-variable recharge data provided by the soil and water assessment tool model, SWAT for watershed hydrology, was used to determine the amount of groundwater recharge that was input to the groundwater model. The groundwater level time series observations collected from observation wells during the two-year simulation period (2012 to 2014) were compared with the simulation values. In addition, to determine the groundwater depletion of the entire demonstration area and the sustainability of the WCC, the quantitative water budget was analyzed using integrated hydrologic analysis. The result indicated that a 2.5 cm groundwater decline occurred on average every year at the study site. Furthermore, an analysis method that reflects the stratification and boundary conditions of underground aquifers, hydrogeologic properties, hydrological factors, and artificial recharge scenarios was established and simulated with injection amounts of 20%, 40%, and 60%. This study suggested a proper artificial recharge method of injecting water by wells using riverside groundwater in the study area.
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