Special Issue "Advances in Brassica Crops Genomics and Breeding"

A special issue of Horticulturae (ISSN 2311-7524). This special issue belongs to the section "Genetics, Genomics, Breeding, and Biotechnology (G2B2)".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 May 2022) | Viewed by 13573

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Xiaowu Wang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
Interests: brassica genomics and genetics; molecular breeding
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Jian Wu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
Interests: flowering time regulation in crucifer crops; genomics; genetics; moleuclar markers; epigenetics; miRNA
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Xu Cai
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
Interests: pan-genome; genomics; genetics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Brassica crops include vegetable, oil, ornamental and condimental crops. Many of these, such as Chinese cabbage, cabbage and rapeseed, are cultivated worldwide as important crops. Brassica species are unique not only because of their economic importance, but also because of the domestication of extreme morphological types, such as leafy heading, root/stem enlarging and florescence heading in these species. Moreover, Brassica species represent several important polyploidization events, including paleo-, meso- and present polyploidization, which make them ideal as model species for the investigation of polyploidization.

With the fast progress we are making in sequencing technologies, a number of genomes of Brassica crops species have been sequenced and high-quality chromosome scale assemblies were obtained. Moreover, the large-scale resequencing data of germplasm resources have been made available in B. rapa, B. oleracea, and B. napus, which allows GWAS and domestication analysis in these important crops. These breakthroughs accelerated the investigation into the genomics of the complex Brassica genomes, the evolution of different Brassica species, functional revealing of important genes, and the molecular marker-assisted breeding of Brassica crops. The purpose of this Special Issue is to present the recent advances in genomics and breeding in Brassica crops.

Prof. Dr. Xiaowu Wang
Prof. Dr. Jian Wu
Dr. Xu Cai
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • brassica
  • marker-assisted breeding
  • gene mapping
  • QTL
  • SNP
  • GWAS
  • genomics
  • genome structure variation
  • transcriptomics
  • metabolomics

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Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Article
miR398 Attenuates Heat-Induced Leaf Cell Death via Its Target CSD1 in Chinese Cabbage
Horticulturae 2022, 8(4), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8040299 - 31 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1726
Abstract
Previous research has shown that miR398 contributed to plant thermotolerance by silencing its target gene COPPER/ZINC SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE1 (CSD1) in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the phylogenesis of miR398 and CSD1 in Brassica crop and their role in regulating leaf cell death [...] Read more.
Previous research has shown that miR398 contributed to plant thermotolerance by silencing its target gene COPPER/ZINC SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE1 (CSD1) in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the phylogenesis of miR398 and CSD1 in Brassica crop and their role in regulating leaf cell death under heat stress remains unexplored. Here, we characterized the homologous genes of miR398a and CSD1 in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis (Chinese cabbage) and found miR398a abundance was accumulated under heat stress (38 °C and 46 °C for 1 h) in Chinese cabbage, while the expression level of its targets BraCSD1-1 and BraCSD2-1 were downregulated. To further explore their role in heat response, we constructed the transgenic plants overexpressing artificial miR398a (aBra-miR398a), Bra-miR398a target mimic (Bra-MIM398a), and BraCSD1-1 in Chinese cabbage for genetic study. Under high temperatures, p35S::aBra-miR398a lines reduced the areas of leaf cell death and delayed the leaf cell death. By contrast, p35S::Bra-MIM398a and p35S::BraCSD1-1 plants enlarged the areas of leaf cell death and displayed the earliness of leaf cell death. Finally, we found that the expression level of stress-responsive genes BraLEA76, BraCaM1, BraPLC, BraDREB2A, and BraP5CS increased in transgenic plants overexpressing aBra-miR398a, which may contribute to their resistance to heat-induced leaf cell death. Taken together, these results revealed the function of Bra-miR398a in attenuating leaf cell death to ensure plant thermotolerance, indicating that the miR398-CSD1 module could be potential candidates for heat-resistant crop breeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Brassica Crops Genomics and Breeding)
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Article
Construction of an Intragenic SSR-Based Linkage Map and QTL Mapping for Agronomic Traits in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis)
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020165 - 15 Feb 2022
Viewed by 537
Abstract
Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) is one of the most widely cultivated and economically important vegetables in China. Constructing an effective genetic linkage map and mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to yield and leafy head morphology is of [...] Read more.
Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) is one of the most widely cultivated and economically important vegetables in China. Constructing an effective genetic linkage map and mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to yield and leafy head morphology is of great importance for molecular breeding of Chinese cabbage. Using two diverse Chinese cabbage inbred lines, ZHB and G291, as parents, an F2 segregating population consisting of 240 individuals was prepared for genetic map construction and phenotype investigation in this study. The two parents are significantly different in both shape and size. Sixteen important agronomic traits of F2 individuals were investigated. A genetic map of 105 intragenic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers distributed across 10 linkage groups (LGs) was constructed, which was 2034.1 cM in length and had an average inter-locus distance of 21.75 cM. We identified 48 QTLs for the tested important agronomic traits on the studied LGs, with LOD scores of 2.51–12.49, which explained the phenotypic variance of 3.41–26.66%. The QTLs identified in this study will facilitate further genetic analysis and marker-assisted genetic improvement of Chinese cabbage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Brassica Crops Genomics and Breeding)
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Article
Marker-Assisted Pyramiding of Genes for Multilocular Ovaries, Self-Compatibility, and Clubroot Resistance in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis)
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020139 - 06 Feb 2022
Viewed by 487
Abstract
Molecular marker-assisted gene pyramiding combined with backcrossing has been widely applied for crop variety improvement. Molecular marker identification could be used in the early stage of breeding to achieve the rapid and effective pyramiding of multiple genes. To create high-quality germplasm for Chinese [...] Read more.
Molecular marker-assisted gene pyramiding combined with backcrossing has been widely applied for crop variety improvement. Molecular marker identification could be used in the early stage of breeding to achieve the rapid and effective pyramiding of multiple genes. To create high-quality germplasm for Chinese cabbage breeding, multi-gene pyramiding for self-compatibility, multilocular, and clubroot resistance was performed through molecular marker-assisted selection. The results showed that self-compatibility and multilocular traits were controlled by a pair of recessive genes. Two flanking markers, sau_um190 and cun_246a, and marker Teo-1, based on the gene sequence related to multilocular ovaries, were used for multilocular ovary trait selection. Two flanking markers, SCF-6 and SC-12, and marker Sal-SLGI /PK1+PK4, based on the gene sequence, were used for self-compatibility selection. Two flanking markers, TCR74 and TCR79, closely linked to clubroot resistance gene CRb, were used as foreground selection markers. Based on Chinese cabbage genomic information, 111 SSR markers covering 10 chromosomes were applied for background selection. After multiple generations of selection, a multi-gene pyramided line from a BC4F2 population with self-compatibility, multilocular ovaries, and clubroot resistance was obtained with a high genomic background recovery rate. The improved pyramided line is expected to be utilized as a potential material in further breeding programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Brassica Crops Genomics and Breeding)
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Article
BnA.JAZ5 Attenuates Drought Tolerance in Rapeseed through Mediation of ABA–JA Crosstalk
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020131 - 31 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 730
Abstract
Drought stress reduces water availability in plant cells and influences rapeseed yield. Currently, key genetic regulators that contribute to rapeseed response to drought remain largely unexplored, which limits breeding of drought-resistant rapeseed. In this study, we found that Brassica napus JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN [...] Read more.
Drought stress reduces water availability in plant cells and influences rapeseed yield. Currently, key genetic regulators that contribute to rapeseed response to drought remain largely unexplored, which limits breeding of drought-resistant rapeseed. In this study, we found that Brassica napus JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN 5 (BnA.JAZ5), one of the transcriptional repressors functioning in the jasmonate (JA) signaling pathway, was triggered by drought treatment in rapeseed, and drought-susceptibility increased in BnA.JAZ5-overexpressing rapeseed plants as compared to wild-type plants, resulting in a lower survival rate after recovery from dehydration. After recovery for 3 days, 22–40% of p35S::BnA.JAZ5 transgenic plants survived, while approximately 61% of wild-type plants survived. Additionally, seed germination of BnA.JAZ5-overexpressing rapeseed was hyposensitive to abscisic acid (ABA). The germination rate of five transgenic lines was 32~42% under 9 µM ABA treatment, while the germination rate of wild-type plants was 14%. We also found that the average stomatal density of five overexpressing lines was 371~446/mm2, which is higher than that of wild-type (232/mm2) plants under normal conditions. These results indicate that BnA.JAZ5 regulated drought response in an ABA-dependent manner, possibly by affecting stomatal density. Interestingly, methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment rescued the ABA-hyposensitive seed germination, revealing crosstalk between JAZ5-meidated JA and the ABA signaling pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that BnA.JAZ5 attenuated drought resistance through the ABA-dependent pathway, which could represent important genetic loci for drought-resistant rapeseed breeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Brassica Crops Genomics and Breeding)
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Article
BrPARP1, a Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Gene, Is Involved in Root Development in Brassica rapa under Drought Stress
Horticulturae 2022, 8(1), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8010078 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 451
Abstract
PARP proteins are highly conserved homologs among the eukaryotic poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases. After activation, ADP-ribose polymers are synthesized on a series of ribozymes that use NAD+ as a substrate. PARPs participate in the regulation of various important biological processes, such as plant growth, [...] Read more.
PARP proteins are highly conserved homologs among the eukaryotic poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases. After activation, ADP-ribose polymers are synthesized on a series of ribozymes that use NAD+ as a substrate. PARPs participate in the regulation of various important biological processes, such as plant growth, development, and stress response. In this study, we characterized the homologue of PARP1 in B. rapa using RNA interference (RNAi) to reveal the underlying mechanism responding to drought stress. Bioinformatics and expression pattern analyses demonstrated that two copy numbers of PARP1 genes (BrPARP1.A03 and BrPARP1.A05) in B. rapa following a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event were retained compared with Arabidopsis, but only BrPARP1.A03 was predominantly transcribed in plant roots. Silencing of BrPARP1 could markedly promote root growth and development, probably via regulating cell division, and the transgenic Brassica lines showed more tolerance under drought treatment, accompanied with substantial alterations including accumulated proline contents, significantly reduced malondialdehyde, and increased antioxidative enzyme activity. In addition, the findings showed that the expression of stress-responsive genes, as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging related genes, was largely reinforced in the transgenic lines under drought stress. In general, these results indicated that BrPARP1 likely responds to drought stress by regulating root growth and the expression of stress-related genes to cope with adverse conditions in B. rapa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Brassica Crops Genomics and Breeding)
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Article
Integrated Volatile Metabolomics and Transcriptomics Analyses Reveal the Influence of Infection TuMV to Volatile Organic Compounds in Brassica rapa
Horticulturae 2022, 8(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8010057 - 08 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 496
Abstract
Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), which is distributed almost all over the world and has a wide range of hosts, mainly brassica crops, was first described in Brassica rapa in the USA. Plant volatile compounds play an important role in the host searching behavior [...] Read more.
Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), which is distributed almost all over the world and has a wide range of hosts, mainly brassica crops, was first described in Brassica rapa in the USA. Plant volatile compounds play an important role in the host searching behavior of natural enemies of herbivorous insects. In this study, TuMV-inoculated resistant and susceptible B. rapa lines were tested using volatile metabolome and transcriptome analyses. In volatile metabolome analysis, the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were different after inoculation with TuMV in resistant B80124 and susceptible B80461, and the degree of downregulation of differentially expressed metabolites was more obvious than the degree of upregulation. Through transcriptome analysis, 70% of differentially expressed genes were in biological process, especially focusing on defense response, flavonoid biosynthetic process, and toxin metabolic process, which indicates that TuMV stress maybe accelerate the increase of VOCs. Integrating the metabolome and transcriptome analyses, after inoculating with TuMV, auxin regulation was upregulated, and ARF, IAA and GH3 were also upregulated, which accelerated cell enlargement and plant growth in tryptophan metabolism. The different genes in zeatin biosynthesis pathways were downregulated, which reduced cell division and shoot initiation. However, the metabolite pathways showed upregulation in brassinosteroid biosynthesis and α-linolenic acid metabolism, which could cause cell enlargement and a stress response. This study determined the difference in volatiles between normal plants and infected plants and may lay a foundation for anti-TuMV research in B. rapa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Brassica Crops Genomics and Breeding)
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Article
Assessment of Brassicaceae Seeds Quality by X-ray Analysis
Horticulturae 2022, 8(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8010029 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 909
Abstract
A serious problem of vegetable production is the quality of sown seeds. In this regard, assessment of seed quality before sowing and storage is of great practical interest. The modern level of scientific research requires the use of instrumental automated methods of seed [...] Read more.
A serious problem of vegetable production is the quality of sown seeds. In this regard, assessment of seed quality before sowing and storage is of great practical interest. The modern level of scientific research requires the use of instrumental automated methods of seed quality evaluation, allowing to obtain more information and in a shorter time. The material for the study was a variety of samples from the collection of Brassica oleracea L., var. capitata, Raphanus sativus L., var. radicula, and Lepidium sativum L. seeds from the Federal Scientific Center of Vegetable Breeding and the Timofeev Selection Station. Digital X-ray images of seeds were obtained using a mobile X-ray diagnostic device PRDU-02. Automatic analysis of digital X-ray images was performed in the software “VideoTesT-Morphology 5.2.” The following latent defects of cabbage seeds of economic importance were revealed and identified: irregular darkening, significant “patterning” with deep separation of embryo parts, “angularity of seeds” leading to the loss of their viability. Automatic analysis of digital X-ray images of seeds confirmed the informativeness of brightness indices of digital X-ray images, as well as shape indices. Their connection with sowing qualities of the studied seeds was established. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Brassica Crops Genomics and Breeding)
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Article
QTL Analysis of the Content of Some Bioactive Compounds in Brassica rapa L. Grown under Light Culture Conditions
Horticulturae 2021, 7(12), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120583 - 16 Dec 2021
Viewed by 772
Abstract
The article presents the results of biochemical and QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci) analysis of dry matter content, nutrient and biologically active compounds: sugars, ascorbic acid, chlorophylls a and b, anthocyanins and carotenoids in populations of doubled haploid lines [...] Read more.
The article presents the results of biochemical and QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci) analysis of dry matter content, nutrient and biologically active compounds: sugars, ascorbic acid, chlorophylls a and b, anthocyanins and carotenoids in populations of doubled haploid lines of leaf, root crops, and oilseeds of the Brassica rapa L. species grown in optimal light culture conditions, but with different photoperiod durations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the photoperiod on the transition to bolting and the accumulation of biologically active substances, as well as how the localization and identification of chromosomal loci determined the content of certain phytochemicals. The influence of the length of daylight hours on the content of components of the biochemical composition was assessed. It was shown that growing under conditions of a 16 h photoperiod increased the content of dry matter, sugars, vitamin C, and anthocyanins. On the contrary, the content of photosynthetic pigments was higher under the conditions of a 12 h photoperiod. Valuable lines that can be sources of biologically active compounds were revealed. Based on the results of the obtained data, 102 QTLs were mapped, which determine the manifestation of the studied biochemical quality traits in the B. rapa doubled haploid lines under conditions of short and long daylight hours. Molecular markers genetically linked to the selected QTLs were determined. It was revealed that the identified loci controlling all the studied biochemical traits were mainly in the fifth, sixth, seventh, and ninth linkage groups, which correlated with the data obtained in the field and greenhouse. Most of the identified loci controlled several studied traits simultaneously. The identified QTLs and identified molecular markers are of interest for further study of the genetic control of the economically valuable traits determined by them and for the implementation of marker-assisted selection in B. rapa. The data obtained can be used in genetic and breeding work, including for the obtaining of new genotypes, lines and cultivars with a valuable biochemical composition, adapted for cultivation under specific photoperiodic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Brassica Crops Genomics and Breeding)
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Article
Evaluation of Effect of Brassinolide in Brassica juncea Leaves under Drought Stress in Field Conditions
Horticulturae 2021, 7(11), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7110514 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 744
Abstract
Drought stress is considered to be a major factor responsible for reduced agricultural productivity, because it is often linked to other major abiotic stresses, such as salinity and heat stress. Understanding drought-tolerance mechanisms is important for crop improvement. Moreover, under drought conditions, it [...] Read more.
Drought stress is considered to be a major factor responsible for reduced agricultural productivity, because it is often linked to other major abiotic stresses, such as salinity and heat stress. Understanding drought-tolerance mechanisms is important for crop improvement. Moreover, under drought conditions, it is possible that growth regulators are able to protect the plants. Brassinosteroids not only play a regulatory role in plant growth, but also organize defense mechanisms against various tresses. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of brassinolide on physio-biochemical amendment in two contrasting cultivars (drought-tolerant RH 725, and drought-sensitive RH 749) of Brassica juncea under drought stress. Two foliar sprayings with brassinolide (10 and 20 mg/L) were carried out in both cultivars (RH 725 and RH 749) at two stages—i.e., flower initiation, and 50% flowering—under stress conditions. The results clearly revealed that the activities of antioxidative enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidants (carotenoids, ascorbic acid, and proline) increased significantly in RH 725 at 50% flowering, whereas 20 mg/L of brassinolide showed the most promising response. The different oxidative stress indicators (i.e., hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde, and electrolyte leakage) decreased to a significant extent at 20 mg/L of brassinolide spray in RH 725 at 50% flowering. This study indicates that brassinolide intensifies the physio-biochemical attributes by improving the antioxidant system and photosynthetic efficiency in RH 725 at 50% flowering. It is assumed that enhanced production of proline, improvement of the antioxidant system, and reduction in the amount of stress indicators impart strength to the plants to combat the stress conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Brassica Crops Genomics and Breeding)
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Article
Genome-Wide Analysis of Purple Acid Phosphatase Genes in Brassica rapa and Their Association with Pollen Development and Phosphorus Deprivation Stress
Horticulturae 2021, 7(10), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7100363 - 05 Oct 2021
Viewed by 628
Abstract
PAPs (purple acid phosphatases) belong to the metallo-phosphoesterase superfamily and play important roles in developmental processes, phosphorus foraging, and recycling. However, the specific functions of BrPAPs in Brassica rapa are poorly understood. In this study, 39 BrPAPs were identified and divided into three [...] Read more.
PAPs (purple acid phosphatases) belong to the metallo-phosphoesterase superfamily and play important roles in developmental processes, phosphorus foraging, and recycling. However, the specific functions of BrPAPs in Brassica rapa are poorly understood. In this study, 39 BrPAPs were identified and divided into three major clades and nine subgroups. In 8 of the 39 BrPAPs, some invariant amino acid residues were lost or shifted. Based on an expression profiling analysis, BrPAP11, 14, 20, 24, 29, and 34 were specifically expressed in fertile floral buds, indicating their critical roles during pollen development. A total of 21 BrPAPs responded to Pi deprivation in either shoots or roots. Of these, BrPAP4, 5, 19, and 21 were upregulated in roots under Pi depravation conditions, while BrPAP12 was upregulated in the roots in normal conditions. BrPAP28 was upregulated in shoots under Pi depravation conditions, indicating its function shifted compared with its Arabidopsis homolog, AtPAP26. The present work contributes to further investigation of BrPAPs as candidate genes for genetic improvement studies of low phosphorus tolerance as well as for creating male sterile lines based on gene editing methods in Brassica rapa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Brassica Crops Genomics and Breeding)
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Article
Selection on BrFLC1 Is Related to Intraspecific Diversity of Brassica rapa Vegetables
Horticulturae 2021, 7(8), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7080247 - 14 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 859
Abstract
Flowering time is important for Brassica rapa vegetables because premature bolting before harvest can lower yield and quality. FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) acts as a key repressor of flowering. In this study, we identified a nonsynonymous mutation at the 58th nucleotide [...] Read more.
Flowering time is important for Brassica rapa vegetables because premature bolting before harvest can lower yield and quality. FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) acts as a key repressor of flowering. In this study, we identified a nonsynonymous mutation at the 58th nucleotide of exon1 in BrFLC1 (named as Pe1+58 (A/C)) by screening resequencing data of 199 B. rapa accessions and verified this mutation as being related to flowering time variation. Strong linkage inheritance was detected between this locus and a previously reported splicing site mutation at intron 6 of BrFLC1 (Pi6+1 (G/A)), showing as co-occurrence of BrFLC1Pe1+58(A) and BrFLC1Pi6+1(G), named as haplotype H1: AG, or co-occurrence of BrFLC1Pe1+58(C) and BrFLC1Pi6+1(A), named as haplotype H2: CA. The frequency distribution of BrFLC1 haplotypes skewed to the haplotype H1 in turnip, broccoletto, mizuna, komatsuna, and taicai, while it was skewed to the haplotype H2 in caixin, pak choi, zicaitai, and wutacai. The frequencies of the two haplotypes were comparable in Chinese cabbage. This indicated that BrFLC1 haplotypes were related to B. rapa intraspecific diversification. Further analysis of a Chinese cabbage collection revealed that accessions from the spring ecotype preferred to keep H1: AG and almost all accessions from the summer ecotype were H2: CA. The early flowering haplotype of BrFLC1 was purified in summer Chinese cabbage, indicating that BrFLC1 had been strongly selected during genetic improvement of summer Chinese cabbages. A significant difference in flowering time of F2 individuals with the homologous BrFLC1Pi6+1(G) allele but different BrFLC1Pe1+58 (A/C) alleles, indicated that this locus had independent genetic effects on flowering time. The newly identified allelic diversity of BrFLC1 can be used for breeding of resistance to premature bolting in B. rapa vegetables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Brassica Crops Genomics and Breeding)
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Article
Transcriptome Profiling Reveals Candidate Key Genes Involved in Sinigrin Biosynthesis in Brassica nigra
Horticulturae 2021, 7(7), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7070173 - 02 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1198
Abstract
Glucosinolates (GSLs) are important secondary metabolites in Brassicales related to insect and disease resistance, flavor formation, and human health. Here, we determined the GSL profile with sinigrin as the predominant GSL in Brassica nigra. A total of 184 GSL biosynthetic genes ( [...] Read more.
Glucosinolates (GSLs) are important secondary metabolites in Brassicales related to insect and disease resistance, flavor formation, and human health. Here, we determined the GSL profile with sinigrin as the predominant GSL in Brassica nigra. A total of 184 GSL biosynthetic genes (BniGSLs) were identified in B. nigra by a genome-wide search for orthologs of 82 of the 95 known GSL genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Transcriptome data demonstrated that at least one BniGSL was highly expressed in stems and leaves at each step of the sinigrin synthesis pathway, which ensured the synthesis of a large amount of sinigrin in B. nigra. Among these key candidates of BniGSLs, the high expression of BniMAM1-2, BniCYP79F1, and BniAOP2-1/2, and the absence of MAM3 and AOP3, may contribute remarkably to the synthesis and accumulation of sinigrin. In addition, the low expression of some key BniGSLs partially explains the low content of indolic and aromatic GSLs in B. nigra. This study provided a genetic explanation for the formation of the unique GSL profile with sinigrin as the main GSL in B. nigra. The results of this study will be valuable for further functional analysis of BniGSLs and genetic improvement of GSLs in B. nigra and other Brassica species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Brassica Crops Genomics and Breeding)
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Article
Comparative Transcriptome Identifies Gene Expression Networks Regulating Developmental Pollen Abortion in Ogura Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis)
Horticulturae 2021, 7(6), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7060157 - 20 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1375
Abstract
Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (Ogura CMS), originally identified in wild radish (Raphanus sativus), has enabled complete pollen sterility in Brassica plants, but the underlying mechanism in Ogura CMS Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) remains unclear. In this study [...] Read more.
Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (Ogura CMS), originally identified in wild radish (Raphanus sativus), has enabled complete pollen sterility in Brassica plants, but the underlying mechanism in Ogura CMS Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) remains unclear. In this study cytological analysis showed that during microsporogenesis the meiosis occurred normally, and the uninucleated pollens subsequently formed, but the development of both binucleated and trinucleated pollens was obviously disrupted due to defects of pollen mitosis in the Ogura CMS line (Tyms) compared with the corresponding maintainer line (231–330). In transcriptome profiling a total of 8052 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, among which 3890 were up-regulated and 4162 were down-regulated at the pollen abortion stages in an Ogura CMS line. KOG cluster analysis demonstrated that a large number of DEGs were related to the cytoskeleton’s dynamics, which may account for the failure of pollen mitosis during development in the Ogura CMS line. The pivotal genes related to the phenylpropane synthesis pathway (PAL, 4CL and CAD) were significantly down-regulated, which probably affected the formation and disposition of anther lignin and sporopollenin, and eventually led to abnormality in the pollen exine structure. In addition, several key up-regulated genes (GPX7, G6PD and PGD1) related to the glutathione oxidation-reduction (REDOX) reaction indicated that the accumulation of peroxides in Ogura CMS lines during this period affected the pollen development. Taken together, this cytological and molecular evidence is expected to advance our understanding of pollen abortion induced by Ogura cytoplasmic action in Chinese cabbage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Brassica Crops Genomics and Breeding)
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Review

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Review
Rapeseed as an Ornamental
Horticulturae 2022, 8(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8010027 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 885
Abstract
Rapeseed (Brassica napus) is one of the most important oil crops worldwide. However, an intriguing new use for rapeseed has recently developed: as an ornamental. Tourism based on blossoming fields of these yellow flowers has become a new economic growth opportunity [...] Read more.
Rapeseed (Brassica napus) is one of the most important oil crops worldwide. However, an intriguing new use for rapeseed has recently developed: as an ornamental. Tourism based on blossoming fields of these yellow flowers has become a new economic growth opportunity in China. From a breeding perspective, two main problems currently limit the potential of rapeseed as an ornamental. First, the flowering period is quite short (30 days on average), which limits economic income; second, the flower color in commercial cultivars is currently limited to bright yellow, which may pall quickly for sightseers. This review summarizes the possible problems of using rapeseed as an ornamental, and details factors affecting the flowering period, how the flowering period can be prolonged by integrating optimal cultivation measures or/and spraying with chemical reagents, and ways of creating and breeding rapeseed with diverse flower colors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Brassica Crops Genomics and Breeding)
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