Probiotic Potential of Isolated Cultures from Spontaneously or Naturally Fermented Food Products

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2023) | Viewed by 19058

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Food and Advanced Technology, Massey University, Auckland Campus, Private Bag NSMC 0745, Auckland, New Zealand
Interests: industrial microbiology; food safety and microbiology; development of starter cultures; indigenous food fermentations; lactic acid fermentations; sustainable food production systems

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Guest Editor
ProBacLab, Laboratório de Microbiologia de Alimentos, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-000, SP, Brazil
Interests: lactic acid bacteria; antimicrobials; bacteriocins; probiotics; antibiotic resistance; fermented food products
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Special Issue Information

One of mankind’s most ancient traditions is the fermentation of food, which has resulted in the development of a variety of products with unique sensory and physical characteristics, as well as extended shelf-life. In the early days, traditional fermented foods were highly appreciated for their nutritional and gastronomic properties. However, from the perspective of the 21st century, they can be classified as sources of highly potent and effective beneficial (probiotic) organisms. The evolution of fermented foods has mainly depended on the type of fermenting microorganisms; moreover, knowledge on their specificity and beneficial properties can be extended to their applications not only as foods, but as health and wellbeing supplements. It is certain that spontaneous fermentation gave birth to modern commercial fermentation with the development of starter cultures and probiotics with defined characteristics. Fermented foods were described as functional products from early fermentations due to the health benefits derived from numerous nutrients and microorganisms with probiotic functionality and naturally delivered to consumers as part of their nutritional habits. Thus, the demand for fermented foods has increased rapidly in the last several decades due to these numerous beneficial properties. Recent advances in scientific research have shown that probiotic microorganisms may play a central role in human and animal health through their metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). FAO/WHO recommends the consumption of a serving of food containing approximately 106 cells of probiotic microorganisms per gram or milliliter of product per day. Further, the advent of plant-based, vegan and vegetarian products has created new opportunities for the development of suitable probiotics for the consumers of these products. Therefore, there is an ever-increasing demand for functional food products containing probiotics that suit modern segments of our society. This Special Issue calls for the dissemination of research on the isolation and characterization of potential probiotics from a range of spontaneously fermented foods, with a focus on establishing a link between microbial populations of fermented foods and health benefits for humans and animals—or, simply, to realize Hippocrates’ dream that food should be a medicine and medicine a food.

Prof. Dr. Anthony N. Mutukumira
Prof. Dr. Svetoslav Todorov
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • spontaneous fermentation
  • traditional fermentation
  • probiotic microorganisms
  • gut microbiota
  • lactic acid bacteria
  • Bacillus spp.
  • yeast

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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5 pages, 185 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue: Probiotic Potential of Isolated Cultures from Spontaneously or Naturally Fermented Food Products
by Anthony N. Mutukumira and Svetoslav Dimitrov Todorov
Foods 2024, 13(12), 1817; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121817 - 9 Jun 2024
Viewed by 529
Abstract
Fermentation is probably the oldest ancient tradition used by indigenous inhabitants for the preservation of food [...] Full article

Research

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16 pages, 1407 KiB  
Article
Microbiological and Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Black Tea Kombucha Fermented with a New Zealand Starter Culture
by Boying Wang, Kay Rutherfurd-Markwick, Naran Naren, Xue-Xian Zhang and Anthony N. Mutukumira
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2314; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122314 - 8 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2377
Abstract
Kombucha is a popular sparkling sugared tea, fermented by a symbiotic culture of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) and yeast. The demand for kombucha continues to increase worldwide, mainly due to its perceived health benefits and appealing sensory properties. This study isolated and characterised [...] Read more.
Kombucha is a popular sparkling sugared tea, fermented by a symbiotic culture of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) and yeast. The demand for kombucha continues to increase worldwide, mainly due to its perceived health benefits and appealing sensory properties. This study isolated and characterised the dominant AAB and yeast from a starter culture and kombucha broth after 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 14 days of fermentation at ambient temperature (22 °C). Yeast and AAB were isolated from the Kombucha samples using glucose yeast extract mannitol ethanol acetic acid (GYMEA) and yeast extract glucose chloramphenicol (YGC) media, respectively. The phenotypic and taxonomic identification of AAB and yeast were determined by morphological and biochemical characterisation, followed by a sequence analysis of the ribosomal RNA gene (16S rRNA for AAB and ITS for yeast). The changes in the microbial composition were associated with variations in the physico-chemical characteristics of kombucha tea, such as pH, titratable acidity, and total soluble solids (TSS). During fermentation, the acidity increased and the TSS decreased. The yield, moisture content, and water activity of the cellulosic pellicles which had developed at the end of fermentation were attributed to the presence of AAB. The dominant AAB species in the cellulosic pellicles and kombucha broth were identified as Komagataeibacter rhaeticus. The yeast isolates belonged to Debaryomyces prosopidis and Zygosaccharomyces lentus. Full article
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20 pages, 5165 KiB  
Article
Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid-Producing Levilactobacillus brevis Strains as Probiotics in Litchi Juice Fermentation
by Yiwen Jin, Jinyong Wu, Dan Hu, Jun Li, Weiwei Zhu, Lixia Yuan, Xiangsong Chen and Jianming Yao
Foods 2023, 12(2), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020302 - 8 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2099
Abstract
Levilactobacillus brevis strains can be isolated from traditional Chinese pickles and used as the starter cultures to improve the nutritional profiles of fermented juices. Three L. brevis strains (LBG-29, LBG-24, LBD–14) that produce high levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA; >300 mg/L) were isolated [...] Read more.
Levilactobacillus brevis strains can be isolated from traditional Chinese pickles and used as the starter cultures to improve the nutritional profiles of fermented juices. Three L. brevis strains (LBG-29, LBG-24, LBD–14) that produce high levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA; >300 mg/L) were isolated from traditional Chinese pickles. The strains showed tolerance to low pH and high bile salts and exhibited safety in vitro. Litchi juice was fermented using each strain at 37 °C for 48 h. The litchi juice was determined to be a good substrate for fermentation as the process enhanced its functional profile. Overall, cell vitality increased (above 8.7 log10 CFU/mL), the antioxidant activities of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric ion-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were significantly increased, and the antioxidant capacity of the 2,2′-amino-di(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline sulphonic acid-6)ammonium salt (ABTS) was decreased. There was also a significant increase in the GABA and acetic acid content after LBG-29 and LBG-24 fermentation. It was thus determined that the LBG-29 and LBG-24 strains could be used to improve beverage functionality and aid in the development of new products. This is the first report of litchi fermentation using L. brevis as a starter culture. Further research is required to elucidate the functional benefits for the human body and the nutritional and functional properties during its shelf life. Full article
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26 pages, 3397 KiB  
Article
Functional Fermented Milk with Fruit Pulp Modulates the In Vitro Intestinal Microbiota
by Tais Fernanda Borgonovi, Mateus Kawata Salgaço, Gislane Lelis Vilela de Oliveira, Lucas Amoroso Lopes de Carvalho, Daniel Guariz Pinheiro, Svetoslav Dimitrov Todorov, Kátia Sivieri, Sabrina Neves Casarotti and Ana Lúcia Barretto Penna
Foods 2022, 11(24), 4113; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11244113 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2766
Abstract
The effect of putative probiotic fermented milk (FM) with buriti pulp (FMB) or passion fruit pulp (FMPF) or without fruit pulp (FMC) on the microbiota of healthy humans was evaluated. FM formulations were administered into a simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem [...] Read more.
The effect of putative probiotic fermented milk (FM) with buriti pulp (FMB) or passion fruit pulp (FMPF) or without fruit pulp (FMC) on the microbiota of healthy humans was evaluated. FM formulations were administered into a simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (SHIME®) to evaluate the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), microbiota composition, presence of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), and ammonium ions. The probiotic LAB viability in FM was affected by the addition of the fruit pulp. Phocaeicola was dominant in the FMPF and FMB samples; Bifidobacterium was related to FM formulations, while Alistipes was associated with FMPF and FMB, and Lactobacillus and Lacticaseibacillus were predominant in FMC. Trabulsiella was the central element in the FMC, while Mediterraneibacter was the central one in the FMPF and FMB networks. The FM formulations increased the acetic acid, and a remarkably high amount of propionic and butyric acids were detected in the FMB treatment. All FM formulations decreased the ammonium ions compared to the control; FMPF samples stood out for having lower amounts of ammonia. The probiotic FM with fruit pulp boosted the beneficial effects on the intestinal microbiota of healthy humans in addition to increasing SCFA in SHIME® and decreasing ammonium ions, which could be related to the presence of bioactive compounds. Full article
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Review

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21 pages, 2715 KiB  
Review
Use of Bacteriocins and Bacteriocinogenic Beneficial Organisms in Food Products: Benefits, Challenges, Concerns
by Svetoslav Dimitrov Todorov, Igor Popov, Richard Weeks and Michael Leonidas Chikindas
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3145; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193145 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 4738
Abstract
This review’s objective was to critically revisit various research approaches for studies on the application of beneficial organisms and bacteriocins as effective biopreservatives in the food industry. There are a substantial number of research papers reporting newly isolated bacterial strains from fermented food [...] Read more.
This review’s objective was to critically revisit various research approaches for studies on the application of beneficial organisms and bacteriocins as effective biopreservatives in the food industry. There are a substantial number of research papers reporting newly isolated bacterial strains from fermented food products and their application as potential probiotics, including partial characterization of bacteriocins produced by these microorganisms. Most of these studies follow scientific community-accepted standard procedures and propose various applications of the studied strains and bacteriocins as potential biopreservatives for the food industry. A few investigations go somewhat further, performing model studies, exploring the application of expressed bacteriocins in a designed food product, or trying to evaluate the effectiveness of the studied potential probiotics and bacteriocins against foodborne pathogens. Some authors propose applications of bacteriocin producers as starter cultures and are exploring in situ bacteriocin production to aid in the effective control of foodborne pathogens. However, few studies have evaluated the possible adverse effects of bacteriocins, such as toxicity. This comes from well-documented reports on bacteriocins being mostly non-immunogenic and having low cytotoxicity because most of these proteinaceous molecules are small peptides. However, some studies have reported on bacteriocins with noticeable cytotoxicity, which may become even more pronounced in genetically engineered or modified bacteriocins. Moreover, their cytotoxicity can be very specific and is dependent on the concentration of the bacteriocin and the nature of the targeted cell. This will be discussed in detail in the present review. Full article
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11 pages, 1053 KiB  
Review
Probiotic Oxalate-Degrading Bacteria: New Insight of Environmental Variables and Expression of the oxc and frc Genes on Oxalate Degradation Activity
by Dina Karamad, Kianoush Khosravi-Darani, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah and Aaron W. Miller
Foods 2022, 11(18), 2876; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11182876 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5446
Abstract
Oxalate, a compound produced by many edible plants and as a terminal metabolite in the liver of mammals, is a toxin that has a detrimental role to human health. Humans and other mammals do possess enzymatic systems to degrade oxalate. Moreover, numerous oxalate-degrading [...] Read more.
Oxalate, a compound produced by many edible plants and as a terminal metabolite in the liver of mammals, is a toxin that has a detrimental role to human health. Humans and other mammals do possess enzymatic systems to degrade oxalate. Moreover, numerous oxalate-degrading bacteria reside in the mammalian gut and, thus, provide an important function for hosts. The current review focuses on the environmental factors that influence the efficacy of probiotic oxalate-degrading bacteria, relative to oxalate metabolism. We describe the mechanism of oxalate catabolism and its consumption by obligate and facultative anaerobic oxalate-degrading bacteria, in both in vitro and in vivo environments. We also explore the environmental variables that impact oxalate degradation. Studies on single species degrade oxalate have not shown a strong impact on oxalate metabolism, especially in high oxalate conditions such as consumption of foods high in oxalate (such as coffee and chocolate for humans or halogeton in animal feed). Considering effective variables which enhance oxalate degradation could be used in application of effective probiotic as a therapeutic tool in individuals with hyperoxaluria. This study indicates probiotics can be considered a good source of naturally occurring oxalate degrading agent in human colon. Full article
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