Meat Quality and Microbial Analysis

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2022) | Viewed by 41714

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China
Interests: meat science and technology; meat microbiology; meat quality and safety; meat flavor; microbial fermentation; functional starter cultures
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China
Interests: meat science and technology; food microbiology; new product development; new processing techniques; protein and lipid oxidation; meat quality; meat flavor
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Meat and meat products play an important role in the daily diet due to their nutritional value, delicious flavour and desirable texture. In order to maintain the quality and safety of meat and meat products, a comprehensive understanding of microbial population and composition, dynamic changes and microbial interactions during processing and storage seems important. Recent advancements in techniques of microbial analysis and roles of functional microbial strains in meat and meat products have attracted extensive attention.

Therefore, this Special Issue of Foods, entitled Meat Quality and Microbial Analysis, invites works (original research papers or reviews) on the current stated of knowledge of the subject. Specifically, this Special Issue should include, but is not limited to, the following points:

(1) Microbial ecology and microbial interactions of meat and meat products during processing and storage;

(2) Biochemistry, physiology and molecular biology of microorganisms related to the quality, fermentation, spoilage and foodborne disease of meat and meat products;

(3) Microbial analysis and application involved in fermented meat products (including probiotics and starter cultures);

(4) Methods/techniques for microbial detection, identification and enumeration of meat and meat products.

Dr. Qian Chen
Prof. Dr. Baohua Kong
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • meat and meat products
  • microbial ecology
  • microbial interactions
  • molecular biology
  • spoilage
  • fermentation
  • starter cultures
  • bioprotective cultures
  • quality characteristics
  • microbial analysis

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

3 pages, 196 KiB  
Editorial
Insight into the Quality Development and Microbial Dynamics of Meat and Meat Products
by Huiping Wang, Qian Chen and Baohua Kong
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1782; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091782 - 25 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1005
Abstract
Meat and meat products play a vital role in the daily diet due to their desirable texture, delicious flavor and nutritional value [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Microbial Analysis)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

15 pages, 3114 KiB  
Article
Microbiological Changes during Long-Storage of Beef Meat under Different Temperature and Vacuum-Packaging Conditions
by Pablo Rovira, Giannina Brugnini, Jesica Rodriguez, María C. Cabrera, Ali Saadoun, Guillermo de Souza, Santiago Luzardo and Caterina Rufo
Foods 2023, 12(4), 694; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12040694 - 6 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2683
Abstract
We evaluated a combination of two temperatures and two packaging materials for long-term storage of vacuum-packaged (VP) beef striploins. Microbial populations and microbiome composition were monitored during refrigerated storage (120 days between 0–1.5 °C) and refrigerated-then-frozen storage (28 days between 0–1.5 °C then [...] Read more.
We evaluated a combination of two temperatures and two packaging materials for long-term storage of vacuum-packaged (VP) beef striploins. Microbial populations and microbiome composition were monitored during refrigerated storage (120 days between 0–1.5 °C) and refrigerated-then-frozen storage (28 days between 0–1.5 °C then 92 days at −20 °C) under low-O2 permeability VP and high-O2 permeability VP with an antimicrobial (VPAM). Pseudomonas (PSE) and Enterobacteriaceae (EB) counts in VPAM samples were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in VP samples at 28, 45, 90, and 120 days of storage. Microbiome data showed that bacteria of the genera Serratia and Brochothrix were more abundant in VPAM samples at 120 days, while lactic acid bacteria (LAB) dominated in VP samples. Frozen temperatures inhibited microbial growth and maintained a relatively stable microbiome. Refrigerated and frozen VPAM samples showed the greatest difference in the predicted metabolic functions at the end of storage driven by the microbiome composition, dominated by PSE and LAB, respectively. Although no signs of visible meat deterioration were observed in any sample, this study suggests that VP meat refrigerated and then frozen achieved better microbiological indicators at the end of the storage period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Microbial Analysis)
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14 pages, 501 KiB  
Article
Identification of Optimal Fermentation Temperature for Dry-Fermented Sausage Using Strains Isolated from Korean Fermented Foods
by Chang-Hwan Jeong, Sol-Hee Lee, Yohan Yoon, Hyung-Youn Choi and Hack-Youn Kim
Foods 2023, 12(1), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010137 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1732
Abstract
This study aims at identifying the optimal fermentation temperature for dry-fermented sausage using strains isolated from Kimchi (GK1, Pediococcus pentosaceus-GK1; NK3, P. pentosaceus-NK3), Doenjang (D1, Debaryomyces hansenii-D1), and commercial fermented sausage (S6, spontaneously generated Penicillium nalgiovense-S6). The microbial population, [...] Read more.
This study aims at identifying the optimal fermentation temperature for dry-fermented sausage using strains isolated from Kimchi (GK1, Pediococcus pentosaceus-GK1; NK3, P. pentosaceus-NK3), Doenjang (D1, Debaryomyces hansenii-D1), and commercial fermented sausage (S6, spontaneously generated Penicillium nalgiovense-S6). The microbial population, pH, moisture content, color, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), and electronic nose (E-nose) were analyzed to identify the optimal fermentation temperature. The dry-fermented sausages were inoculated with three types of starter cultures [CS (commercial starter culture), GD (GK1 + D1 + S6), and ND (NK3 + D1 + S6)]. The fermentation was performed for 3 days at 20 °C and 25 °C, and dried for 28 days. The Lactobacillus spp. plate count and TBARS showed significantly higher values in the 25 °C group than in the 20 °C group (p < 0.05). The Staphylococcus spp. plate count of GD and ND were significantly higher than CS group at all temperatures. On day 31, the moisture content and VBN values of all groups were less than 35 % and 20 mg%, respectively. According to E-nose, the highest amount of acetoin was detected at the GD group fermented at 25 °C. Thus, the optimal fermentation temperature is expected at 25 °C after using GD in the manufacturing of dry-fermented sausages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Microbial Analysis)
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16 pages, 4222 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Changes of Bacterial Communities and Microbial Association Networks in Ready-to-Eat Chicken Meat during Storage
by Mengjia Qiu, Xingning Xiao, Yingping Xiao, Jiele Ma, Hua Yang, Han Jiang, Qingli Dong and Wen Wang
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3733; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223733 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2145
Abstract
Ready-to-eat (RTE) chicken is a popular food in China, but its lack of food safety due to bacterial contamination remains a concern, and the dynamic changes of microbial association networks during storage are not fully understood. This study investigated the impact of storage [...] Read more.
Ready-to-eat (RTE) chicken is a popular food in China, but its lack of food safety due to bacterial contamination remains a concern, and the dynamic changes of microbial association networks during storage are not fully understood. This study investigated the impact of storage time and temperature on bacterial compositions and microbial association networks in RTE chicken using 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing. The results show that the predominant phyla present in all samples were Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, and the most abundant genera were Weissella, Pseudomonas and Proteus. Increased storage time and temperature decreased the richness and diversity of the microorganisms of the bacterial communities. Higher storage temperatures impacted the bacterial community composition more significantly. Microbial interaction analyses showed 22 positive and 6 negative interactions at 4 °C, 30 positive and 12 negative interactions at 8 °C and 44 positive and 45 negative interactions at 22 °C, indicating an increase in the complexity of interaction networks with an increase in the storage temperature. Enterobacter dominated the interactions during storage at 4 and 22 °C, and Pseudomonas did so at 22 °C. Moreover, interactions between pathogenic and/or spoilage bacteria, such as those between Pseudomonas fragi and Weissella viridescens, Enterobacter unclassified and Proteus unclassified, or those between Enterobacteriaceae unclassified and W.viridescens, were observed. This study provides insight into the process involved in RTE meat spoilage and can aid in improving the quality and safety of RTE meat products to reduce outbreaks of foodborne illness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Microbial Analysis)
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12 pages, 2745 KiB  
Article
Effects of Different Storage Temperatures on Bacterial Communities and Functional Potential in Pork Meat
by Fan Zhao, Zhenqian Wei, Guanghong Zhou, Karsten Kristiansen and Chong Wang
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2307; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152307 - 2 Aug 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3077
Abstract
Storage temperature is considered one of the most important factors that affect the microbial spoilage of fresh meat. Chilling and superchilling are the most popular storage techniques on the market, but during transportation, the temperature may reach 10 °C and may even reach [...] Read more.
Storage temperature is considered one of the most important factors that affect the microbial spoilage of fresh meat. Chilling and superchilling are the most popular storage techniques on the market, but during transportation, the temperature may reach 10 °C and may even reach room temperature during local retail storage. In the present study, we stored fresh pork meat at different temperatures, −2 °C, 4 °C, 10 °C, and 25 °C. The composition and functional potential of fresh or spoiled meat resident microbes were analyzed based on 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The microbial composition exhibited high similarity between pork meat stored at −2 °C and 4 °C, with Pseudomonads and Brochothrix being the dominant taxa. Acinetobacter sp., Myroides sp., and Kurthia sp. were markers for spoiled pork meat stored at 25 °C. Both psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria were observed to grow under a storage temperature of 10 °C, but the overall composition and functional potential based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways were found to be similar to that of meat stored at room temperature. Our results broaden the knowledge of possible microbial changes in pork meat during storage, transportation, or retail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Microbial Analysis)
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20 pages, 6917 KiB  
Article
Effect of Biogenic Amine-Degrading Lactobacillus on the Biogenic Amines and Quality in Fermented Lamb Jerky
by Xueying Sun, Erke Sun, Lina Sun, Lin Su, Ye Jin, Lina Ren and Lihua Zhao
Foods 2022, 11(14), 2057; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11142057 - 12 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1930
Abstract
This study compares five types of lamb jerky, namely, CO (without starter culture), PL-4 (with producing putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, and tyramine), BL4-8 (degrading putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, and tyramine), CL4-3 (degrading putrescine and tyramine), and X3-2B (degrading histamine and tyramine). A study was performed [...] Read more.
This study compares five types of lamb jerky, namely, CO (without starter culture), PL-4 (with producing putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, and tyramine), BL4-8 (degrading putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, and tyramine), CL4-3 (degrading putrescine and tyramine), and X3-2B (degrading histamine and tyramine). A study was performed to examine the effects of starter culture on the physical–chemical quality, flavor, and biogenic amines (BAs) during fermentation and ripening. At the end of fermentation, the pH value of the BL4-8 group (4.75) was significantly lower than that of other groups (p < 0.05). After high-temperature roasting, the water activity (0.55), water content (22.6%), nitrite residue (0.41 mg/kg), and TBARS value (0.27 mg/100 g) of the X3-2B group were significantly lower than those of other groups (p < 0.05). The findings show that adding starter BL4-8, CL4-3, and X3-2B can increase the variety and content of flavor in the product. The levels of histamine, putrescine, and tyramine were significantly lower in the BL4-8, CL4-3, and X3-2B groups than in CO and PL-4 groups. This study shows that BL4-8, CL4-3, and X3-2B are potential starters for fermented meat products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Microbial Analysis)
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11 pages, 1140 KiB  
Article
Modelling the Adhesion and Biofilm Formation Boundary of Listeria monocytogenes ST9
by Lili Hu, Qingli Dong, Zhuosi Li, Yue Ma, Muhammad Zohaib Aslam and Yangtai Liu
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1940; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131940 - 29 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1712
Abstract
Listeria monocytogenes is a major foodborne pathogen that can adhere to or form a biofilm on food contact surfaces, depending on the environmental conditions. The purpose of this work is to determine the adhesion and biofilm formation boundaries for L. monocytogenes ST9 under [...] Read more.
Listeria monocytogenes is a major foodborne pathogen that can adhere to or form a biofilm on food contact surfaces, depending on the environmental conditions. The purpose of this work is to determine the adhesion and biofilm formation boundaries for L. monocytogenes ST9 under the combination environments of temperature (5, 15, and 25 °C), NaCl concentration (0%, 3%, 6%, and 9% (w/v)) and pH (5.0, 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0). The probability models of adhesion and biofilm formation were built using the logistic regression. For adhesion, only the terms of linear T and NaCl are significant for L. monocytogenes ST9 (p < 0.05), whereas the terms of linear T, NaCl, and pH, and the interaction between T and pH were significant for biofilm formation (p < 0.05). By analyzing contour maps and their surface plots for two different states, we discovered that high temperature promoted adhesion and biofilm formation, whereas excessive NaCl concentration inhibited both of them. With a stringent threshold of 0.1667, the accuracy rate for identifying both adhesion/no-adhesion and biofilm formation/no-biofilm formation events were 0.929, indicating that the probability models are reasonably accurate in predicting the adhesion and biofilm formation boundary of L. monocytogenes ST9. The boundary model may provide a useful way for determining and further controlling L. monocytogenes adhesion and biofilm formation in various food processing environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Microbial Analysis)
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17 pages, 2373 KiB  
Article
Impact of Industrial Practices on the Microbial and Quality Attributes of Fresh Vacuum-Packed Lamb Joints
by María de Alba, Catherine M. Burgess, Katie Pollard, Camila Perussello, Jesús M. Frías-Celayeta, Des Walsh, Joan Carroll, Emily Crofton, Carol Griffin, Cristina Botinestean and Geraldine Duffy
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1850; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131850 - 23 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2064
Abstract
The impact of different industrial practices at lamb export abattoirs in Ireland on the microbial and quality attributes of fresh vacuum-packed (VP) lamb leg joints, including Clean Livestock Policy (CLP), fleece clipping, carcass chilling times and vacuum pack storage, at typical chill and [...] Read more.
The impact of different industrial practices at lamb export abattoirs in Ireland on the microbial and quality attributes of fresh vacuum-packed (VP) lamb leg joints, including Clean Livestock Policy (CLP), fleece clipping, carcass chilling times and vacuum pack storage, at typical chill and retail display temperatures was investigated. Five separate slaughter batches of lamb (ranging in size from 38 to 60 lambs) were followed at two lamb export plants over a two-year period, accounting for seasonal variation. In general, fleece clipping resulted in significantly lower microbial contamination on the fleece than the use of CLP alone. Lamb from carcasses chilled for 24 h had significantly lower psychrophilic total viable counts and Brochothrix thermosphacta and pseudomonad counts than carcasses chilled for 72 h. Following vacuum-packed (VP) storage of meat from these carcasses at 1.7 ± 1.6 °C for 23 days in the meat plant followed by retail display at 3.9 ± 1.7 °C (up to day 50), the dominant microorganisms were lactic acid bacteria, Br. thermosphacta, Enterobacteriaceae and pseudomonads, and all had reached maximum population density by storage day 34. Aligned with this, after day 34, the quality of the raw meat samples also continued to deteriorate, with off-odours and colour changes developing. While the mean values for cooked meat eating quality attributes did not change significantly over the VP storage period, high variability in many attributes, including off-flavours and off-odours, were noted for lamb meat from all storage times, highlighting inconsistences in lamb quality within and between slaughter batches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Microbial Analysis)
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15 pages, 9070 KiB  
Article
Combination of Chitosan, Tea Polyphenols, and Nisin on the Bacterial Inhibition and Quality Maintenance of Plant-Based Meat
by Zenghui Dai, Linna Han, Zhe Li, Mengqing Gu, Zhigang Xiao and Fei Lu
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1524; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11101524 - 23 May 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2883
Abstract
Plant-based meat products have gained attention in the food industry and with consumers. Plant-based meat products primarily comprise plant proteins and are rich in nutrients. However, the products are highly susceptible to bacterial contamination during storage. Biological preservatives are easily degradable alternatives to [...] Read more.
Plant-based meat products have gained attention in the food industry and with consumers. Plant-based meat products primarily comprise plant proteins and are rich in nutrients. However, the products are highly susceptible to bacterial contamination during storage. Biological preservatives are easily degradable alternatives to chemical preservatives and can preserve different kinds of food. In order to investigate the preservation properties of chitosan (CS), tea polyphenols (TPs), and nisin treatments on plant-based meats, the sensory evaluation, color difference, pH, TBARS, and the total plate count of E. coli, S. aureus, and Salmonella, indicators of the biological preservative-treated plant-based meat, were determined in this study. The experiment involved blank control- and biological preservative-treated samples. We found that the total microbial count exceeded the national standard provisions in the control samples stored for 14 days. The colors, tissue structures, and flavors of plant-based meat have gradually deteriorated, with the sensory score dropping from 90 to 52. The sample had a loose tissue structure and an obvious sour taste. However, the shelf life of the plant-based meat samples treated with different combinations of the biological preservatives increased compared to the shelf life of the control samples. After 56 d of storage, 1% chitosan, 2.5% tea polyphenols, and 0.04% nisin sensory reduction to 56, the total number of colonies and S. aureus were 4.91 and 2.95 lg CFU/g, approaching the national standard threshold; E. coli was 2 lg CFU/g, reaching the national standard threshold. Thus, the samples treated with 1% chitosan, 2.5% tea polyphenols, and 0.04% nisin had the longest shelf life (56 days) among all experimental groups. Hence, this study reveals that a combination of biological preservatives may be a non-toxic alternative for the efficient preservation of plant-based meat products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Microbial Analysis)
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17 pages, 2162 KiB  
Article
Bio-Mapping of Microbial Indicators to Establish Statistical Process Control Parameters in a Commercial Beef Processing Facility
by David A. Vargas, Karla M. Rodríguez, Gabriela K. Betancourt-Barszcz, Manoella I. Ajcet-Reyes, Onay B. Dogan, Emile Randazzo, Marcos X. Sánchez-Plata, Mindy M. Brashears and Markus F. Miller
Foods 2022, 11(8), 1133; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11081133 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2464
Abstract
The objective was to conduct a bio-mapping of microbial indicators to determine statistical process control (SPC) parameters at a beef processing plant to establish microbiological baselines and process control parameters to support food safety management decisions. EZ-ReachTM swabs were used to collect [...] Read more.
The objective was to conduct a bio-mapping of microbial indicators to determine statistical process control (SPC) parameters at a beef processing plant to establish microbiological baselines and process control parameters to support food safety management decisions. EZ-ReachTM swabs were used to collect 100 cm2 area samples at seven different locations throughout the beef processing line at four different regions on the carcass. Each of the eight sampling days evaluated included three samples collected per sampling location/carcass region for a total of 84 samples per day. Enumeration of total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, and Escherichia coli was performed on each sample. Microbial SPC parameters were estimated for each sampling point. Statistical differences between sampling points for all carcass locations (p < 0.001) followed an overall trend with higher values at pre- and post-evisceration with a continuous decrease until final interventions with a slight increase in counts during the chilling process and a final increase after fabrication. Variability at sampling points is the result of the nature of the process and highlights open opportunities for improvement of the food safety system. Microbial baselines and SPC parameters will help support decision making for continuous process improvement, validation of intervention schemes, and corrective action implementation for food safety management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Microbial Analysis)
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17 pages, 6492 KiB  
Article
Purification and Characterization of the Protease from Staphylococcus xylosus A2 Isolated from Harbin Dry Sausages
by Hui Wang, Jianhang Xu, Baohua Kong, Qian Liu, Xiufang Xia and Fangda Sun
Foods 2022, 11(8), 1094; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11081094 - 11 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2053
Abstract
The protease generated from Staphylococcus (S.) xylosus A2, which was isolated from Harbin dry sausages, was purified and characterized. The molecular weight of the purified protease was approximately 21.5 kDa, and its relative activity reached the highest at pH 6.0 and 50 °C. [...] Read more.
The protease generated from Staphylococcus (S.) xylosus A2, which was isolated from Harbin dry sausages, was purified and characterized. The molecular weight of the purified protease was approximately 21.5 kDa, and its relative activity reached the highest at pH 6.0 and 50 °C. At pH 4.0–8.0 and temperatures of 20–50 °C, the protease was stable. Its activity was significantly improved by Ca2+ and Zn2+ ions (p < 0.05). The Michaelis constant and maximum velocity of the protease were 2.94 mg/mL and 19.45 U/mL·min, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters analysis suggested that the protease showed better catalytic properties at 40 °C. Moreover, the protease could hydrolyze meat proteins, and obtained hydrolysate is non-cytotoxic to the HEK-293 cells. These findings provide a theoretical basis for understanding the enzymatic characterization of S. xylosus A2 protease and its future application in fermented meat products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Microbial Analysis)
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17 pages, 5679 KiB  
Article
Flavour Compensation Role of Yeast Strains in Reduced-Salt Dry Sausages: Taste and Odour Profiles
by Xiang-Ao Li, Baohua Kong, Rongxin Wen, Huiping Wang, Mengtong Li and Qian Chen
Foods 2022, 11(5), 650; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050650 - 23 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1895
Abstract
The effects of different yeast strains including Pichia kudriavzevii, Torulaspora delbrueckii, and Debaryomyces hansenii on the taste and odour profiles of reduced-salt dry sausages were explored. Inoculation of P. kudriavzevii and D. hansenii compensated for the lack of saltiness and umami [...] Read more.
The effects of different yeast strains including Pichia kudriavzevii, Torulaspora delbrueckii, and Debaryomyces hansenii on the taste and odour profiles of reduced-salt dry sausages were explored. Inoculation of P. kudriavzevii and D. hansenii compensated for the lack of saltiness and umami tastes of reduced-salt sausages. Furthermore, inoculation of P. kudriavzevii and T. delbrueckii resulted in an odour profile in the reduced-salt dry sausages that was similar to traditional dry sausages. According to the volatile analysis, the contents of certain alcohols, acids, esters and terpenes were higher in the inoculated sausages. Finally, the sensory evaluation indicated that the inoculation of P. kudriavzevii and D. hansenii contributed positively to the aroma and saltiness of reduced-salt dry sausages. In conclusion, P. kudriavzevii and D. hansenii can be employed as effective starter cultures to compensate for the flavour deficiencies of reduced-salt dry sausages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Microbial Analysis)
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12 pages, 1283 KiB  
Article
Phytic Acid against Clostridium perfringens Type A: A Food Matrix Study
by Ana Paula Marinho Bloot, Daneysa Lahis Kalschne, Diego Ricardo Nunes Nogues, Joana S. Amaral, Eder Lisandro Moraes Flores, Eliane Colla, Sascha Habu, Ilton José Baraldi and Cristiane Canan
Foods 2022, 11(3), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030406 - 30 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3196
Abstract
This study evaluated the inhibitory effect of phytic acid (PA) on the spore germination and vegetative cells growth of Clostridium perfringens type A, as well as its effect in combination with maltodextrin (MD) in cooked sausages. The addition of 1% PA showed a [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the inhibitory effect of phytic acid (PA) on the spore germination and vegetative cells growth of Clostridium perfringens type A, as well as its effect in combination with maltodextrin (MD) in cooked sausages. The addition of 1% PA showed a satisfactory inhibition of spores’ germination and vegetative cells growth of C. perfringens in BHI media. The inhibitory effect of 1% PA on vegetative cells was similar to the additive sodium sorbate (SS) at 10%. Subsequently, a mixture of PA-MD (1:1; w/w) was evaluated for the inhibition of C. perfringens spores in cooked sausages. The PA-MD 1.5% and 2.5% had a similar performance to SS 10% and a similar or higher performance than 0.015% NO2 (p < 0.05). In an unprecedented way, the present study demonstrated that PA inhibited spore germination and vegetative cells growth of C. perfringens, highlighting its potential use as an alternative and natural preservative for the meat industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Microbial Analysis)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

15 pages, 1921 KiB  
Review
The Changes Occurring in Proteins during Processing and Storage of Fermented Meat Products and Their Regulation by Lactic Acid Bacteria
by Daixun Wang, Feng Cheng, Yi Wang, Jun Han, Fang Gao, Jianjun Tian, Kaiping Zhang and Ye Jin
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2427; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162427 - 12 Aug 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4091
Abstract
Protein, which is the main component of meat, is degraded and oxidized during meat fermentation. During fermentation, macromolecular proteins are degraded into small peptides and free amino acids, and oxidation leads to amino acid side chain modification, molecular crosslinking polymerization, and peptide chain [...] Read more.
Protein, which is the main component of meat, is degraded and oxidized during meat fermentation. During fermentation, macromolecular proteins are degraded into small peptides and free amino acids, and oxidation leads to amino acid side chain modification, molecular crosslinking polymerization, and peptide chain cleavage. At different metabolic levels, these reactions may affect the protein structure and the color, tenderness, flavor, and edible value of fermented meat products. Lactic acid bacteria are currently a research hotspot for application in the fermented meat industry. Its growth metabolism and derivative metabolites formed during the fermentation of meat products regulate protein degradation and oxidation to a certain extent and improve product quality. Therefore, this paper mainly reviews the changes occurring in proteins in fermented meat products and their effects on the quality of the products. Referring to studies on the effects of lactic acid bacteria on protein degradation and oxidation from all over the world, this review aims to provide a relevant reference for improving the quality of fermented meat products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Microbial Analysis)
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16 pages, 2120 KiB  
Review
Research Update on the Impact of Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Substance Metabolism, Flavor, and Quality Characteristics of Fermented Meat Products
by Yi Wang, Jun Han, Daixun Wang, Fang Gao, Kaiping Zhang, Jianjun Tian and Ye Jin
Foods 2022, 11(14), 2090; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11142090 - 14 Jul 2022
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 6235
Abstract
This paper reviews the effects of domestic and foreign influences on the substance metabolism pathways and the flavor and flora of LAB in fermented meat products to provide a new theoretical basis for developing new products for the industrial application of lactic acid [...] Read more.
This paper reviews the effects of domestic and foreign influences on the substance metabolism pathways and the flavor and flora of LAB in fermented meat products to provide a new theoretical basis for developing new products for the industrial application of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in fermented meat products. LAB are extensively used among commonly fermented ingredients, such as fermented meat products and yogurt. As fermenting agents, LAB metabolize proteins, lipids, and glycogen in meat products through their enzyme system, which affects the tricarboxylic acid cycle, fatty acid metabolism, amino acid decomposition, and other metabolic processes, and decompose biological macromolecules into small molecules, adding a special flavor with a certain functionality to the final product. Metabolites of LAB in the fermentation process also exert nitrite degradation, as well as antibacterial and antioxidant functions, which improve the physical and chemical qualities of fermented meat products. While fermenting meat products, LAB not only add unique flavor substances to the products, but also improve the safety profile of fermented foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Microbial Analysis)
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