Green Processing Technology of Meat and Meat Products

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Meat".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2022) | Viewed by 36715

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Food and Health, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 10048, China
Interests: meat; meat science; meat processing; green technologies; meat flavor; safety of meat products; nutrition of meat products
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Food and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ningbo University, Ningbo, China
Interests: meat; meat science; meat processing; green technologies; meat flavor; safety of meat products; nutrition of meat products
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Consumers are increasingly demanding high-quality meat products, while some meat products manufactured by the traditional processing procedures are often perceived as unhealthy or hazardous foods, due to the significant amounts of sodium chloride they contain, the excessive accumulation of harmful substances, or the abnormal growth of spoilage microorganisms. Green technologies aimed at decreasing or preventing the formation of hazardous substances, increasing the shelf life, and maintaining the sensory attributes and nutritional quality of meat products are highly recommended during the dry-curing, deep-frying, smoking, roasting, braising, and preserving stages, etc. Thus, this Special Issue aims to gain more insights into the recent achievements in the processing and manufacturing of meat products by green technologies.  The topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following:

  1. Chemical and biochemical composition and structure changes in molecules during the processing of meat products;
  2. Chemistry relating to major and minor components of meat products, and their nutritional, physiological, sensory, flavor and microbiological aspects;
  3. Application of foodomics, including proteomics, metabolomics and sensory omics, to understand the mechanism of quality development of meat products.

Prof. Dr. Jinxuan Cao
Dr. Changyu Zhou
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • meat processing
  • green technologies
  • meat flavor
  • safety of meat products
  • nutrition of meat products

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 176 KiB  
Editorial
Green Processing Technology of Meat and Meat Products
by Changyu Zhou and Jinxuan Cao
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2356; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122356 - 13 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1175
Abstract
Consumers are increasingly demanding higher quality meat products [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Processing Technology of Meat and Meat Products)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

12 pages, 1255 KiB  
Article
Effect of High Pressure Homogenization-Modified Soy 11S Globulin on the Gel and Rheological Properties of Pork Myofibrillar Protein
by Qingfeng Ge, Yuehao Wu, Na Yuan, Zhaoyang Jia, Rui Liu, Fei Lu, Hanjun Ma and Zhuangli Kang
Foods 2023, 12(4), 810; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12040810 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1598
Abstract
The changes in texture and rheological characteristics, water holding capacity, and microstructure of pork myofibrillar protein with high-pressure homogenization-modified (0–150 MPa) soy 11S globulin were studied. The cooking yield, whiteness values, texture properties, shear stress, initial apparent viscosity, storage modulus (G′), and loss [...] Read more.
The changes in texture and rheological characteristics, water holding capacity, and microstructure of pork myofibrillar protein with high-pressure homogenization-modified (0–150 MPa) soy 11S globulin were studied. The cooking yield, whiteness values, texture properties, shear stress, initial apparent viscosity, storage modulus (G′), and loss modulus (G″) of pork myofibrillar protein with high-pressure homogenization-modified soy 11S globulin were significantly increased (p < 0.05) compared with the sample of 0 MPa, and centrifugal yield was significantly decreased, except for the sample of 150 MPa. Therein, the sample of 100 MPa had the largest values. Meanwhile, the water and proteins bonded more tightly because the initial relaxation times of T2b, T21 and T22 from pork myofibrillar protein with high-pressure homogenization-modified soy 11S globulin were shorter (p < 0.05). Overall, the water-holding capacity, gel texture and structure, and rheological properties of pork myofibrillar protein could improve when adding soy 11S globulin treated with 100 MPa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Processing Technology of Meat and Meat Products)
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21 pages, 5082 KiB  
Article
Effects of Different Low-Temperature Storage Methods on the Quality and Processing Characteristics of Fresh Beef
by Ruiqi Cao, Lixiu Yan, Shujian Xiao, Bo Hou, Xingchen Zhou, Wei Wang, Ting Bai, Kaixian Zhu, Jie Cheng and Jiamin Zhang
Foods 2023, 12(4), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12040782 - 11 Feb 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3181
Abstract
Low-temperature storage has become the most common way for fresh meat storage because of its lower cost and better preservation effect. Traditional low-temperature preservation includes frozen storage and refrigeration storage. The refrigeration storage has a good fresh-keeping effect, but the shelf life is [...] Read more.
Low-temperature storage has become the most common way for fresh meat storage because of its lower cost and better preservation effect. Traditional low-temperature preservation includes frozen storage and refrigeration storage. The refrigeration storage has a good fresh-keeping effect, but the shelf life is short. Frozen storage has a long shelf life, but it has a great impact on the quality of meat structure and other qualities, and cannot achieve a complete “fresh-keeping” effect. With the development of food processing storage and freezing technology, two new storage methods, ice temperature storage and micro-frozen storage, have attracted more attention. In this paper, the effects of different low-temperature storage methods on the sensory, physicochemical properties, myofibrillar protein oxidation, microstructure, and processing characteristics of fresh beef were studied. The optimal storage methods under different storage requirements were analyzed to reveal the mechanism and efficacy of ice temperature storage and micro-frozen storage technology, as well as the advantages compared with traditional low-temperature refrigeration. It has practical significance for guiding the application of low-temperature storage of fresh meat. Finally, this study concluded that the longest shelf life could be achieved by frozen storage, and the best preservation effect was achieved during the shelf life of ice temperature storage, and the effect of micro-frozen storage on the myofibrillar protein oxidation and microstructure was the best. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Processing Technology of Meat and Meat Products)
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15 pages, 3976 KiB  
Article
The Establishment of Evaluation Models for the Cooking Suitability of Different Pork Muscles
by Shengnan Duan, Xiaoyan Tang, Junliang Zhan, Suke Liu and Yuhui Zhang
Foods 2023, 12(4), 742; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12040742 - 8 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1641
Abstract
Pork is the main meat consumed by Chinese people. In this study, the sensory quality of four muscles (loin, shoulder, belly, and ham) under three cooking methods (boiling, scalding, and roasting) was examined, and the edible quality and nutritional quality of fresh meat [...] Read more.
Pork is the main meat consumed by Chinese people. In this study, the sensory quality of four muscles (loin, shoulder, belly, and ham) under three cooking methods (boiling, scalding, and roasting) was examined, and the edible quality and nutritional quality of fresh meat were determined at the same time. Principal component analysis, cluster analysis, correlation analysis, and analysis of the coefficient of variation were used to determine key quality indicators, from which comprehensive quality evaluation equations were established. The results showed that, when meat was boiled, the comprehensive quality evaluation model was Y=0.1537X1+0.1805X2+0.2145X3+0.2233X4+0.2281X5 (X1~X5 are a*, fat, odor, tenderness, and flavor, respectively) and the most suitable muscle was belly; when meat slices were scalded in a hot pot, the comprehensive quality evaluation model was Y=0.1541X1+0.1787X2+0.2160X3+0.2174X4+0.2337X5 (X1~X5 are a*, fat, odor, tenderness, and flavor, respectively) and the most suitable muscle was belly; when meat was roasted, the comprehensive quality evaluation model was Y=0.1539X1+0.1557X2+0.1572X3+0.1677X4+0.1808X5+0.1845X6 (X1~X6 are flavor, marbling, elasticity, cooked flesh color, tenderness, and flesh color, respectively), and the most suitable muscles were belly and shoulder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Processing Technology of Meat and Meat Products)
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11 pages, 2180 KiB  
Article
Effects of W/O Nanoemulsion on Improving the Color Tone of Beijing Roast Duck
by Wendi Teng, Xinshuo Yao, Jingyi Li, Jinpeng Wang and Jinxuan Cao
Foods 2023, 12(3), 613; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030613 - 1 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1542
Abstract
Traditional Beijing roast duck is often brushed with a high concentration of maltose solution (15% w/v) and shows ununiform color after roasting. A novel W/O nanoemulsion was applied to improve the color tone of Beijing roast ducks and, meanwhile, reduced [...] Read more.
Traditional Beijing roast duck is often brushed with a high concentration of maltose solution (15% w/v) and shows ununiform color after roasting. A novel W/O nanoemulsion was applied to improve the color tone of Beijing roast ducks and, meanwhile, reduced the amount of sugar. For the W/O emulsion, 3% (w/v) xylose solution as the aqueous phase, soybean oil as the oil phase, and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) and whey protein isolate (WPI) as co-emulsifiers were fabricated by high-pressure homogenization. Particle size measurement by Zetasizer and stability analysis by Turbiscan stability analyzer showed that WPI as co-emulsifier and internal aqueous phase at pH 9 decreased the droplet size and improved the emulsion stability. In addition, by color difference evaluation, the W/O nanoemulsion improved the Maillard reaction degree and color tone of Beijing roast duck. The molecular structure and key composition of pigments on the surface of Beijing roast duck skins were also identified and characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy and UHPLC-MS. This study creatively offers theoretical guidance for increasing applications of W/O-nanoemulsion-based Maillard reaction in the roast food industry, especially for the development of reduced-sugar Beijing roast duck with uniform and desired color satisfying consumers’ acceptance and marketability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Processing Technology of Meat and Meat Products)
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13 pages, 1540 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Activity and Cell Protection of Glycosylated Products in Different Reducing Sugar Duck Liver Protein Systems
by Feili Zhan, Jiafeng Luo, Yangying Sun, Yangyang Hu, Xiankang Fan and Daodong Pan
Foods 2023, 12(3), 540; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030540 - 26 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1460
Abstract
Duck liver is an important by-product of duck food. In this study, we investigated the effects of glucose, fructose, and xylose on the antioxidant properties of glycosylated products of duck liver protein and their protective effects on HepG2 cells. The results show that [...] Read more.
Duck liver is an important by-product of duck food. In this study, we investigated the effects of glucose, fructose, and xylose on the antioxidant properties of glycosylated products of duck liver protein and their protective effects on HepG2 cells. The results show that the glycosylation products of the three duck liver proteins (DLP-G, DLP-F, and DLP-X) all exhibit strong antioxidant activity; among three groups, DLP-X shows the strongest ability to scavenge DPPH, ·OH free radicals, and ABTS+ free radicals. The glycosylated products of duck liver protein are not toxic to HepG2 cells and significantly increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px in HepG2 cells at the concentration of 2.0 g/L, reducing oxidative stress damage of cells (p < 0.05). DLP-X has a better effect in reducing oxidative damage and increasing cellular activity in HepG2 cells than DLP-G and DLP-F (p < 0.05). In this study, the duck liver protein glycosylated products by glucose, fructose, and xylose were named as DLP-G, DLP-F, and DLP-X, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Processing Technology of Meat and Meat Products)
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14 pages, 2301 KiB  
Article
Rapid and Simultaneous Measurement of Fat and Moisture Contents in Pork by Low-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
by Shuyue Tang, Yuhui Zhang, Wusun Li, Xiaoyan Tang and Xinyuan Huang
Foods 2023, 12(1), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010147 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1722
Abstract
In order to improve the efficiency of Soxhlet extraction and oven drying, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) technology was used to detect fat and moisture contents in pork. The transverse relaxation time (T2) distribution curves were constructed by Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill (CPMG) experiments. [...] Read more.
In order to improve the efficiency of Soxhlet extraction and oven drying, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) technology was used to detect fat and moisture contents in pork. The transverse relaxation time (T2) distribution curves were constructed by Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill (CPMG) experiments. In addition, the optimal conditions of adding MnCl2 aqueous solution was explored to separate water and fat signal peaks. Finally, the reliability of this method for the determination of fat and moisture contents in pork was verified. The present study showed that adding 1.5 mL of 20% MnCl2 aqueous solution solution at 50 °C can isolate and obtain a stable peak of fat. The lard and 0.85% MnCl2 aqueous solution were used as the standards for fat and moisture measurements, respectively, and calibration curves with R2 = 0.9999 were obtained. In addition, the repeatability and reproducibility of this method were 1.71~3.10%. There was a significant correlation (p < 0.05) between the LF-NMR method and the conventional methods (Soxhlet extraction and oven drying), and the R2 was 0.9987 and 0.9207 for fat and moisture, respectively. All the results proved that LF-NMR could determine fat and moisture contents in pork rapidly and simultaneously. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Processing Technology of Meat and Meat Products)
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13 pages, 2142 KiB  
Article
In Vitro and In Situ Characterization of Psychrotrophic Spoilage Bacteria Recovered from Chilled Chicken
by Xinxia Wang, Zaitian Wang, Zhilan Sun, Daoying Wang, Fang Liu and Lin Lin
Foods 2023, 12(1), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010095 - 24 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1746
Abstract
Spoilage bacteria play a remarkable role in the spoilage of chilled chicken. In this paper, a total of 42 isolates belonging to 16 species of four genera were isolated from chilled chicken and displayed different characterizations of psychrotrophic spoilage. Six isolates of J7, [...] Read more.
Spoilage bacteria play a remarkable role in the spoilage of chilled chicken. In this paper, a total of 42 isolates belonging to 16 species of four genera were isolated from chilled chicken and displayed different characterizations of psychrotrophic spoilage. Six isolates of J7, J8, Q20, Q23, R1, and R9 with differences in proteolytic capabilities were further characterized for in situ spoilage potential evaluation. Pseudomonas lundensis J8 exhibited the strongest spoilage potential in situ, displaying a fast growth rate, increased pH velocity, high total volatile basic nitrogen, and high peptide content in the chicken samples. The volatile flavor analysis of chicken samples via electronic nose indicated that the content of characteristic odors representing spoilage, including sulfides, organic sulfide, and hydride, increased during storage. Additionally, the principle component and correlation analyses revealed that the spoilage odors produced by different species of bacteria were significantly different and positively correlated with the results of protease activity in vitro. The characteristics of spoilage bacteria in chilled chicken provided a comprehensive insight into microbial assessment during storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Processing Technology of Meat and Meat Products)
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14 pages, 2425 KiB  
Article
Interaction between Kidney-Bean Polysaccharides and Duck Myofibrillar Protein as Affected by Ultrasonication: Effects on Gel Properties and Structure
by Yang Wu, Qiwei Du, Xiankang Fan, Changyu Zhou, Jun He, Yangying Sun, Qiang Xia and Daodong Pan
Foods 2022, 11(24), 3998; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11243998 - 9 Dec 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1506
Abstract
The interaction of polysaccharides–protein with varied origins and structures provides opportunities for tailoring the physicochemical qualities of food protein-based materials. This work examined the feasibility of ultrasound-modified interaction between kidney bean dietary fiber (KSDF) and duck myofibrillar proteins (MP) to improve the physicochemical [...] Read more.
The interaction of polysaccharides–protein with varied origins and structures provides opportunities for tailoring the physicochemical qualities of food protein-based materials. This work examined the feasibility of ultrasound-modified interaction between kidney bean dietary fiber (KSDF) and duck myofibrillar proteins (MP) to improve the physicochemical properties of the gel matrices. Accordingly, gel strength, water holding capacity, solubility, chemical interaction, secondary structure, and network structure of MP were determined. The addition of KSDF combined with the ultrasound treatment contributed to the improved water retention capability, G’ values, and the reduced particle size of protein molecules, corresponding with the formation of dense pore-like structures. The results demonstrated that 1% KSDF and ultrasonication at 400 W significantly enhanced gel strength by up to 109.58% and the solubility increased by 213.42%. The proportion of α-helices of MP gels treated with 1% KSDF and ultrasonication at 400 W was significantly increased. The sonication-mediated KSDF–MP interaction significantly improved hydrophobic interactions of the proteins, thus explaining the denser network structure of the MP gels incorporated KSDF with ultrasound treatments. These results demonstrated the role of ultrasonication treatments in modifying KSDF–protein interaction to improve the gel and structural properties of the MP gels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Processing Technology of Meat and Meat Products)
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13 pages, 2107 KiB  
Article
Role of Intramuscular Connective Tissue in Water Holding Capacity of Porcine Muscles
by Jingfan Wang, Ping Yang, Dong Han, Feng Huang, Xia Li, Yu Song, Hang Wang, Jiqian Liu, Jian Zheng and Chunhui Zhang
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3835; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233835 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1789
Abstract
Background: This study evaluated the influence of intramuscular connective tissue (IMCT) on structural shrinkage and water loss during cooking. Longissimus thoracis (LT), semimembranosus (SM) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles were cut and boiled for 30 min in boiling water, followed by detection of water [...] Read more.
Background: This study evaluated the influence of intramuscular connective tissue (IMCT) on structural shrinkage and water loss during cooking. Longissimus thoracis (LT), semimembranosus (SM) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles were cut and boiled for 30 min in boiling water, followed by detection of water holding capacity (WHC), tenderness, fiber volume shrinkage and protein denaturation. Results: Compared with LT and SM, ST had the best WHC and lowest WBSF and area shrinkage ratio. The mobility of immobilized water (T22) was key to holding the water of meat. ST contained the highest content of total and heat-soluble collagen. On the contrary, ST showed the lowest content of cross-links and decorin, which indicate the IMCT strength of ST is weaker than the other two. The heat-soluble collagen is positively correlated to T22. Conclusions: The shrinkage of heat-insoluble IMCT on WHC and WBSF may partly depend on the structural strength changes of IMCT components rather than solely caused by quantitative changes of IMCT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Processing Technology of Meat and Meat Products)
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12 pages, 2006 KiB  
Article
Inactivation of Clostridium perfringens C1 Spores by the Combination of Mild Heat and Lactic Acid
by Tingting Lin, Huan Bian, Zhilan Sun, Xinxia Wang, Fang Liu and Daoying Wang
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3771; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233771 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1909
Abstract
Clostridium perfringens is a major pathogen causing foodborne illnesses. In this experiment, the inactivation effects of heat and lactic acid (LA) treatments on C. perfringens spores was investigated. Heat treatment (80 °C, 90 °C and 100 °C), LA (0.5% and 1%), and combined [...] Read more.
Clostridium perfringens is a major pathogen causing foodborne illnesses. In this experiment, the inactivation effects of heat and lactic acid (LA) treatments on C. perfringens spores was investigated. Heat treatment (80 °C, 90 °C and 100 °C), LA (0.5% and 1%), and combined LA and heat treatments for 30 and 60 min were performed. Residual spore counts showed that the count of C. perfringens spores was below the detection limit within 30 min of treatment with 1% LA and heat treatment at 90 °C. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal scanning laser microscopy results showed that the surface morphology of the spores was severely disrupted by the co-treatment. The particle size of the spores was reduced to 202 nm and the zeta potential to −3.66 mv. The inner core of the spores was disrupted and the co-treatment resulted in the release of 77% of the nuclear contents 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid. In addition, the hydrophobicity of spores was as low as 11% after co-treatment with LA relative to the control, indicating that the outer layer of spores was severely disrupted. Thus, synergistic heating and LA treatment were effective in inactivating C. perfringens spores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Processing Technology of Meat and Meat Products)
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19 pages, 1939 KiB  
Article
The Effect of the Improvement Technology on the Quality of Midu Pork Roll
by Xue Xiao, Bowen Wang, Ping Zhao, Changrong Ge, Shijun Li and Zhichao Xiao
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3684; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223684 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1314
Abstract
Midu pork roll (MPR), produced in Midu County, Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan, China, is a traditional fermented meat product with a long history. This study aims to enhance the physical and flavor profile of MPR by improving its process, fermentation conditions and [...] Read more.
Midu pork roll (MPR), produced in Midu County, Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan, China, is a traditional fermented meat product with a long history. This study aims to enhance the physical and flavor profile of MPR by improving its process, fermentation conditions and formulations. There were three different formulations, including traditional craft (control group: C), optimization process of Sichuan spicy flavor formula (Test group 1: T1) and optimization process of halogen flavor formula (Test group 2: T2). Higher moisture content, L*, a* and b* values and lower hardness, chewiness and shear force were observed in T1 and T2 compared to C (p < 0.05). A total of 15 free amino acids were detected throughout the fermentation process, during which the content of umami amino acids, sweet amino acids and bitter amino acids underwent significant changes. A total of 88, 85 and 75 volatile compounds were detected in C, T1 and T2, respectively, in which the relative content of alkanes and ketones in T1 and T2 were higher than those in C (p < 0.05). The process and formulas have improved the color, texture characteristics and tenderness of MPR to a certain extent, meanwhile, they have enhanced the flavor of MPR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Processing Technology of Meat and Meat Products)
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11 pages, 1817 KiB  
Article
Effects of Chitosan/Collagen Peptides/Cinnamon Bark Essential Oil Composite Coating on the Quality of Dry-Aged Beef
by Songshan Zhang, Xiaobin Sun, Yuanhua Lei, Baozhong Sun, Peng Xie and Xiaochang Liu
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3638; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223638 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1653
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the chitosan/collagen peptides/cinnamon bark essential oil composite coating on dry-aged beef. Chitosan (2%, w/v), collagen peptides (1%, w/v), and cinnamon bark essential oil (1%, v/ [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the chitosan/collagen peptides/cinnamon bark essential oil composite coating on dry-aged beef. Chitosan (2%, w/v), collagen peptides (1%, w/v), and cinnamon bark essential oil (1%, v/v) were homogenized to obtain the coating. Beef samples were divided into three groups (traditional dry-ageing, in-bag dry-ageing, and coating and then dry-ageing) and dry-aged for 42 days. Physiochemical, microbial, and sensorial parameters of samples were determined during the dry-ageing process. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in pH values, shear force values, cooking loss, color, juiciness, tenderness, and flavor across groups. The total volatile base nitrogen value of the coating group was lower than those of the other two groups. Compared to traditional dry-ageing, in-bag and coating dry-ageing reduced (p < 0.05) many volatile compounds such as alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and acetate. In-bag and coating dry-ageing had no impact on the fungal community, but changed the bacterial community by inhibiting Pseudomonas. This study demonstrates that the chitosan/collagen peptides/cinnamon bark essential oil coating reduces microbial spoilage during dry-ageing, and has a small influence on product quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Processing Technology of Meat and Meat Products)
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20 pages, 804 KiB  
Article
Changes in the Physical–Chemical Properties and Volatile Flavor Components of Dry-Cured Donkey Leg during Processing
by Jingjing Zhang, Zixiang Wei, Huachen Zhang, Lan Xie, Silvia Vincenzetti, Paolo Polidori, Lanjie Li and Guiqin Liu
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3542; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213542 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1919
Abstract
In order to explore the quality variation and flavor formation of dry-cured donkey leg, the changes in physical–chemical composition, lipolytic, free amino acids content and volatile flavor compounds were investigated in this study. Six fresh, trimmed hind legs with average weight of 8.12 [...] Read more.
In order to explore the quality variation and flavor formation of dry-cured donkey leg, the changes in physical–chemical composition, lipolytic, free amino acids content and volatile flavor compounds were investigated in this study. Six fresh, trimmed hind legs with average weight of 8.12 ± 0.8 kg were taken from male Dezhou donkeys slaughtered at the age of 24 months with the average live weight of 240 kg. The entire processing time was eight months long including six stages, specifically: cooling, salting, air-drying, fermenting and aging. Samples were collected at 0 d, 10 d, 20 d, 30 d, 65 d, 105 d and 165 d of processing. The results showed that the pH value remained stable in the range of 6.2~6.6. The moisture and water activity significantly decreased (p < 0.05) during processing. The chloride content, ash, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) and peroxide value (POV) significantly increased (p < 0.05), from 0.45% to 12.39%, from 3% to 17%, from 1.43 mg/kg to 8.98 mg/kg and from 1.39 g/100 g to 5.26 g/100 g, respectively. The thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) value reached its highest value of 0.39 mg MDA/kg at the end of the salting stage and then decreased to 0.34 mg MDA/kg. Eighteen free amino acids and fifteen free fatty acids were detected, and their contents were significantly increased during processing (p < 0.05). Volatile compounds were analyzed using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Among 114 volatile compounds detected in dry-cured donkey leg, aldehydes, esters, alkane and alcohols were more abundant in the final products, with relative concentrations of 41.88%, 5.72%, 5.35% and 5.25%, respectively. Processing significantly affected the physical–chemical properties, which could contribute to the formation of flavor substances of dry-cured donkey leg. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Processing Technology of Meat and Meat Products)
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15 pages, 3153 KiB  
Article
Changes in Textural Quality and Water Retention of Spiced Beef under Ultrasound-Assisted Sous-Vide Cooking and Its Possible Mechanisms
by Hengpeng Wang, Ziwu Gao, Xiuyun Guo, Sumin Gao, Danxuan Wu, Zongzhen Liu, Peng Wu, Zhicheng Xu, Xiaobo Zou and Xiangren Meng
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2251; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152251 - 28 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2390
Abstract
The present study investigated the effects of ultrasound (28 kHz, 60 W at 71 °C for 37 min) combined with sous-vide cooking (at 71 °C for 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 min) on the textural quality, water distribution, and protein characteristics of spiced [...] Read more.
The present study investigated the effects of ultrasound (28 kHz, 60 W at 71 °C for 37 min) combined with sous-vide cooking (at 71 °C for 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 min) on the textural quality, water distribution, and protein characteristics of spiced beef. Results showed that the spiced beef treated with conventional cooking (CT) had the highest cooking loss (41.31%), but the lowest value of shear force (8.13 N), hardness (55.66 N), springiness (3.98 mm), and chewiness (64.36 mJ) compared to ultrasound-assisted sous-vide (USV) and sous-vide cooking (SV) groups. Compared with long-time thermal treatment, USV heating within 100 min enhanced the water retention of spiced beef by maintaining the lower values of cooking loss (16.64~25.76%), T2 relaxation time (242.79~281.19 ms), and free water content (0.16~2.56%), as evident by the intact muscle fibers. Moreover, the USV group had relatively lower carbonyl content, but higher sulfhydryl content compared to CT and SV groups. More protein bands coupled with a minor transformation from α-helixes to β-turns and random coils occurred in USV40~USV80. In conclusion, these results indicated that USV treatment within 100 min positively affected the textural quality and water retention of spiced beef by moderate protein oxidation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Processing Technology of Meat and Meat Products)
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11 pages, 1516 KiB  
Article
Effect of High Pressure/Heating Combination on the Structure and Texture of Chinese Traditional Pig Trotter Stewed with Soy Sauce
by Ying Wang, Yanan Sheng, Yuemei Zhang, Fang Geng and Jinxuan Cao
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2248; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152248 - 28 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1688
Abstract
In order to clarify the effect of a high pressure/heating combination on the texture of Chinese traditional pig trotter with soy sauce, textural parameters (springiness, chewiness, hardness, and gumminess), the secondary structures, cross-links, decorin (DCN), glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) levels, and the histochemical morphology of [...] Read more.
In order to clarify the effect of a high pressure/heating combination on the texture of Chinese traditional pig trotter with soy sauce, textural parameters (springiness, chewiness, hardness, and gumminess), the secondary structures, cross-links, decorin (DCN), glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) levels, and the histochemical morphology of collagen fibers under different treatments (0.1 MPa, 150 MPa, 300 MPa, 0.1 MPa + 50 °C, 150 MPa + 50 °C, and 300 MPa + 50 °C) were assessed. At room temperature, the 150 and 300 MPa treatments increased the hardness and chewiness of the pig trotter with weak denaturation of collagen proteins compared with the control group. Textural parameters were improved at 300 MPa + 50 °C, accompanied by an ultrastructural collapse of collagen fibers, the reduction in cross-links, DCN and GAGs levels, and unfolded triple-helix structure. We concluded that the positive effects on the textural parameters of pig trotters by a combination of treatments could be attributed to the collapse of collagen structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Processing Technology of Meat and Meat Products)
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12 pages, 1058 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Pressure–Shift Freezing versus Air Freezing and Liquid Immersion on the Quality of Frozen Fish during Storage
by Ting Li, Shiyao Kuang, Ting Xiao, Lihui Hu, Pengcheng Nie, Hosahalli S. Ramaswamy and Yong Yu
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1842; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131842 - 22 Jun 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2339
Abstract
In this study, a self-cooling laboratory system was used for pressure–shift freezing (PSF), and the effects of pressure–shift freezing (PSF) at 150 MPa on the quality of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) during frozen storage at −30 °C were evaluated and compared with those [...] Read more.
In this study, a self-cooling laboratory system was used for pressure–shift freezing (PSF), and the effects of pressure–shift freezing (PSF) at 150 MPa on the quality of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) during frozen storage at −30 °C were evaluated and compared with those of conventional air freezing (CAF) and liquid immersion freezing (LIF). The evaluated thawing loss and cooking loss of PSF were significantly lower than those of CAF and LIF during the whole frozen storage period. The thawing loss, L* value, b* value and TBARS of the frozen fish increased during the storage. After 28 days storage, the TBARS values of LIF and CAF were 0.54 and 0.65, respectively, significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the 0.25 observed for PSF. The pH of the samples showed a decreasing trend at first but then increased during the storage, and the CAF had the fastest increasing trend. Based on Raman spectra, the secondary structure of the protein in the PSF-treated samples was considered more stable. The α-helix content of the protein in the unfrozen sample was 59.3 ± 7.22, which decreased after 28 days of frozen storage for PSF, LIF and CAF to 48.5 ± 3.43, 39.1 ± 2.35 and 33.4 ± 4.21, respectively. The results showed that the quality of largemouth bass treated with PSF was better than LIT and CAF during the frozen storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Processing Technology of Meat and Meat Products)
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20 pages, 2192 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Quality Properties in Spoiled Mianning Ham
by Yanli Zhu, Wei Wang, Yulin Zhang, Ming Li, Jiamin Zhang, Lili Ji, Zhiping Zhao, Rui Zhang and Lin Chen
Foods 2022, 11(12), 1713; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11121713 - 11 Jun 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2536
Abstract
Deep spoilage is a cyclical and costly problem for the meat industry. Mianning ham is a famous dry-cured meat product in Sichuan, China. The aim of this work was to investigate the physicochemical characteristics, sources of odor, and associated microorganisms that cause spoilage [...] Read more.
Deep spoilage is a cyclical and costly problem for the meat industry. Mianning ham is a famous dry-cured meat product in Sichuan, China. The aim of this work was to investigate the physicochemical characteristics, sources of odor, and associated microorganisms that cause spoilage of Mianning ham. High-throughput sequencing and solid-phase microextraction–gas-chromatography (SPME-GC-MS) techniques were used to characterize the physicochemical properties, microbial community structure, and volatile compounds of spoiled Mianning ham and to compare it with normal Mianning ham. The results showed that spoiled ham typically had higher moisture content, water activity (aw), and pH, and lower salt content. The dominant bacterial phylum detected in deeply spoiled ham was Firmicutes (95.4%). The dominant bacterial genus was Clostridium_sensu_stricto_2 (92.01%), the dominant fungal phylum was Ascomycota (98.48%), and the dominant fungal genus was Aspergillus (84.27%). A total of 57 volatile flavor substances were detected in deeply spoiled ham, including 11 aldehydes, 2 ketones, 6 alcohols, 10 esters, 20 hydrocarbons, 6 acids, and 2 other compounds. Hexanal (279.607 ± 127.265 μg/kg) was the most abundant in deeply spoiled ham, followed by Butanoic acid (266.885 ± 55.439 μg/kg) and Nonanal (165.079 ± 63.923 μg/kg). Clostridium_sensu_stricto_2 promoted the formation of five main flavor compounds, Heptanal, (E)-2-Octenal, 2-Nonanone, Hexanal, and Nonanal, in deeply spoiled ham by correlation analysis of microbial and volatile flavor substances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Processing Technology of Meat and Meat Products)
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11 pages, 2271 KiB  
Article
The Emulsion Properties of Chicken Liver Protein Recovered through Isoelectric Solubilization/Precipitation Processes
by Shunchang Pu, Cong Yin, Xingguo Zhang, Yu Zhang, Ning Lu and Guoyuan Xiong
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1644; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111644 - 2 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2146
Abstract
This study investigated the feasibility to improve the emulsifying capacity of chicken liver (CL) protein using different isoelectric solubilization/precipitation (ISP) processes. The CL proteins were first solubilized at alkaline pH 10.5, 11.0, 11.5, and 12.0, followed by precipitation at pH 5.0, 5.5, and [...] Read more.
This study investigated the feasibility to improve the emulsifying capacity of chicken liver (CL) protein using different isoelectric solubilization/precipitation (ISP) processes. The CL proteins were first solubilized at alkaline pH 10.5, 11.0, 11.5, and 12.0, followed by precipitation at pH 5.0, 5.5, and 6.0, respectively. Fresh CL paste was set as the control (raw). With the increase in solubilization pH, the protein recovery yield increased under the same precipitation pH, and the pH 12.0, 5.5 treatment obtained the highest recovery yield of 82% (p < 0.05), followed by the pH 5.0 precipitation treatments and the pH 12.0, 6.0 treatment. The particle size distribution of D3,2 and D4,3 was smaller for the pH 10.5 (except for the D4,3 of pH 10.5, 5.0) and pH 11.0 solubilization treatments than those of the other treatments (p < 0.05), regardless of precipitation pH. Compared with that of the raw control, the emulsions of the pH 10.5 and pH 11.0 solubilization treatments, and pH 12.0, 6.0 treatment showed good stability. The pH 10.5, 6.0 treatment showed the best emulsification activity, followed by the pH 10.5, 5.5, pH 11.0, 6.0, pH 12.0, 6.0, pH 10.5, 5.0, pH 11.0, 5.5, and pH 11.0, 5.0 treatments, which were uniformly distributed and were stable without the stratification of emulsions. It was concluded that CL protein recovered through suitable ISP showed potential as an emulsifier, and thus expanded the application of CL protein for human consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Processing Technology of Meat and Meat Products)
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