Food Ingredients and Gut Microbiota

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutraceuticals, Functional Foods, and Novel Foods".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 June 2021) | Viewed by 39444

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Food Hygiene, Inspection and Control Laboratory, University of Santiago de Compostela, Campus Lugo, University Campus, Lugo, Spain
Interests: microbiology; analytical chemistry; functional foods; human nutrition; gut microbiota; metabolomics; proteomics; gene expression

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Guest Editor
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo, Spain
Interests: food science and technology; food safety; functional foods; human nutrition; gut microbiota
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The gastrointestinal tract is a complex environment exposed to many dietary components and commensal bacteria. These dietary components can influence the composition of the gut microbiota, which acts as a real organ playing a key role in maintaining health. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that gut microbes influence what the human host is able to extract from the diet, both nutritionally and energetically. It is for this reason that understanding the relationship between food and the gut microbiota, their interactions, and how each modulates the other is critical for the successful promotion of human health.

Our knowledge on the impact of specific foods, nutrients, and other dietary components on the intestinal microbiota in a population is still limited. Currently, a large number of research works are focusing on the influence understanding of different dietary components on the microbiota as a mediator of human health as well as on the development of new foods or functional ingredients with a positive impact on the intestinal microbiota. In this context, this Special Issue, “Food Ingredients and Gut Microbiota”, will cover a selection of current research topics, including but not limited to the following:

  • Effects of foods and their components on gut microbiota and the resulting beneficial or detrimental health outcomes;
  • Development of new functional ingredients/bioactive compounds with beneficial impact on the gut health and the overall well-being of the host;
  • Nutritional and technological aspects related to the development of functional foods/ingredients for gut health;
  • Experimental works dealing with food digestion and the bioavailability of food nutrients or bioactive ingredients;
  • Mechanisms by which food nutrients and bioactive ingredients are able to modulate the gut microbiota.

Prof. Dr. Alberto Cepeda Sáez
Prof. Dr. Alejandra Cardelle Cobas
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • gut microbiota
  • functional foods
  • bioactive ingredients
  • diet
  • gut health

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 1851 KiB  
Article
Screening of Bioactive Properties in Brown Algae from the Northwest Iberian Peninsula
by Aurora Silva, Carla Rodrigues, Paula Garcia-Oliveira, Catarina Lourenço-Lopes, Sofia A. Silva, Pascual Garcia-Perez, Ana P. Carvalho, Valentina F. Domingues, M. Fátima Barroso, Cristina Delerue-Matos, Jesus Simal-Gandara and Miguel A. Prieto
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1915; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081915 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 4295
Abstract
Algae are an underexploited source of natural bioactive compounds in Western countries, so an increasing interest in the valorization of these marine organisms has emerged in recent years. In this work, the effect of extracting solvent on the extraction yield, phenolic content, antioxidant [...] Read more.
Algae are an underexploited source of natural bioactive compounds in Western countries, so an increasing interest in the valorization of these marine organisms has emerged in recent years. In this work, the effect of extracting solvent on the extraction yield, phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, and antimicrobial activity of nine brown macroalgae species (Ascophyllum nodosum, Himanthalia elongata, Undaria pinnatifida, Pelvetia canaliculata, Saccharina latissima, Bifurcaria bifurcata, Laminaria ochroleuca, Sargassum muticum, and Fucus spiralis) was assessed. Total phenolic content (TPC) and the antioxidant properties of extracts by different assays: radical scavenging activity (DPPH-RSA) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were performed. The antimicrobial activity of extracts was studied against six different foodborne microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The highest extraction yield was achieved in ethanolic extracts. However, the highest TPC and FRAP values were obtained on the ethyl acetate extracts, especially from A. nodosum. Concerning algal species, the highest TPC and FRAP values were found in A. nodosum, while the highest DPPH-RSA values were achieved in the hexane extracts of B. bifurcata. The antimicrobial activity of algal extracts varied according to the solvent and alga selected, suggesting the species- and solvent-dependent behavior of this property, with B. bifurcata extracts showing the highest results for a wide range of bacteria. Our results provide insight on the characterization of widespread brown algae in the coasts of the North-Western region of the Iberian Peninsula, reflecting multiple health-enhancing properties which may lead to their exploitation in food, pharmacological, and cosmetic industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Ingredients and Gut Microbiota)
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18 pages, 2895 KiB  
Article
Highly Branched Neo-Fructans (Agavins) Attenuate Metabolic Endotoxemia and Low-Grade Inflammation in Association with Gut Microbiota Modulation on High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice
by Alicia Huazano-García, María Blanca Silva-Adame, Juan Vázquez-Martínez, Argel Gastelum-Arellanez, Lino Sánchez-Segura and Mercedes G. López
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1792; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121792 - 3 Dec 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3700
Abstract
Highly branched neo-fructans (agavins) are natural prebiotics found in Agave plants, with a large capacity to mitigate the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the impact of agavins intake on gut microbiota modulation and their metabolites as well as their [...] Read more.
Highly branched neo-fructans (agavins) are natural prebiotics found in Agave plants, with a large capacity to mitigate the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the impact of agavins intake on gut microbiota modulation and their metabolites as well as their effect on metabolic endotoxemia and low-grade inflammation in mice fed high-fat diet. Mice were fed with a standard diet (ST) and high-fat diet (HF) alone or plus an agavins supplement (HF+A) for ten weeks. Gut microbiota composition, fecal metabolite profiles, lipopolysaccharides (LPS), pro-inflammatory cytokines, and systemic effects were analyzed. Agavins intake induced substantial changes in gut microbiota composition, enriching Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, Prevotella, Allobaculum, and Akkermansia genus (LDA > 3.0). l-leucine, l-valine, uracil, thymine, and some fatty acids were identified as possible biomarkers for this prebiotic supplement. As novel findings, agavins supplementation significantly decreased LPS and pro-inflammatory (IL-1α, IL-1β, and TNF-α; p < 0.05) cytokines levels in portal vein. In addition, lipid droplets content in the liver and adipocytes size also decreased with agavins consumption. In conclusion, agavins supplementation mitigate metabolic endotoxemia and low-grade inflammation in association with gut microbiota regulation and their metabolic products, thus inducing beneficial responses on metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-fed mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Ingredients and Gut Microbiota)
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10 pages, 1898 KiB  
Article
Acacia Polyphenol Ameliorates Atopic Dermatitis in Trimellitic Anhydride-Induced Model Mice via Changes in the Gut Microbiota
by Nobutomo Ikarashi, Natsumi Fujitate, Takumi Togashi, Naoya Takayama, Natsuko Fukuda, Risako Kon, Hiroyasu Sakai, Junzo Kamei and Kiyoshi Sugiyama
Foods 2020, 9(6), 773; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060773 - 11 Jun 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2941
Abstract
We have previously shown that acacia polyphenol (AP), which was extracted from the bark of Acacia mearnsii De Wild, exerts antiobesity, antidiabetic, and antihypertensive effects. In this study, we examined the effect of AP on atopic dermatitis. Trimellitic anhydride (TMA) was applied to [...] Read more.
We have previously shown that acacia polyphenol (AP), which was extracted from the bark of Acacia mearnsii De Wild, exerts antiobesity, antidiabetic, and antihypertensive effects. In this study, we examined the effect of AP on atopic dermatitis. Trimellitic anhydride (TMA) was applied to the ears of mice to create model mice with atopic dermatitis. The frequency of scratching behavior in the TMA-treated group was significantly higher than that in the control group, and the expression levels of inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2) in the skin also increased. In contrast, both the frequency of scratching behavior and the expression levels of skin inflammatory markers in the AP-treated group were significantly lower than those in the TMA-treated group. The abundances of beneficial bacteria, such as Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp., increased in the AP-treated group compared with the TMA-treated group. Furthermore, the abundances of Bacteroides fragilis and Clostridium coccoides in the gut, which are known for anti-inflammatory properties, increased significantly with AP administration. The present results revealed that AP inhibits TMA-induced atopic dermatitis-like symptoms. In addition, the results also suggested that this effect may be associated with the mechanism of gut microbiota improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Ingredients and Gut Microbiota)
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Review

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16 pages, 972 KiB  
Review
Enzymatic Conversion of Mannan-Rich Plant Waste Biomass into Prebiotic Mannooligosaccharides
by Nosipho Hlalukana, Mihle Magengelele, Samkelo Malgas and Brett Ivan Pletschke
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2010; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092010 - 26 Aug 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3773
Abstract
A growing demand in novel food products for well-being and preventative medicine has attracted global attention on nutraceutical prebiotics. Various plant agro-processes produce large amounts of residual biomass considered “wastes”, which can potentially be used to produce nutraceutical prebiotics, such as manno-oligosaccharides (MOS). [...] Read more.
A growing demand in novel food products for well-being and preventative medicine has attracted global attention on nutraceutical prebiotics. Various plant agro-processes produce large amounts of residual biomass considered “wastes”, which can potentially be used to produce nutraceutical prebiotics, such as manno-oligosaccharides (MOS). MOS can be produced from the degradation of mannan. Mannan has a main backbone consisting of β-1,4-linked mannose residues (which may be interspersed by glucose residues) with galactose substituents. Endo-β-1,4-mannanases cleave the mannan backbone at cleavage sites determined by the substitution pattern and thus give rise to different MOS products. These MOS products serve as prebiotics to stimulate various types of intestinal bacteria and cause them to produce fermentation products in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract which benefit the host. This article reviews recent advances in understanding the exploitation of plant residual biomass via the enzymatic production and characterization of MOS, and the influence of MOS on beneficial gut microbiota and their biological effects (i.e., immune modulation and lipidemic effects) as observed on human and animal health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Ingredients and Gut Microbiota)
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28 pages, 1700 KiB  
Review
Impact of the Gut Microbiota Balance on the Health–Disease Relationship: The Importance of Consuming Probiotics and Prebiotics
by Laura-Berenice Olvera-Rosales, Alma-Elizabeth Cruz-Guerrero, Esther Ramírez-Moreno, Aurora Quintero-Lira, Elizabeth Contreras-López, Judith Jaimez-Ordaz, Araceli Castañeda-Ovando, Javier Añorve-Morga, Zuli-Guadalupe Calderón-Ramos, José Arias-Rico and Luis-Guillermo González-Olivares
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1261; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061261 - 2 Jun 2021
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 10898
Abstract
Gut microbiota is a group of microorganisms that are deposited throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract. Currently, thanks to genomic tools, studies of gut microbiota have pointed towards the understanding of the metabolism of important bacteria that are not cultivable and their relationship with [...] Read more.
Gut microbiota is a group of microorganisms that are deposited throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract. Currently, thanks to genomic tools, studies of gut microbiota have pointed towards the understanding of the metabolism of important bacteria that are not cultivable and their relationship with human homeostasis. Alterations in the composition of gut microbiota could explain, at least in part, some epidemics, such as diabetes and obesity. Likewise, dysbiosis has been associated with gastrointestinal disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and even cancer. That is why several studies have recently been focused on the direct relationship that these types of conditions have with the specific composition of gut microbiota, as in the case of the microbiota–intestine–brain axis. In the same way, the control of microbiota is related to the diet. Therefore, this review highlights the importance of gut microbiota, from its composition to its relationship with the human health–disease condition, as well as emphasizes the effect of probiotic and prebiotic consumption on the balance of its composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Ingredients and Gut Microbiota)
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20 pages, 375 KiB  
Review
Probiotic Effects against Virus Infections: New Weapons for an Old War
by Aroa Lopez-Santamarina, Alexandre Lamas, Alicia del Carmen Mondragón, Alejandra Cardelle-Cobas, Patricia Regal, José Antonio Rodriguez-Avila, José Manuel Miranda, Carlos Manuel Franco and Alberto Cepeda
Foods 2021, 10(1), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010130 - 9 Jan 2021
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 6923
Abstract
This review aimed to gather the available literature investigating the effects of probiotics against the most common viral infections using in vitro trials in cell lines and in vivo clinical trials in both experimental animals and humans. Probiotics were employed to prevent and [...] Read more.
This review aimed to gather the available literature investigating the effects of probiotics against the most common viral infections using in vitro trials in cell lines and in vivo clinical trials in both experimental animals and humans. Probiotics were employed to prevent and reduce symptoms of infections caused by common viruses, especially respiratory tract viruses, but also for viral digestive infections (such as rotavirus, coronavirus, or norovirus) and other viral infections (such as viruses that cause hepatitis, human papillomavirus, human immunodeficiency virus, and herpes simplex virus). Different probiotics have been studied to see their possible effect against the abovementioned viruses, among which different Lactobacillus species, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Enterococcus, and Streptococcus can be highlighted. In many cases, mixtures of various probiotic strains were used. Although the results obtained did not show similar results, in most cases, probiotic supplementation improved both barrier and biochemical immune responses, decreased susceptibility to viral infections, and enhanced the effects of concomitant vaccines. Works collected in this review show a beneficial effect of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of different viral infections. We found interesting results related to the prevention of viral infections, reduction of the duration of diseases, and decrease of symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Ingredients and Gut Microbiota)
23 pages, 366 KiB  
Review
Animal-Origin Prebiotics Based on Chitin: An Alternative for the Future? A Critical Review
by Aroa Lopez-Santamarina, Alicia del Carmen Mondragon, Alexandre Lamas, Jose Manuel Miranda, Carlos Manuel Franco and Alberto Cepeda
Foods 2020, 9(6), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060782 - 12 Jun 2020
Cited by 65 | Viewed by 5682
Abstract
The human gut microbiota has been revealed in recent years as a factor that plays a decisive role in the maintenance of human health, as well as in the development of many non-communicable diseases. This microbiota can be modulated by various dietary factors, [...] Read more.
The human gut microbiota has been revealed in recent years as a factor that plays a decisive role in the maintenance of human health, as well as in the development of many non-communicable diseases. This microbiota can be modulated by various dietary factors, among which complex carbohydrates have a great influence. Although most complex carbohydrates included in the human diet come from vegetables, there are also options to include complex carbohydrates from non-vegetable sources, such as chitin and its derivatives. Chitin, and its derivatives such as chitosan can be obtained from non-vegetable sources, the best being insects, crustacean exoskeletons and fungi. The present review offers a broad perspective of the current knowledge surrounding the impacts of chitin and its derived polysaccharides on the human gut microbiota and the profound need for more in-depth investigations into this topic. Overall, the effects of whole insects or meal on the gut microbiota have contradictory results, possibly due to their high protein content. Better results are obtained for the case of chitin derivatives, regarding both metabolic effects and effects on the gut microbiota composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Ingredients and Gut Microbiota)
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